Published on December 29, 2016
1. 1 “UNEP” – United Nations Environment Programme (Projects In India) Submitted By Pranav Gupta Division-A Roll No- 28 Class- BBA. LLB Symbiosis Law School, NOIDA Symbiosis International University, PUNE Feb, 2016 Under the guidance of Prof. Sai Prasad Environment Law Symbiosis Law School, NOIDA Symbiosis International University, Pune
2. 2 CERTIFICATE The project entitled ‘UNEP Projects Analysis In India’ submitted to the Symbiosis Law School, Noida for Environment law as part of Internal Assessment is based on my original work carried out under the guidance of ‘Prof. Saiprasad. R.G.’ from December to April. The Research work has not been submitted elsewhere for award of any degree. The material borrowed from other sources and incorporated in the research paper has been duly acknowledged. I understand that I myself would be held responsible and accountable for plagiarism, if any, detected later on. Pranav Gupta Signature of the Candidate Date: March, 14’ 2016
3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my heartiest gratitude to my professor for his valuable guidance to me in making of this project. Without his guidance this work would not have been possible. Sir you gave me this golden opportunity to work on this wonderful project which also helped me to do lot of research work. I came to know about a lot of new things after doing this work. I would also like to thank my parents and friends for their constant and silent support for this project. Pranav Gupta Date: March 14’ 2016
4. 4 Index Abstract 5 History and Significance 5 Mission 5 India’s Engagement with UNEP 6 UNEP activities in India 6 Promoting low carbon transport 8 Overall context 9 Project Overview 11 Project Approach 11 Key interventions 12 Expected result 13 Outcome of the Integrated Assessment of the Transport Sector 13 Conclusion 14
5. 5 Abstract This Article assesses the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in terms of its history, structure, and projects in India majorly focusing on low carbon transformation. In the context of global environmental issues and the international organizations set up in response, the Article explores the institutional and political reasons for UNEP's standing to meet all expectations in India. The Article reviews UNEP programmes and their success in India. History and Significance1 The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is the leading global environmental authority that sets the global environmental agenda, promotes the coherent implementation of the environmental dimension of sustainable development within the United Nations system and serves as an authoritative advocate for the global environment. UNEP It was founded by Maurice Strong, its first director, as a result of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment in June 1972 and has its headquarters in the Gigiri neighborhood of Nairobi, Kenya. UNEP also has six regional offices and various country offices. UNEP has aided in the formulation of guidelines and treaties on issues such as the international trade in potentially harmful chemicals, trans-boundary air pollution, and contamination of international waterways. Mission2 "To provide leadership and encourage partnership in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing, and enabling nations and peoples to improve their quality of life without compromising that of future generations." To promote and facilitate sound environmental management for sustainable development, UNEP’s global and cross-sectorial outlook is reflected in its organizational structure, its activities and is personnel. 1 Mission and information about the UNEP-‐ http://www.unep.org/about/ 2 Information-‐ Background of UNEP; Mission and information about the UNEP-‐ 2 Information-‐ Background of UNEP; Mission and information about the UNEP-‐ http://www.unep.org/about/
6. 6 India’s Engagement With UNEP Our country always had a constant support from UNEP and due to this, both shares a close relation since years and consequesntly working with over various projects in India. Ministry of Environment and forest is primarily working with UNEP for the improvement in the climate change. India’s high commission is accredited as permanent representative of India to UNEP for various ongoing projects. Mr. Prakash Jawadekar, Hon’ble Minister for Environment, forest and climate change visted various nations including Kenya, Nairobi etc for the same reason so that our nation could achieve a better result in field of climate change.3 UNEP activities in India4 Recent India-UNEP collaboration include the following major areas : • Solar Loan Project : Collaboration with Indian banks to finance solar lighting projects in rural areas. • Montreal Protocol: Implementation of the Technical Assistance component of the CFC production sector phase out project (with the World Bank) and the policy and customs training and awareness components of the national refrigeration and air-conditioning servicing sector strategy. • Atmospheric Brown Cloud: The Government of India nominated two scientists to participate in the Science Team and steering committee meeting. • Project Surya: To provide sustainable, pro-environment, pro-poverty, pro- health, pro-women action plan, infrastructure and technologies to switch to cleaner technologies such as efficient cooking stoves in rural areas. A pilot phase of Project Surya is being implemented. • Assessment Activities : Preparation of regular ‘State of the Environment’ Reports. A number of scientists from India are authors for Global Environment Outlook-5, and involved in other assessments. • CSO network : Specialized agencies, namely The Energy and Resource 3 High commission of India; http://www.hcinairobi.co.ke/india-‐unep-‐overview. 4 Indian High commission analysis on recent tie-‐up with UNEP; High commission of India; http://www.hcinairobi.co.ke/india-‐unep-‐overview.
