Unit 1 3

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Published on January 24, 2009

Author: JasonSWrench

Source: slideshare.net

Unit 1-3 Verbal and Nonverbal Communication in Cultures

Understanding Language

Language Symbol system used by cultures to communicate.

Components of Language

Semantics Study of how words communicate the intended meanings.

Syntactics Study of language, structure/grammar, or the combining of words into a meaningful sentences.

Pragmactics The way meaning is constructed in relation to receivers, and how language is actually used in particular contexts in language communities.

Phonetics Study of the sound system of a language.

Language and Meaning

Osgood’s Semantic Differential

Evaluative Dimension The degree to which one feels a word has a good or bad meaning. ex. cuss words

Potency Dimension The degree to which a word evokes a strong or weak dimension. ex. Jerk vs. Bastard

Activity Dimension The amount of energy (fast or slow) a word evokes. ex. Jerk vs. Bastard

Language Functions

Group Identity Helps us know who we belong to – group identification

Perceptual Filter Language helps us analyze what happens to us.

Cognitive Reality We think through language.

Status & Intimacy Language helps us know our place in the hierarchy. Different classes use different language structures.

Creativity Function Humans are creative through and understand creativity through language.

Verbal Communication Styles

Low/High Context Low: Little external information to the message is needed for communication to occur. High: A lot of external information to the message is needed for communication to occur.

Low: Little external information to the message is needed for communication to occur.

High: A lot of external information to the message is needed for communication to occur.

Direct/Indirect Direct: People say what they mean directly. Indirect: people go around the bush.

Direct: People say what they mean directly.

Indirect: people go around the bush.

Person/Status Orientation

Self-Enhancement & Effacement

Talk vs. Silence

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis Language shapes our ideas & guides our view of social reality.

Three Contentions Language plays a very important role in the totality of culture. Language should be examined in both its structural and its semantic aspects, which are inseparable.

Language plays a very important role in the totality of culture.

Language should be examined in both its structural and its semantic aspects, which are inseparable.

Three Contentions The manner of speech found in language provides a partial description of the speakers’ thought world and can be used to measure and understand what we can of the macrocosm.

The manner of speech found in language provides a partial description of the speakers’ thought world and can be used to measure and understand what we can of the macrocosm.

Macrocosm cont… Language Shapes Reality Grammatical structure of a language shapes and constitutes one’s thought process. Vocabularies differ because our cognitive understanding of the world around us differs. Language serves as a mediating link between thoughts and our cultural reality.

Language Shapes Reality

Grammatical structure of a language shapes and constitutes one’s thought process.

Vocabularies differ because our cognitive understanding of the world around us differs.

Language serves as a mediating link between thoughts and our cultural reality.

Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal Expectancy Violation Theory (Burgoon, 1992)

1) Humans have competing approach and avoidance needs. 2) Communicators evaluate the reward potential of others.

3) Communicators develop expectations about the nonverbal behaviors of others. 4) Nonverbal behaviors have associated evaluations ranging from extremely positive to extremely negative.

5) Nonverbal behaviors have socially recognized meaning.

Types of Nonverbal Behaviors

Physical Appearance/ Artifacts Emperor Claudius’ 3rd Wife Messalina

Food binding

Mangbettu

Padaung Women in Burma

Masai Masai men use a combination of blue clay and other materials to create their intricate hair styles.

Cultural Fashion Today Piercings

Cultural Fashion Today Tattoos

Kinesics (gestures)

Territoriality Our immediate space

Edward T. Hall’s (1966) notions Fixed Feature Semifixed Feature Dynamic Feature

Fixed Feature

Semifixed Feature

Dynamic Feature

Proxemics Our distance between two or more people.

Edward T. Hall’s (1966) notions Intimate distance (0 – 1.5 feet) Personal distance (1.5 – 4 feet) Social distance (4 – 12 feet) Public distance (12 – 25 feet)

Intimate distance (0 – 1.5 feet)

Personal distance (1.5 – 4 feet)

Social distance (4 – 12 feet)

Public distance (12 – 25 feet)

Occlusics

Time Orientation Monochronic Polychronic

Monochronic

Polychronic

Facial Expressions SADFISH

Sadness Anger Disgust Fear Interest Surprise Happiness

Haptics Touch

Paralanguage Nonverbal Linguistic components.

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