Unit 5 2 Free Speech And Press Notes

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Information about Unit 5 2 Free Speech And Press Notes

Published on July 10, 2008

Author: davidjosman

Source: slideshare.net

The 1 st Amendment And your rights

Alien Terrorists have arrived!!! The United States has been invaded by hostile forces from an extraterrestrial, terrorist organization, and the federal government has been over thrown. The leader of the new government is a dictator, but will allow American citizens to retain five fundamental liberties guaranteed by the Constitution. Select the five fundamental rights that are most important to you.

The United States has been invaded by hostile forces from an extraterrestrial, terrorist organization, and the federal government has been over thrown.

The leader of the new government is a dictator, but will allow American citizens to retain five fundamental liberties guaranteed by the Constitution.

Select the five fundamental rights that are most important to you.

Rights and Freedoms Right to bear arms Freedom of speech Right to legal council (a lawyer) Protection from cruel and unusual punishment Freedom of press Right to jury trial Freedom of religion Right to protest Protection from self-incrimination (‘I plead the 5 th ’) Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures (police need a warrant, etc…)

Right to bear arms

Freedom of speech

Right to legal council (a lawyer)

Protection from cruel and unusual punishment

Freedom of press

Right to jury trial

Freedom of religion

Right to protest

Protection from self-incrimination (‘I plead the 5 th ’)

Protection from unreasonable searches and seizures (police need a warrant, etc…)

Bill of Rights 1 st Amendment Rights What’s included?

Civil Liberties Free Speech and Free press

The 1 st Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press ; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

It’s a free country dude!!! But can we say ANYTHING? Should the following types of expression be protected?

Voltaire and free speech “ I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to death your right to say it…” Do you agree with Voltaire? “… unless you will inflict real harm on someone else or cause a riot” What possible exceptions (if any) would you make?

“ I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to death your right to say it…”

Do you agree with Voltaire?

“… unless you will inflict real harm on someone else or cause a riot”

What possible exceptions (if any) would you make?

Protest against a city policy, by protesters who block the sidewalk Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

A political speech supporting a candidate for mayor of Round Rock Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

A parade held without a permit Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

A gay-rights parade held with a permit Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

A message broadcast by a sound truck in a residential area Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

Free Speech and Free press Government can and does regulate TIME MANNER AND PLACE Of acceptable free speech and free press

Government can and does regulate

TIME MANNER AND PLACE

The clothing that students wear Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

Schools - are “places” where speech is far more limited: TINKER vs. DES MOINES SCHOOL DISTRICT (1969) Wearing arm bands in school to protest the Vietnam war WAS protected. “ Students rights don’t stop at the school house gate,” however because school is a “special place,” the school districts are within their rights to determine what type of behavior disrupts school activity In this case , the court found the student’s actions not to be disruptive . This case is used as a precedent is all other school and student rights cases

TINKER vs. DES MOINES SCHOOL DISTRICT (1969)

Wearing arm bands in school to protest the Vietnam war WAS protected.

“ Students rights don’t stop at the school house gate,” however because school is a “special place,” the school districts are within their rights to determine what type of behavior disrupts school activity

In this case , the court found the student’s actions not to be disruptive .

This case is used as a precedent is all other school and student rights cases

Burning the US Flag in protest of the Government Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

SYMBOLIC SPEECH Does all conduct amount to symbolic speech? No, not robbery, rape, murder, etc… those are obviously not protected. OBRIEN Burning the draft card is NOT protected free symbolic speech JOHNSON Flag-burning is protected free speech The Court struck down the state law in Texas that made it a crime to burn the flag if you disallow it, you are disallowing the very thing it stands to protect freedom

Does all conduct amount to symbolic speech?

No, not robbery, rape, murder, etc…

those are obviously not protected.

