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Unit 12 Gastrointestinal System

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Information about Unit 12 Gastrointestinal System
Health & Medicine

Published on February 18, 2014

Author: nionoveno

Source: slideshare.net

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PPT prepared for lecture.
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Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning! 

Organs of the Alimentary Canal Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Anus ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 3

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LAYERS OF ALIMENTARY CANAL ORGANS • All are part of the autonomic nervous system • Three separate networks of nerve fibers – Submucosal nerve plexus – Myenteric nerve plexus – Subserous plexus ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 5

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ESOPHAGUS • Runs from pharynx to stomach through the diaphragm • Conducts food by peristalsis (slow rhythmic squeezing) • Passageway for food only (respiratory system branches off after the pharynx) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 11

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STOMACH ANATOMY • Located on the left side of the abdominal cavity • Food enters at the cardioesophageal sphincter • Regions of the stomach – – – – Cardiac region – near the heart Fundus Body Phylorus – funnel-shaped terminal end • Food empties into the small intestine at the pyloric sphincter • Rugae – internal folds of the mucosa • External regions – Lesser curvature – Greater curvature ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 18

STOMACH ANATOMY • Layers of peritoneum attached to the stomach – Lesser omentum – attaches the liver to the lesser curvature – Greater omentum – attaches the greater curvature to the posterior body wall – Contains fat to insulate, cushion, and protect abdominal organs • Gastric pits formed by folded mucosa • Glands and specialized cells are in the gastric gland region ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 19

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STOMACH FUNCTIONS • • • • Acts as a storage tank for food Site of food breakdown Chemical breakdown of protein begins Delivers chyme (processed food) to the small intestine ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 21

SPECIALIZED MUCOSA OF THE STOMACH • Simple columnar epithelium – Mucous neck cells – produce a sticky alkaline mucus – Gastric glands – secrete gastric juice – Chief cells – produce protein-digesting enzymes (pepsinogens) – Parietal cells – produce hydrochloric acid – Endocrine cells – produce gastrin ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 22

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SMALL INTESTINE • The body’s major digestive organ • Site of nutrient absorption into the blood • Muscular tube extending form the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve • Suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by the mesentery ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 29

SUBDIVISIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE • Duodenum – Attached to the stomach – Curves around the head of the pancreas • Jejunum – Attaches anteriorly to the duodenum • Ileum – Extends from jejunum to large intestine ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 30

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Villi of the Small Intestine Fingerlike structures formed by the mucosa Give the small intestine more surface area ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 33

Microvilli of the Small Intestine Small projections of the plasma membrane Found on absorptive cells Structures Involved in Absorption of Nutrients Absorptive cells Blood capillaries Lacteals (specialized lymphatic capillaries) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 34

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