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unit 6

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Published on February 28, 2008

Author: Paola

Source: authorstream.com

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UNIT 6:  UNIT 6 Topographic Influences on Fire Behavior UNIT 6 Objectives:  UNIT 6 Objectives 1. Describe how topography affects fuels and their availability for combustion. 2. Describe how topography can affect the direction and rate of spread of wildland fires. 3. Describe how changes in fuels and topography can provide full and partial barriers to the spread of wildland fires. UNIT 6 Objectives:  UNIT 6 Objectives 4. Explain the chimney effect in canyon topography. 5. Describe how slope percent can be determined or estimated in the field. Topographic Features STWB Fig 1 (p. 149):  Topographic Features STWB Fig 1 (p. 149) Elevation Ridge Canyon Slope Aspect Intersecting drainages Box canyon Barrier Shape of country (contours) Topographic Map:  Topographic Map SADDLE  INTERSECTING DRAINAGE  BARRIER  RIDGE  Elevation Above Sea Level:  Elevation Above Sea Level 10,000 FEET Snow Tundra Timber Shrub Grass Sea Level Fires on Slope Reaching 10 Acres +:  Fires on Slope Reaching 10 Acres + Fires Starting at Base of Slope Become the Largest Fires:  Fires Starting at Base of Slope Become the Largest Fires Statistically, fires that start low on a slope get big. Why? Availability of Fuel Effect of Aspect on Fuel Temperature and Moisture:  Effect of Aspect on Fuel Temperature and Moisture Definition of Aspect? STWB Fig 2 (p. 151) Direction a slope is facing In general, south & southwest aspects are most favorable for fire start and spread lightest fuels lowest fuel moisture highest average temperature earlier curing of fuels earlier snow melt Fire Occurrence by Aspect:  Fire Occurrence by Aspect Micro-climate Conditions:  Micro-climate Conditions Fire behavior can change due to site-specific conditions at all elevations Fuel type and availability can be affected by micro-climate conditions due to: localized weather patterns product of accumulative water local soil and terrain factors Slope Affects Fire Behavior:  Slope Affects Fire Behavior PREHEATING FRESH AIR FASTER IGNITION AND SPREAD DRAFT BURNING CHUNKS ROLLING DOWN SLOPE Effect of Slope on Flame Length and Rate of Spread:  Effect of Slope on Flame Length and Rate of Spread If fuels and wind are constant, the flame length and rate of spread will increase as the slope becomes steeper Wedge Shape Fire Pattern:  Wedge Shape Fire Pattern Slope Reversal:  Slope Reversal Slope Reversal:  Slope Reversal Slope Reversal:  Slope Reversal Fires in the Bottom of Narrow Canyons:  Fires in the Bottom of Narrow Canyons Heat & mass transfer Stable air conditions Air flow Intersecting Drainages:  Intersecting Drainages Which direction will the fire spread? Barriers to Fire Spread:  Barriers to Fire Spread Definition of a Barrier: Areas that lack available fuels, because of higher fuel moistures or sparse fuels Types of Barriers Rocks or bare soil conditions Lakes, streams, and moist soil situations Roads, trails, and other improvements Change in fuel type and fuel moisture Previously burned areas Barriers to Fire Spread:  Barriers to Fire Spread LAKE BURN FUEL TYPE ROCK ROAD Partial Barriers:  Partial Barriers change in fuel conditions that offers only a partial barrier by slowing the spread of fire Examples: early morning dew on fine fuels retards fire spread in a meadow until afternoon green grasses in the spring will be fire resistant until they dry out in the summer north-facing slopes early in the season Chimney Effect:  Chimney Effect Chimney effect occurs under the following conditions: Unstable air conditions at the surface cause a convection current through the canyon Air is drawn in a the base of the canyon to support the convection currents Fuels are available to support a rapid burnout in the head of the canyon Chimney Effect:  Chimney Effect Estimating Slope:  Estimating Slope Clinometer/Abney Measurement Slope Meter (STWB Fig. 3 p. 156) Calculations UNIT 6 Objectives:  UNIT 6 Objectives 1. Describe how topography affects fuels and their availability for combustion. 2. Describe how topography can affect the direction and rate of spread of wildland fires. 3. Describe how changes in fuels and topography can provide full and partial barriers to the spread of wildland fires. UNIT 6 Objectives:  UNIT 6 Objectives 4. Explain the chimney effect in canyon topography. 5. Describe how slope percent can be determined or estimated in the field.

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