7. 7 Institute (TERI), Development Alternatives (DA), and Centre for Environment Education (CEE) have been assisting UNEP with implementation of projects and programmes in India and South Asia. • Awareness: UNEP launched the environmental awareness campaign ‘Batting for the Environment’ in partnership with Indian Premier League (IPL) and named Cricket legend Sachin Tendulkar as a UNEP Goodwill Ambassador; the 19th Commonwealth Games 2010 Organizing Committee signed a MoU with UNEP to host a green game; Plant for the Planet : Billion Tree Campaign. • GEF 5 Process: • Biodiversity: South Asia level sub-regional meeting in India to prepare for the CBD COP 10 meeting; preparation of ABS proposal for the GEF submission; working with National Biodiversity Authority to prepare the benefit sharing guidelines; international consultation on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) Protocol in Feb 2011. • Ecosystem Services Economics: Pradesh, Indian Statistical Institute, and Institute of Economic Growth. • Marine and Coastal Ecosystem: • Sustainable Consumption and Production: • India was the global host for the World Environment Day for 2011. • Asia-Pacific Tunza Conference : • Collaboration with National Productivity Council Promoting Low Carbon Transport in India This project was launched in India by united nations in the year of 2010 under the guardianship of Mr. Jairam Ramesh(then Hon. Minister of Environment and Forests, Government of India,)5 . This project was exclusively designed to meet link the effort to develop or enhance the transportation medium in cities and to change India’s climate policy. This project was assembled to construct the institutional strength in cities to enhance the mobility to lower the pollution i.e. The emission of CO2 for the local people and establishing a smart city. Policy former from both national as well as 5 UNEP project Details: http://www.unep.org/transport/lowcarbon/about.asp
8. 8 local participate in this programmed which includes the educational institutions like IIMS, IITs and giant universities in the field of technology and management. For this project, India received the tremendous amount of fund from the Germany (around 2.49 millions euru) and this project is in progress in partnership with Denmark for next 5 years. The gov. of Germany is in direct consultation with the ministry of environment and forest (MoEF) along with MoUD coupling the local partners IITs and IIMs etc6 . Overall Context According to a survey and statistical analysis, India is the 3rd highest green house emitter nation in the world and stands 2nd in highest Co2 emission7 . Growing industrialization, rapid increase in transportation and huge consumption of fossil fuels are prime reasons to noise, air and water pollution. And the unban areas are highly affected by them. In continuance of this, to make this nation’s transportation system more efficient and reduce pollution, India’s think tanks and policy framers are required to go through the given data to push dawn pollution and along with that work more towards the proper transportation. Therefore, this project highly deals with strengthening this atmosphere by training and proper analysis of data and methodological tools which will aid to government’s low carbon systems. 6 High commission of India; http://www.hcinairobi.co.ke/india-‐unep-‐overview 7 Statistista; The largest producers of CO2 emissions worldwide in 2015, based on their share of global CO2 emissions; http://www.statista.com/statistics/271748/the-‐largest-‐emitters-‐of-‐co2-‐in-‐the-‐ world.
9. 9 Project Overview This project exclusively targets Duo issues i.e. the promotion of low carbon transport and at the same time it also targets the climate change at both local and national arena. The notion of this project is to deal with the objective to set up other departments goals like to enhance in equality, security and environment. And this ultimate reason unites the different professionals and experts who actively work for gender equality, environment and other social issues. This multidisciplinary vision targets to make a proper transport planning which could rightly enhance the standards of the people
10. 10 especial the poor ones in India. This project is working on three major cities i.e. Rajkot, Vishakhaptnam and Udaipur and making them prepare low carbon comprehensive mobility plans (LCMPs) and these plans are dealt with huge range and brief analytical approach. By this data, planers come out with alternative plans and strategies to tackle the issue of climate. The analysis of LCMPs is utilize to revise the MoUD’s default transport plan guides for every cities of India. Cities must use the CMP i.e. comprehensive mobility planning toolkit to access the required fund to implement this sustainable or environment project. This toolkit is a godsend for all Indian cities in order to step ahead from old transportation of huge carbon mobility. Workshops, researches, exchange of idea and information etc. encourages the notion towards low carbon mobility.
11. 11 Key Interventions8 8UNEPReport;http://moud.gov.in/sites/upload_files/moud/files/pdf/CMP%20R eport%20Revised.pdf
12. 12 Expected Results The actual objective of this project is India is twofold i.e one is of national level and another one seeks to create environment policy to build a eco friendly transportation system on both local and as well as on national level by improving the atmosphere and lowering the CO2 presence in it. And the expected results are : • A national action plan • Tree low carbon comprehensive mobility plans • A website to create easy share of information related to project. Outcome of the Integrated Assessment of the Transport Sector9 The project’s integrated assessment shows that a low carbon transport transition is possible for India. The five key wedges that deliver mitigation benefits in the sustainable low carbon transport scenario are shown in the chart below. • First Wedge: Electricity cleaning, including the uptake of electric vehicles and the decarbonisation of electricity in India’s power grid. • Second wedge : co2 reduction from implementing of stringent fuel economy targets cosistent with he vison set under the global fuel economy initiative. • Thrid wedge: ustainable mobility, including passenger transport initiatives such as faster implementation of metro and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems, along with improved integration of non-motorised transport modes, the use of feeder buses, and a higher share of rail in intercity transport. • Fourth Wedge: Biofuel penetration, facilitated through national policies and enabling mechanisms, as well as carbon price. • Fifth Wedge: Interventions in the freight transport sector through the implementation of dedicated freight corridors, demand reduction for coal freight, etc. Significant energy-efficiency impact is already evident in the business-as-usual scenario and further co-benefits can be achieved in the low- carbon scenario from air pollutant reductions. 9 UNEP project Booklet: http://moud.gov.in/sites/upload_files/moud/files/pdf/CMP%20Report%20Rev ised.pdf
13. 13 Conclusion UNEP’s various projects along with a major step like Promoting low carbon transport in India has done a tremendous job. It had brought dawn the CO2 emission by the use of biofuels, electronic vehicles, fuel-efficient vehicles, more shift towards renewable sources and promoting the use of CNG gas. Launching of Delhi Metro gave a marvelous result in reducing the air pollution in Delhi. So the analysis of given project clearly shows the constant attempt from UNEP to enhance the quality of environment in India. A proper implementation and efficient functioning of said projects would definitely fetch a better results in upcoming years.