Unit 2 Cells, Tissues & Membranes

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Information about Unit 2 Cells, Tissues & Membranes
Health & Medicine

Published on February 18, 2014

Author: nionoveno

Source: slideshare.net

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PPT prepared for lecture discussion.

Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 1

Unit 2 Cells, Tissues and Membranes [ 2] Hilario Cruzada Noveno Jr. Lecturer [ 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 2

Cells & Tissues • Carry out all chemical activities needed to sustain life • Cells are the building blocks of all living things • Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 3

Figure 1.1 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 4

• Cells are organized into three main regions – Nucleus – Cytoplasm – Plasma membrane 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 5

The Cell The functional unit of the human body. 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 6

The Cell and its parts [ 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 7

The Nucleus [ • Control center of the cell – Contains genetic material (DNA) • Three regions – Nuclear membrane – Nucleolus – Chromatin 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] (DNA) 8

Nuclear Membrane [ • Barrier of nucleus • Consists of a double phospholipid membrane • Contain nuclear pores that allow for exchange of material with the rest of the cell 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] • 9

Nucleoli [ • Nucleus contains one or more nucleoli • Sites of ribosome production ] • – Ribosomes then migrate to the cytoplasm through nuclear pores 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 10

Chromatin [ ] • Composed of DNA and protein • Scattered throughout the nucleus • Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides • 2/18/2014 11 h_noveno@hotmail.com

Chromatin [ 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 12

Plasma Membrane [ • Barrier for cell contents • Double phospholipid layer ] • – Hydrophilic heads – Hydrophobic tails • Also contains protein, cholesterol, an d glycoproteins 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 13

Plasma Membrane Specialization [ ] • Microvilli – Finger-like projections that increase surface area for absorption • 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 14

Plasma Membrane Specialization [ ] • Membrane junctions – Tight junctions – Desmosomes – Gap junctions • Desmosomes 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 15

Cytoplasm [ • Material outside the nucleus and inside the plasma membrane ] • – Cytosol • Fluid that suspends other elements – Organelles • Metabolic machinery of the cell – Inclusions • Non-functioning units 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 16

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 17

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Ribosomes • – Made of protein and RNA – Sites of protein synthesis – Found at two locations • Free in the cytoplasm • Attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 18

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) – Fluid-filled tubules for carrying substances – Two types of ER • ER) ER • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum – Studded with ribosomes – Site where building materials of cellular membrane are formed • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum – Functions in cholesterol synthesis and breakdown, fat metabolism, and detoxification of drugs 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 19

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Golgi apparatus – Modifies and packages proteins – Produces different types of packages • Secretory vesicles • Cell membrane components • Lysosomes 2/18/2014 Lysosomes h_noveno@hotmail.com 20

Golgi apparatus [ 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 21

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Lysosomes – Contain enzymes that digest nonusable materials within the cell • Peroxisomes nonusable Peroxisomes – Membranous sacs of oxidase enzymes • Detoxify harmful substances • Break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) – Replicate by pinching in half 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 22

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Mitochondria • – “Powerhouses” of the cell – Change shape continuously – Carry out reactions where oxygen is used to break down food – Provides ATP for cellular energy 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 23

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Cytoskeleton • – Network of protein structures that extend throughout the cytoplasm – Provides the cell with an internal framework 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 24

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Cytoskeleton • – Three different types • Microfilaments • Intermediate filaments • Microtubules 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 25

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] Cytoskeleton Three different types Microfilaments Intermediate filaments Microtubules 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 26

Cytoplasmic Organelles [ ] • Centrioles Centrioles • – Rod-shaped bodies made of microtubules – Direct formation of mitotic spindle during cell division 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 27

Cellular Projections [ ] • Not found in all cells • Used for movement • – Cilia moves materials across the cell surface – Flagellum propels the cell 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 28

