Published on February 18, 2014
Facebook: email@example.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!
ORGANS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 3
LOCATION OF THE KIDNEYS • • • • Against the dorsal body wall At the level of T12 to L3 The right kidney is slightly lower than the left Attached to ureters, renal blood vessels, and nerves at renal hilus • Atop each kidney is an adrenal gland ANATOMY email@example.com 4
COVERINGS OF THE KIDNEYS • Renal capsule – Surrounds each kidney • Adipose capsule – Surrounds the kidney – Provides protection to the kidney – Helps keep the kidney in its correct location ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 5
REGIONS OF THE KIDNEY • Renal cortex – outer region • Renal medulla – inside the cortex • Renal pelvis – inner collecting tube ANATOMY email@example.com 6
ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 7
KIDNEY STRUCTURES • Medullary pyramids – triangular regions of tissue in the medulla • Renal columns – extensions of cortex-like material inward • Calyces – cup-shaped structures that funnel urine towards the renal pelvis ANATOMY email@example.com 8
ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 9
ANATOMY email@example.com 10
BLOOD FLOW IN THE KIDNEYS ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 11
Stages of Urine Formation (Micturition) [glomerular filtration rate = 125 ml/min] 1. Filtration: glomerulus 2. Reabsorption: tubules – Proximal convoluted tubules • Major reabsorption of electrolytes – Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl – Loop of Henle • Major reabsorption site for Na – Collecting tubule • H2O reabsorption 3. Secretion ANATOMY email@example.com 12
RENAL CIRCULATION ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 13
RENAL CIRCULATION ANATOMY email@example.com 14
NEPHRONS • The structural and functional units of the kidneys • Responsible for forming urine • Main structures of the nephrons – Glomerulus – Renal tubule ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 15
ANATOMY email@example.com 16
ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 17
ANATOMY email@example.com 18
GLOMERULUS • A specialized capillary bed • Attached to arterioles on both sides (maintains high pressure) – Large afferent arteriole – Narrow efferent arteriole ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 19
RENAL TUBULE • • • • Glomerular (Bowman’s) capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule ANATOMY email@example.com 20
RENAL TUBULE ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 21
TYPES OF NEPHRONS • Cortical nephrons – Located entirely in the cortex – Includes most nephrons • Juxtamedullary nephrons – Found at the boundary of the cortex and medulla ANATOMY email@example.com 22
TYPES OF NEPHRONS ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 23
PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES • • • • • Arise from efferent arteriole of the glomerulus Normal, low pressure capillaries Attached to a venule Cling close to the renal tubule Reabsorb (reclaim) some substances from collecting tubes ANATOMY email@example.com 24
URETERS • Slender tubes attaching the kidney to the bladder – Continuous with the renal pelvis – Enter the posterior aspect of the bladder • Runs behind the peritoneum • Peristalsis aids gravity in urine transport ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 25
ANATOMY email@example.com 26
LINING OF THE URETER ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 27
URINARY BLADDER • Smooth, collapsible, muscular sac • Temporarily stores urine • Trigone – three openings – Two from the ureters – One to the urethrea • Urinary Bladder Wall – – – – ANATOMY Three layers of smooth muscle (detrusor muscle) Mucosa made of transitional epithelium Walls are thick and folded in an empty bladder Bladder can expand significantly without increasing internal pressure email@example.com 28
URINARY BLADDER WALL ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 29
ANATOMY email@example.com 30
URETHRA • Thin-walled tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body by peristalsis • Release of urine is controlled by two sphincters – Internal urethral sphincter (involuntary) – External urethral sphincter (voluntary) ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 31
URETHRA GENDER DIFFERENCES • Length – Females – 3–4 cm (1 inch) – Males – 20 cm (8 inches) • Location – Females – along wall of the vagina – Males – through the prostate and penis • Function – Females – only carries urine – Males – carries urine and is a passageway for sperm cells ANATOMY email@example.com 32
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE URINARY SYSTEM • Functional kidneys are developed by the third month • Urinary system of a newborn – Bladder is small – Urine cannot be concentrated • Control of the voluntary urethral sphincter does not start until age 18 months • Urinary infections are the only common problems before old age ANATOMY firstname.lastname@example.org 33
AGING AND THE URINARY SYSTEM • There is a progressive decline in urinary function • The bladder shrinks with aging • Urinary retention is common in males ANATOMY email@example.com 34
Calcification Inhibitors in CKD and Dialysis Patients
Disorders of the male genitourinary system, treatments and management This unit specifically looks at some of the diseases associated with the male ...
Vocabulary words for Unit Test: Genitourinary System. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.
THE GENITOURINARY SYSTEM I ... The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. ... changes in all the major organ systems of the body. MD0579 3-13 . a.
MT Unit 11 Genitourinary System Day 2 Terms 11-12. ... MT Unit 5 Integumentary System Day 1 Fig... MaP Unit 1 Body Plan Day 1. Objective: 1.04, 1.06.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra. Each kidney consists of millions of ...
Vocabulary words for Genitourinary System. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards.
OST 523, Genitourinary System – Spring 2013 Page 2 Revised OFFICIAL version, 2/8/13 Osteopathic Surgical Specialties - continued Physiology - continued
In anatomy, the genitourinary system or urogenital system is the organ system of the reproductive organs and the urinary system. These are grouped together ...
Prior to January 2014 the exam was not formally accredited in the UK education system, ... Unit 13 - Disorders of the male genitourinary system; Unit 14