Published on February 18, 2014
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ORGANS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra ANATOMY email@example.com 3
LOCATION OF THE KIDNEYS • • • • Against the dorsal body wall At the level of T12 to L3 The right kidney is slightly lower than the left Attached to ureters, renal blood vessels, and nerves at renal hilus • Atop each kidney is an adrenal gland ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 4
COVERINGS OF THE KIDNEYS • Renal capsule – Surrounds each kidney • Adipose capsule – Surrounds the kidney – Provides protection to the kidney – Helps keep the kidney in its correct location ANATOMY email@example.com 5
REGIONS OF THE KIDNEY • Renal cortex – outer region • Renal medulla – inside the cortex • Renal pelvis – inner collecting tube ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 6
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KIDNEY STRUCTURES • Medullary pyramids – triangular regions of tissue in the medulla • Renal columns – extensions of cortex-like material inward • Calyces – cup-shaped structures that funnel urine towards the renal pelvis ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 8
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BLOOD FLOW IN THE KIDNEYS ANATOMY email@example.com 11
Stages of Urine Formation (Micturition) [glomerular filtration rate = 125 ml/min] 1. Filtration: glomerulus 2. Reabsorption: tubules – Proximal convoluted tubules • Major reabsorption of electrolytes – Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl – Loop of Henle • Major reabsorption site for Na – Collecting tubule • H2O reabsorption 3. Secretion ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 12
RENAL CIRCULATION ANATOMY email@example.com 13
RENAL CIRCULATION ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 14
NEPHRONS • The structural and functional units of the kidneys • Responsible for forming urine • Main structures of the nephrons – Glomerulus – Renal tubule ANATOMY email@example.com 15
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GLOMERULUS • A specialized capillary bed • Attached to arterioles on both sides (maintains high pressure) – Large afferent arteriole – Narrow efferent arteriole ANATOMY email@example.com 19
RENAL TUBULE • • • • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 20
RENAL TUBULE ANATOMY email@example.com 21
TYPES OF NEPHRONS • Cortical nephrons – Located entirely in the cortex – Includes most nephrons • Juxtamedullary nephrons – Found at the boundary of the cortex and medulla ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 22
TYPES OF NEPHRONS ANATOMY email@example.com 23
PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES • • • • • Arise from efferent arteriole of the glomerulus Normal, low pressure capillaries Attached to a venule Cling close to the renal tubule Reabsorb (reclaim) some substances from collecting tubes ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 24
URETERS • Slender tubes attaching the kidney to the bladder – Continuous with the renal pelvis – Enter the posterior aspect of the bladder • Runs behind the peritoneum • Peristalsis aids gravity in urine transport ANATOMY email@example.com 25
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LINING OF THE URETER ANATOMY email@example.com 27
URINARY BLADDER • Smooth, collapsible, muscular sac • Temporarily stores urine • Trigone – three openings – Two from the ureters – One to the urethrea • Urinary Bladder Wall – – – – ANATOMY Three layers of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle) Mucosa made of transitional epithelium Walls are thick and folded in an empty bladder Bladder can expand significantly without increasing internal pressure firstname.lastname@example.org 28
URINARY BLADDER WALL ANATOMY email@example.com 29
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URETHRA • Thin-walled tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body by peristalsis • Release of urine is controlled by two sphincters – Internal urethral sphincter (involuntary) – External urethral sphincter (voluntary) ANATOMY email@example.com 31
URETHRA GENDER DIFFERENCES • Length – Females – 3–4 cm (1 inch) – Males – 20 cm (8 inches) • Location – Females – along wall of the vagina – Males – through the prostate and penis • Function – Females – only carries urine – Males – carries urine and is a passageway for sperm cells ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 32
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM • Functional kidneys are developed by the third month • Urinary system of a newborn – Bladder is small – Urine cannot be concentrated • Control of the voluntary urethral sphincter does not start until age 18 months • Urinary infections are the only common problems before old age ANATOMY email@example.com 33
AGING AND THE URINARY SYSTEM • There is a progressive decline in urinary function • The bladder shrinks with aging • Urinary retention is common in males ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 34
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