OBRIEN

Burning the draft card is NOT protected free symbolic speech

JOHNSON

Flag-burning is protected free speech

The Court struck down the state law in Texas that made it a crime to burn the flag

if you disallow it, you are disallowing the very thing it stands to protect

freedom

Singing a vulgar song Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

Free Speech and Free press BETHEL SCHOOL DISTRICT v. FRASER (1986) - Speech at school (unacceptable speech at student rally) Speech was filled with sexual innuendos but no direct obscenity his behavior, according to Supreme Court WAS disruptive It ‘materially and substantially’ disrupted the learning environment OBSCENE

BETHEL SCHOOL DISTRICT v. FRASER (1986) - Speech at school

(unacceptable speech at student rally)

Speech was filled with sexual innuendos but no direct obscenity

his behavior, according to Supreme Court WAS disruptive

It ‘materially and substantially’ disrupted the learning environment

Obscenity Define obscenity. What is obscene? Justice Potter Stewart couldn’t define obscenity, but said “I know it when I see it” Is what is obscene in Round Rock the same as what is obscene in Austin???

Define obscenity.

What is obscene?

Justice Potter Stewart couldn’t define obscenity, but said “I know it when I see it”

Is what is obscene in Round Rock the same as what is obscene in Austin???

OBSCENITY IS NOT PROTECTED But how do we determine what is obscene? Laws about obscenities are for the most part aimed at minors. The Miller case has been used as a precedent when determining what is obscene. MILLER CASE (1972) – invoked a 3 pronged test: would the average person applying today’s community standards find the work, taken as a whole as offensive? does the work, taken as a whole lack literary, scientific, or political value? does the sexually conduct specifically violate an anti-obscenity law? Obscenity and Free Speech

OBSCENITY IS NOT PROTECTED

But how do we determine what is obscene?

Laws about obscenities are for the most part aimed at minors.

The Miller case has been used as a precedent when determining what is obscene.

MILLER CASE (1972) – invoked a 3 pronged test:

would the average person applying today’s community standards find the work, taken as a whole as offensive?

does the work, taken as a whole lack literary, scientific, or political value?

does the sexually conduct specifically violate an anti-obscenity law?

Obscenity and the Supreme Court: the Bottom Line The Supreme Court has generally left obscenity laws to the communities, thus upholding the community standard imposed by their local laws.

The Supreme Court has generally left obscenity laws to the communities, thus upholding the community standard imposed by their local laws.

Collins v. Smith (Skokie case) Nazis wanted to hold a march in the predominately Jewish town of Skokie, Ill. The town set the price of the parade permit at $300,000. The Supreme Court (SC from now on) ruled for the Nazis you can’t set the price of a parade permit according to how disgusting group is. Also- NAACP v. Alabama - a group can’t be forced to turn over their membership list.

Nazis wanted to hold a march in the predominately Jewish town of Skokie, Ill.

The town set the price of the parade permit at $300,000. The Supreme Court (SC from now on) ruled for the Nazis

you can’t set the price of a parade permit according to how disgusting group is.

Also- NAACP v. Alabama - a group can’t be forced to turn over their membership list.

Protesting against the government Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

A newspaper article that releases military secrets Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

Free Speech and Free press Speech is limited if… NATIONAL SECURITY IS IN DANGER- OBRIEN CASE Symbolic speech Burning the draft card is NOT protected because the object of the protest (war) is legal. Burning the draft card hurts the ability of nation to protect itself.

Speech is limited if…

NATIONAL SECURITY IS IN DANGER-

OBRIEN CASE

Symbolic speech

Burning the draft card is NOT protected because the object of the protest (war) is legal.

Burning the draft card hurts the ability of nation to protect itself.

A speech calling for citizens to rise up and fight against the police Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

Free Speech and Press Speech is limited if words are “ triggers of action” “ fighting words” or if there is “clear and present danger” FEINER v NEW YORK (1951) Feiner was calling for the people of Syracuse to ‘rise up in arms and fight for their rights’ Words triggered the crowd to action, and so there was clear and present danger.

Speech is limited if words are

“ triggers of action”

“ fighting words”

or if there is “clear and present danger”

FEINER v NEW YORK (1951)

Feiner was calling for the people of Syracuse to ‘rise up in arms and fight for their rights’

Words triggered the crowd to action, and so there was clear and present danger.