Cell Diversity [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 29

Cell Diversity [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 30

Types of Cells 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 31

Tissues 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 32

Body Tissues [ ] • Cells are specialized for particular functions • Tissues • – Groups of cells with similar structure and function – Four primary types • • • • 2/18/2014 Epithelium Connective tissue Nervous tissue Muscle h_noveno@hotmail.com 33

Epithelial Tissues [ ] • Found in different areas – Body coverings – Body linings – Glandular tissue • Functions – Protection – Absorption – Filtration – Secretion 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 34

Epithelium Characteristics [ ] • Cells fit closely together • Tissue layer always has one free surface • The lower surface is bound by a basement membrane • Avascular (have no blood supply) • Regenerate easily if well nourished • 2/18/2014 35 h_noveno@hotmail.com

Classification of Epithelium [ ] • Number of cell layers – Simple – one layer – Stratified – more than one layer • --- 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 36

Classification of Epithelium [ ] • Shape of cells – Squamous – flattened – Cuboidal – cube-shaped – Columnar – column-like – -- --- 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 37

Simple Epithelium [ ] • Simple squamous – Single layer of flat cells – Usually forms membranes • Lines body cavities • Lines lungs and capillaries • 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 38

Simple Epithelium [ ] • Simple cuboidal – Single layer of cube-like cells – Common in glands and their ducts – Forms walls of kidney tubules – Covers the ovaries • 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 39

Simple Epithelium [ ] • Simple columnar – Single layer of tall cells – Often includes goblet cells, which produce mucus – Lines digestive tract • 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 40

Simple Epithelium [ ] • Pseudostratified – Single layer, but some cells are shorter than others – Often looks like a double cell layer – Sometimes ciliated, such as in the respiratory tract – May function in absorption or secretion • 2/18/2014 41 h_noveno@hotmail.com

Simple Epithelium [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 42

Stratified Epithelium [ ] • Stratified squamous – Cells at the free edge are flattened – Found as a protective covering where friction is common – Locations • • Skin • Mouth • Esophagus 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 43

Stratified Epithelium [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 44

Stratified Epithelium [ ] • Stratified cuboidal • – Two layers of cuboidal cells • Stratified columnar – Surface cells are columnar, cells underneath vary in size and shape • Stratified cuboidal and columnar – Rare in human body – Found mainly in ducts of large glands 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 45

Stratified Epithelium [ ] • Transitional epithelium • – Shape of cells depends upon the amount of stretching – Lines organs of the urinary system 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 46

Stratified Epithelium [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 47

Glandular Epithelium [ ] • Gland – one or more cells that secretes a particular product • Two major gland types -- • – Endocrine gland • Ductless • Secretes hormones – Exocrine gland • Empty through ducts to the epithelial surface • Example: sweat and oil glands 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 48

Connective Tissue [ ] • Found everywhere in the body • Includes the most abundant and widely distributed tissues • Functions • – Binds body tissues together – Supports the body – Provides protection 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 49

Connective Tissue Characteristics [ ] • Variations in blood supply • – Vascular (with blood vessel) – Avascular (without blood vessel) • Extracellular matrix – Non-living material that surrounds living cells 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 50

Extracellular Matrix [ ] • Two main elements – Ground substance – mostly water along with adhesion proteins and polysaccharide molecules – Fibers -- • • Produced by the cells • Three types – Collagen fibers – Elastic fibers – Reticular fibers 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 51

• Connective Tissues • • • • Osseus (bone) Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartialge Fibrocartilage Dense connective tissue – Tendons – Ligaments • • • • 2/18/2014 Areolar connective tissue Adipose tissue Reticular connective tissue Blood h_noveno@hotmail.com 52

Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Bone (osseous tissue) – Composed of: • • Bone cells in lacunae (cavities) • Hard matrix of calcium salts • Large numbers of collagen fibers – Used to protect and support the body 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 53

Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 54

Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Hyaline cartilage • – Most common cartilage – Composed of: • Abundant collagen fibers • Rubbery matrix – Entire fetal skeleton is hyaline cartilage 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 55

Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 56

Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Elastic cartilage • – Provides elasticity – Example: supports the external ear 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 57

Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Fibrocartilage • – Highly compressible – Example: forms cushionlike discs between vertebrae 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 58

Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 59

Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Dense connective tissue – Main matrix element is collagen fibers – Cells are fibroblasts – Examples • Tendon – attach muscle to bone • Ligaments – attach bone to bone 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • --- 60

Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 61

Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Areolar connective tissue • – Most widely distributed connective tissue – Soft, pliable tissue – Contains all fiber types – Can soak up excess fluid – Lines many organs of the body 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 62

Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 63

Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Adipose tissue – Matrix is an areolar tissue in which fat globules predominate – Many cells contain large lipid deposits – Functions • • Insulates the body • Protects some organs • Serves as a site of fuel storage 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 64

Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 65

Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Reticular connective tissue – Delicate network of interwoven fibers – Forms stroma (internal supporting network) of lymphoid organs • Lymph nodes • Spleen • Bone marrow 2/18/2014 • • h_noveno@hotmail.com 66

Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 67

Connective Tissue Types [ ] • Blood • – Blood cells surrounded by fluid matrix – Fibers are visible during clotting – Functions as the transport vehicle for materials 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 68

Connective Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 69

• Connective Tissues • • • • Osseus (bone) Hyaline cartilage Elastic cartialge Fibrocartilage Dense connective tissue – Tendons – Ligaments • • • • 2/18/2014 Areolar connective tissue Adipose tissue Reticular connective tissue Blood h_noveno@hotmail.com 70

Muscle Tissue [ ] • Function is to produce movement • Three types • – Skeletal muscle – Cardiac muscle – Smooth muscle 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 71

Muscle Tissue Types [ ] • Skeletal muscle • – Voluntary control – Cells attached to connective tissue – Striated cells – Cells have more than one nucleus 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 72

Muscle Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 73

Muscle Tissue Types [ ] • Cardiac muscle – Found only in the heart – Involuntary control – Cells attached to other cardiac muscle cells at intercalated disks – Striated cells – One nucleus per cell 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • 74

Muscle Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 75

Muscle Tissue Types [ ] • Smooth muscle – Involuntary muscle – Surrounds hollow organs – Attached to other smooth muscle cells – No visible striations – One nucleus per cell 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • 76

Muscle Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 77

Characteristics Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle Striated Yes Yes Not visible Control Voluntary Involuntary Cells Multinucleated Mononucleated Attachment Organs 2/18/2014 Attached to other Attached to other cardiac muscles Connective tissue smooth muscle at intercalated cells discs Skeletal muscles Heart h_noveno@hotmail.com Bronchus Lungs Diaphragm Blood vessels Bladder GIT 78

Muscle Tissue Types [ ] • Neurons and nerve support cells • Function is to send impulses to other areas of the body • – Irritability – Conductivity 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 79

Muscle Tissue Types [ ] 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 80

Tissue Repair [ ] • Regeneration – Replacement of destroyed tissue by the same kind of cells • • Fibrosis – Repair by dense fibrous connective tissue (scar tissue) • Determination of method – Type of tissue damaged – Severity of the injury 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 81

Events Tissue Repair [ ] • Capillaries become very permeable • – Introduce clotting proteins – Wall off injured area • Formation of granulation tissue • Regeneration of surface epithelium 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com 82

Regeneration of Tissues [ ] • Tissues that regenerate easily – Epithelial tissue – Fibrous connective tissue and bone • Tissues that regenerate poorly – Skeletal muscle • Tissues that are replaced largely with scar tissue – Cardiac muscle – Nervous tissue (brain and spinal cord) 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • 83

Developmental Aspects of Tissue [ ] • Epithelial tissue arises from all three primary germ layers • Muscle and connective tissue arise from the mesoderm • Nervous tissue arises from the ectoderm • With old age there is a decrease in mass and viability in most tissues 2/18/2014 h_noveno@hotmail.com • viabililty 84

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