Published on March 13, 2014
UNIT 6 – NATION STATES AND EMPIRES IN EUROPE UNIT 6 NATIONSTATES ANDNATIONSTATES AND EMPIRES IN EUROPEEMPIRES IN EUROPE 1. THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA Even before Napoleon's final defeat, representatives of the European powers gathered in Vienna to negotiate a full and definitive settlement of the peace of Europe. The Congress of Vienna, as the peace conference became known, met from September 1814 to June 1815. Leaders were convened by emperor Francis I and his foreign minister Prince Metternich. They had a clear idea: they wanted to restore the Old Regime. Metternich opposed the ideals of French Revolution. Under his influence, three principles emerged to guide the decisions of the Congress: 1. Compensation for the victors. 2. Restauration of the balance power in order to ensure peace. 3. Legitimacy: restoring the governments that had ruled Europe before Napoleon and French Revolution. Other leaders at the Congress agreed with Metternich's goals, specially Czar Alexander I of Russia. Other representatives were: King Frederick William III of Prussia and Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, a French representative. All these representatives supported a return to the Old Regime, all of them excluding Great Britain's representative. Ilustración 1: Europe during Napoleon's empire
UNIT 6 – NATION STATES AND EMPIRES IN EUROPE They started restoring Europe. In May 1814 the victors had stripped France of its conquest and restored its 1792 boundaries. Now they added territory to nations bordering France. - The Netherlands received Belgium. - Prussia gained territory along the Rhine River to prevent a French expansion there. - German states were organized in a German Confederation and Switzerlanad became an independent confederation and declared itself forever neutral. - Portugal, Spain, Sardinia and Two Sicilies' kings were restored to their thrones. - Austria received the Italian provinces of Lombardy, Venetia, Illyria and the Tirol. However, they had many problems over Polish territory, specially between Czar Alexander and the Prussia's king. Finally, they agreed with Talleyrand, who proposed that Russia received part of Poland and the rest of it went to Prussia. The Congress of Vienna was a success because the great powers established arragements to enforce the terms of the Congress on a continuing basis. In September 1815, Csar Alexander invited the rulers of Austria and Prussia to join him in the Holly Alliance, because they were the “Crhistian princes”. Most European countries joining the Holy Alliance which meant the alliance could commit European rulers to help another put down internal rebellion and revolution. They also decided to meet regularly to mantain peace and discuss common interests: to combat the spread of revolutionary ideas and mantain peace through European cooperation. 2. THE OUTBREAK REVOLUTION While Metternich and the other continental rulers tried to return to the days before the French Revolution, liberals began to react. Liberals had been inspired by the ideals of the Revolution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man. Liberals demanded reforms and many movements swept across other parts of Europe such as a revolt in Spain in 1820. - 1820 REVOLUTIONARY WAVES Metternich saw the European revolts as an emergency: he clamped down on the universities, accusing them of creating revolutionaries. He also called the German Confederation to adopt the Carlsbard Decrees, which prohibited any political reforms, stablished censorship and formed a secret police. European leaders created the Congress Troppau in 1820. Despite British objections, Austria, Prussia and Russia agreed to send military intervention to support governments against internal revolutions. This army was sent to Naples and later entered to Spain, in 1823. Ilustración 2: Europe after The Congress of Vienna
UNIT 6 – NATION STATES AND EMPIRES IN EUROPE Nevertheless, the first real failure of Metternich's system ocurred in 1821, when liberals, inspired by French Revolution' ideals and liberlism, revolted against of Ottoman sultan. First the Holy Alliance refused help Greeks because Turkish sultan was a legitimate ruler, but finally, by 1830 Europeans (Great Britain, France and Russia) helped the Greeks to become an independent state. - 1830 REVOLUTIONARY WAVES. Greek independence sparked another series of revolutions in Europe: in 1830 revolution broke out once again in Paris where liberals overthrew the reactionary Bourbon monarch, king Charles X, and replaced him with the more moderate Louis Philippe, duke of Orléans. Soon, revolution started in Brussels: revolutionaries demanded independence from the Dutch in December in 1830. After brief fighting, and considerable diplomacy, the European powers recognized Belgium's independence. In Germany the Paris revolt caused great excitement among many intellectuals and students. In southern Europe, both Spain and Portugal, emerged as constitutional monarchies. In Italy, liberal and nationalist revolutionaries in Italy, who had already organized in secret societies, also rose in rebellion. They were once again put down by Austrian troops, however. Perhaps the bloodiest uprising took place in Poland, where Polish nationalist and liberals had also organized secret societies to fight Russian domination. - 1848 REVOLUTIONARY WAVES In 1848, revolution once again broke out across Europe. In central and eastern Europe nationalism was the primary cause, and in western Europe, the industrialization and its problems still continued and middle and working class called for political participation. Socialists joined liberals in calling for change. Once again, the spark for revolution came from France, when radical reformers called for overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of a new republic. When the king Louis Philippe called out the army to keep order, violence soon followed. Louis Philippe abdicated and France established a republic; the revolution spread to the rest of Europe and even Metternich himself was forced to resign. Like the revolutions of 1830, those of 1848 also failed in the end. Liberals had little sympathy por socialist demands and often preferred to support the conservatives rather than accept more radical change. 3. UNIFICATION IN ITALY AND GERMANY 3.1. THE GROWTH OF ITALIAN NATIONALISM: THE ITALIAN UNIFICATION Since the fall of the Roman Empire, the Italian Peninsula had been divided into a number of competing states, each with its own government, dialect, economy and customs. Napoleon and his invading army had united many of the Italian states into the kingdom of Italy. The Congress of Vienna, however, left Italy divided once again. After Austria took over Lombardy and Venetia, Italian nationalism grew in opposition to Austrian rule. Along 19th century, many thinkers and writers revived interest in their rich cultural traditions and they started to call for Italians to join together and liberate Italy from foreign rule. This nationalistic movement became known as the resurgimento, or “resurgence”. Nationalist formed secret societies to promote their