Newspaper article that contains lies about your private life Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

A newspaper article embarrassing the Governor by telling about a political mistake he or she made Absolute Protection Protected Little Protection Rarely Protected No Protection

Absolute Protection

Protected

Little Protection

Rarely Protected

No Protection

Free Speech and Free press Speech is limited if it is: False information meant to destroy the reputation LIBEL – written word SLANDER – spoken word NEW YORK TIMES v. SULLIVAN to win, the plaintiff has to prove: The writer knew information was false The article or statement was done with MALICIOUS intent to hurt

Speech is limited if it is:

False information meant to destroy the reputation

LIBEL – written word

SLANDER – spoken word

NEW YORK TIMES v. SULLIVAN

to win, the plaintiff has to prove:

The writer knew information was false

The article or statement was done with MALICIOUS intent to hurt

Can the government limit you from making statements or printing publications before you make them? This is called PRIOR RESTRAINT NO, except in the most extreme cases, such as wartime or when the publication incites “urges” people to violence. PENTAGON PAPERS 1971, Vietnam classified document stolen from the defense department, did trying to prohibit its publication violate free press? The court said the federal government did not prove that this publication would destroy national security HAZELWOOD Involved a principal limiting what is written in a school paper, court ruled in favor of the school district saying that their disallowing certain sections of the paper was reasonably related to legitimate teaching concerns School is a special place.

This is called PRIOR RESTRAINT

NO, except in the most extreme cases, such as wartime or when the publication incites “urges” people to violence.

PENTAGON PAPERS

1971, Vietnam classified document stolen from the defense department, did trying to prohibit its publication violate free press?

The court said the federal government did not prove that this publication would destroy national security

HAZELWOOD

Involved a principal limiting what is written in a school paper, court ruled in favor of the school district saying that their disallowing certain sections of the paper was reasonably related to legitimate teaching concerns

School is a special place.

Free Speech and Free press CONFIDENTIALITY Can reporters be required to name their sources and reveal confidential information? Yes for the most part, the courts on both federal and state levels have rejected the new media argument, as a consequence many reporters have gone to jail, however... 1972, the court bent some and said that the reporters had to reveal their sources unless Congress or their state legislatures made an exception for the reporters. So 30 states passed SHIELD LAWS that protect the reporter from revealing their sources.

CONFIDENTIALITY

Can reporters be required to name their sources and reveal confidential information?

Yes for the most part, the courts on both federal and state levels have rejected the new media argument, as a consequence many reporters have gone to jail, however...

1972, the court bent some and said that the reporters had to reveal their sources unless Congress or their state legislatures made an exception for the reporters. So 30 states passed SHIELD LAWS that protect the reporter from revealing their sources.

Free Speech and Free press MOTION PICTURES - Does the government rate the movies? No the industry regulates itself so that the government does not although movie censorship can happen.

MOTION PICTURES - Does the government rate the movies? No the industry regulates itself so that the government does not although movie censorship can happen.

Free Speech and Free press RADIO, TELEVISION , -Why has R/T received the most limited first amendment protections? Because R/T is the most readily available form of media- it is pervasive. The FCC can ban a station from renewing its license if they violate regulations.

RADIO, TELEVISION , -Why has R/T received the most limited first amendment protections? Because R/T is the most readily available form of media- it is pervasive.

The FCC can ban a station from renewing its license if they violate regulations.

Free Speech and Free press COMMERICIAL SPEECH -Have the 1st and 14th amendments always protected advertising? No, not all ads are protected free speech. Government can forbid false and misleading ads. In 1970 and again in 1986, Congress also passed laws that have disallowed cigarettes and alcohol to advertise in some areas, those industries have not challenged those laws.

COMMERICIAL SPEECH -Have the 1st and 14th amendments always protected advertising? No, not all ads are protected free speech. Government can forbid false and misleading ads. In 1970 and again in 1986, Congress also passed laws that have disallowed cigarettes and alcohol to advertise in some areas, those industries have not challenged those laws.

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