Unit 5 Muscular System

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Information about Unit 5 Muscular System
Health & Medicine

Published on February 18, 2014

Author: nionoveno

Source: slideshare.net

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PPT prepared for lecture.

Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  Anatomy h_noveno@hotmail.com 1

Unit 4 The Muscular System Hilario Cruzada Noveno Jr. Lecturer [ ]

The Muscular System • Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement ( ) • Three basic muscle types are found in the body ( ) – Skeletal muscle ( – Cardiac muscle ( – Smooth muscle ( ) ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 3

Three basic muscle types are found in the body ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 4

Characteristics of Muscles [ ] • Muscle cells are elongated ( ) (muscle cell = muscle fiber) • Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments ( microfilaments) h_noveno@hotmail.com 5

Characteristics of Muscles [ ] • All muscles share some terminology ( ) – Prefix myo refers to muscle ( ) – Prefix mys refers to muscle (MYS ) – Prefix sarco refers to flesh ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 6

Skeletal Muscle Characteristics [ ] • Most are attached by tendons to bones ( ) • Cells are multinucleate ( ) • Striated ( ) – have visible banding ( ) • Voluntary ( ) – subject to conscious control ( ) • Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 7

• Fascia ( ) – on the outside of the epimysium ( ) Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle [ ] • Epimysium ( ) – covers the entire skeletal muscle ( ) • Perimysium ( )– around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers ( ) • Endomysium ( )– around single muscle fiber ( -) h_noveno@hotmail.com 8

Skeletal Muscle Attachments [ ] • Epimysium blends into a • Sites of muscle connective tissue attachment attachment ( ( – Bones ( ) ) – Cartilages ( – Tendon ( ) – cord-like structure ( ) – Aponeuroses ( )– sheet-like structure ( ) ) ) – Connective tissue coverings ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 9

Smooth Muscle Characteristics [ ] • • • • Has no striations ( ) Spindle-shaped cells ( ) Single nucleus ( ) Involuntary ( ) – no conscious control ( ) • Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 10

Smooth Muscle Characteristics [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 11

Cardiac Muscle Characteristics [ ] • Has striations ( ) • Usually has a single nucleus ( ) • Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc ( ) • Involuntary ( ) • Found only in the heart ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 12

Cardiac Muscle Characteristics [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 13

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CHARACTERISTIC SKELETAL CARDIAC SMOOTH Special Features None Intercalated discs Cell-cell attachment Nucleus Multinucleate Striation Mononucleate Yes No Cell shape Long, cylinrical Movement Voluntary Involuntary Innervation Somatic NS Autonomic NS Location Attached to bone Function Branched Spindle Heart Move bodyh_noveno@hotmail.com contraction Cardiac Walls of hollow organs Compression of organs, ducts,15 ect

Function of Muscles [ ] • Produce movement ( ) • Maintain posture ( ) • Stabilize joints ( • Generate heat ( ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 16

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Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Cells are multinucleate ( Nuclei are just beneath the sarcolemma ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) 27

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Sarcolemma ( Sarcoplasmic reticulum ( ( ) – specialized plasma membrane ( ) ) – specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 28

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Myofibril Bundles of myofilaments ( myofilaments) Myofibrils are aligned to give distinct bands ( ) I band ( I) = light band ( ) A band ( ) = dark band ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 29

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Sarcomere ( muscle fiber ( ): Contractile unit of a ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 30

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Organization of the sarcomere ( ) Thick filaments ( ) = myosin filaments ( ) Composed of the protein myosin ( ) Has ATPase enzymes ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 31

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Organization of the sarcomere ( ) Thin filaments ( ) = actin filaments ( ) Composed of the protein actin ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 32

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] • Myosin filaments have heads ( ): extensions, or cross bridges ( ) • Myosin and actin overlap somewhat ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 33

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 34

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] • At rest, there is a bare zone that lacks actin filaments ( ) • Sarcoplasmic reticulum ( for storage of calcium ( h_noveno@hotmail.com )– ) 35

Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 36

Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity [ ] • Irritability ( ) – ability to receive and respond to a stimulus ( ) • Contractility ( ) – ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is received ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 37

Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity [ ] • Skeletal muscles must be stimulated by a nerve to contract ( ) • Motor unit ( ) – One neuron ( ) – Muscle cells stimulated by that neuron ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 38

Nerve Stimulus to Muscles [ ] • Neurotransmitter ( ) – chemical released by nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse ( ) – The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is acetylcholine ( ) • Neurotransmitter attaches to receptors on the sarcolemma ( ) • Sarcolemma becomes permeable to sodium (Na+) ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 39

Nerve Stimulus to Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 40

Neuromuscular Junction Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Types of Muscle Contractions [ ] Isotonic contractions ( ) • Myofilaments are able to slide past each other during contractions (Myofilaments ) Isometric contractions ( ) • Tension in the muscles increases ( ) • The muscle is unable to shorten ( ) • The muscle shortens ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 42

Muscle Tone [ ] • Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle ( ) • Different fibers contract at different times to provide muscle tone ( ) • The process of stimulating various fibers is under involuntary control ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 43

Muscles and Body Movements [ ] • Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 44

Skeletal Muscle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 45

Muscles and Body Movements [ ] • Muscles are attached to at least two points ( ) – Origin ( ) – attachment to a moveable bone ( ) – Insertion ( ) – attachment to an immovable bone ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 46

Effects of Exercise on Muscle [ ] • Results of increased muscle use ( ) – Increase in muscle size ( – Increase in muscle strength ( – Increase in muscle efficiency ( – Muscle becomes more fatigue resistant ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) ) 47

Types of Muscles [ ] • Prime mover ( ) – muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement ( ) • Antagonist ( ) – muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover ( ) • Synergist ( ) – muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation ( ) • Fixator – stabilizes the origin of a prime mover ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 48

Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Direction of muscle fibers ( – Example ( ] ) ): rectus (straight) [ – Rectus abdominis – Transversus abdominis – Internal oblique – External oblique h_noveno@hotmail.com 49

Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Relative size of the muscle ( ) – Example ( (largest) [ ): maximus ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 50

Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Location of the muscle ( ) – Example ( ): many muscles are named for bones (e.g., temporalis) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 51

Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Number of origins ( ) – Example ( ): triceps (three heads) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 52

Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Location of the muscles origin and insertion ( ) – Example ( ): sterno (on the sternum) h_noveno@hotmail.com 53

Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Shape of the muscle ( ) – Example ( ): deltoid (triangular) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 54

Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Action of the muscle ( ) – Example ( ): flexor and extensor (flexes or extends a bone) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 55

Head and Neck Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 56

Trunk Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 57

Deep Trunk and Arm Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 58

Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, and Thigh [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 59

Muscles of the Lower Leg [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 60

Superficial Muscles: Anterior [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 61

Superficial Muscles: Posterior [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 62

Types of Ordinary Body Movements [ ] • • • • • Flexion ( ) Extension ( ) Rotation ( ) Abduction ( ) Circumduction ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 63

MUSCULAR LABORATORY h_noveno@hotmail.com 64

Body Movements [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 65

Body Movements [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 66

Body Movements [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 67

Special Movements [ ] • • • • • • • Dorsiflexion ( ) Plantar flexion ( ) Inversion ( ) Eversion ( ) Supination ( ) Pronation ( ) Opposition ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 68

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