UNIT 6 – NATION STATES AND EMPIRES IN EUROPE cause, such as the Carbonari or “charcoal-burners”, for example, plotted to overthrow the Austrians. For example, the Young Italy movement, launched in 1831 by Giussepe Mazzini could be sentenced to death if caught. Many Italian states opposed unification because they did not want to give up their power to one central government. As liberal revolution spread throughout Europe in 1848, Italian nationalists led rebellions of their own: first in Lombardy, later in Sardinia, the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and Tuscany to grant constitutions. Revolutionary movements soon failed because Austrian troops stopped it; revolution only succeeded only in Sardinia. Despite the failure of the revolts of 1848, Italian patriots continued to work for a unified nation. They could not agree on how to achieve unity, however. Many Italians wanted a federation of states headed by the pope. Most liberals wanted a republic and others wanted a constitutional monarchy under king Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. CAVOUR AND SARDINIA. One of the main architecs of Italian unification was Count Camillo Benso di Cavour, the prime minister of Sardinia. Initially he did not support the unification, but he was resented for the Austrian occupation of Italy. Cavour believed in a political resurrection of a nation, and also he believed in a economic resurrection. Cavour worked to improve the economy by funding railroad construction, encouraging industrialization and negotiating free-trade agreements. Cavour also reorganized and strengthened the Sardinian army. By 1859 he had won a powerful ally against Austria. In return, Sardinia transferred control of the provinces of Savory and Nice to France in 1860. GARIBALDI AND THE RED SHIRTS. Italians consider Cavour the “brain” of Italian unification, Mazzini its “heart” and Giuseppe Garibaldi, has been dubbed the “sword” of Italy. Garibaldi had joined Mazzini's Young Italy movement in 1833. Cavour asked him, in 1859, to lead part of Sardinian army in the war with Austria. Garibaldi accepted and finally, the Austrians agreed to give up Lombardy, while keeping Venetia. Garibaldi and his followers, known as the Red Shirts because of their coloful uniforms, aided rebels fighting against Bourbon rule in Kingdom Two Sicilies, practising “guerrilla” warfare against the Bourbon troops. By July 1860 the Red Shirts controlled the island of Sicily. Then he marched over south with Sardinian troops and conquer Naples, meanwhile Cavour had annexed the small kingdoms of central Italy. Garibaldi, finally offered the territories to King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia. The new kingdom of Italy held elections in 1861. By those days the only holdouts were Venetia, still belonged to Austria, and the Papal States. When war broke out between Austria and Prussia in 1866, the Italians sided with the Prussians. Austria was defeated, and Italy won Venetia. In 1870 Italian troops entered Rome, which completed the unification. Ilustración 3: Camillo Benso di Cavour Ilustración 4: Garibaldi
UNIT 6 – NATION STATES AND EMPIRES IN EUROPE 3.2. THE GERMAN UNIFICATION In the early 1800s, Germany was a patchwork of independent states, but after the Congress of Vienna the German states were united into the German Confederation. The first major step toward German unity after the Congress involved the economy. The Junkers (aristocratic land-owners) asked the King of Prussia to abolish all tariffs within his territory. This economic decision was known as the Zollverein. By 1844 the Zollverein included almost all of the German states. The strongest calls for political unification came from liberalism. In 1848, when the Revolution swept through Europe, German liberals also seized the opportunity to revolt against Metternich. Berliners set up barricades, forcing the retreat of royal soldiers. King Frederick William gave into nationalist demands and proclaimed the German unification. German unification was not accomplished by a revolution, but by the policies of a king and his powerful chancellor, Bismarck. Bismarck was the leader of conservatives. In 1862 William I, the new Prussian king, appointed Bismarck as head of the Prussian cabinet. He started the Realpolitik or “realiscti politics”, some policies based on Prussian interests rather than on liberal ideals. He built the Prussian army into a great war machine than would soon work for the unification. Bismarck wanted a unified Germany around Prussia so he thought it was essential to drive Austria out of its leadership position within the German Confederation. He planned two wars to get these objectives: the Seven Weeks' War and the Franco-Prussian War. Bismarck looked for Italy and France help in these wars against Austria. When Prussia won against Austria, several northern states united with Prussia, and only three southern states remained outside Prussian control. Bismarck decided to annex those three southern states by provoking war with his recent ally France in 1870. After Franco-Prussian War, France lost Alsace and part of
UNIT 6 – NATION STATES AND EMPIRES IN EUROPE Lorraine and had to pay a huge indemnity. On January 18, 1871, representatives of the allied German states met and they proclaimed King William I of Prussia kaiser, or emperor, of German Empire.
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