Published on April 3, 2014
Understanding the film and TV INdustries Ownership and FUnding (P1, M1, D1) define the following models of ownership public service commercial independant company global conglomorate horizontal / vertical integration monopoly Refers to broadcasting which is intended for the public. Television and Radio broadcasters are required to fulfil specific requirements within their licence to broadcast. Commercial broadcasting is when a television shows are broadcast by private companies as opposed to having state sponsorship. non governmentally owned companies a company that owns many companies in different platforms of media Vertical integration: when companies come together and try to become larger. When an institution has shares/owns all parts of the production and distribution process. when one seller holds a large share of the market and will control prices and product supply. Has complete control in their area.
explore two case studies which demonstrate two contrasting ownerShip models case study 1: case study 2: BBC: The BBC is a public service broadcaster, operating under a Royal Charter with a Licence and Agreement from the Home Secretary. Within the UK, the BBC’swork is funded by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households, companies and organizations costing £145.50 per year per household since April 2010. The level of the fee is set annually by the British Government and agreed by Parliament. The BBC also earns money from selling certain programme-making services through BBC Studios and Post Production Ltd. According to the BBC’s2012/13 Annual Report its total income was £5,102.3 million which can be broken down as follows: £3,656.2 million in licence fees collected from householders; £1,101.2 million from the BBC’sCommercial Businesses; £269.7 million from government grants, of which 264.7 million is from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office for the BBC World Service; £75.2 million from other income, such as rental collections and royalties from overseas broadcasts of programming. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BBC ITV The way ITV make their money is through advertising on their channel and sponsorships
discuss how funding is generated through the following revenues licence fee sponsorship subscription pay per view advertising product placement development funds By providing a sponsorship service, broadcasting companies make their money from that as people put their money into sponsoring the company. A subscription is when a viewer will pay money to a certain broadcasting company such as Sky Movies as you have to pay a monthly cost if you wish to view content on that channel. Channels such as Sky Sports offer a pay per view service where if there is an important game or fight on and someone would like to watch just that event then they have the opportunity to pay for that event only. Most TV broadcasters make their money by selling advertising spots during breaks between programs, adverts are extremely expensive and most television broadcasters make their money by offering this. Companies will advertise on a channel and will pay a fee depending on what time of day they’re advertising in. Product placement is an agreement between a company and a movie/television series where the company is allowed to subtly advertise their product. Companies make money through this as they charge a fee to allow companies to advertise. An example of this would be The Amazing Spiderman advertise BMW through product placement as BMW cars are featured throughout the film. Development funds is money that the government give to a broadcasting service in order for them to produce large projects. BBC make all their money from licence fees and that’show they run, hence why they don’t need to advertise on their channels. Annually the BBC make people pay £145.00 for colour TV licensing if they want any form of access to television.
define the following working patterns over the following pages identify 5 different jobs within the creative media sector and create A PROFLE OF EACH JOB. shift work freelance fixed term JOB ROLES AND CONTRACTS (P2, M2, D3) Fixed term working patterns is when you’llhave your usual 9-5 job working those set hours, this is usually seen in offices and warehouses. Shift work is when you’reoften working in a shop, ie. Blockbuster and you have a rota of who works when, hours in shift work vary a lot and there’sno guarantee you will be working appropriate hours, for example some shops require people to work overnight. Hospitals usually revolve around shift work. Freelance is when you work for yourself and find jobs which offer you temporary contracting jobs. Since majority of freelancing is contracting, you’recovering people in areas of jobs where they aren’table to be there eg. pregnancy, and filling in the work for them that they aren’table to do.
job: Director The director has one of the most important jobs when it comes to production. However the director interprets the script, is the way we see it on screen. The director has to work with every other cast and crew member to make sure the script is translated onto screen effectively. The director will usually hire a script writer to help them write out the script, or they’llsometimes write a script themselves. A director will always check the cast and make sure they’resuitable for the role they have been chosen for. They’realso completely in charge of their team and cast, they have to make sure everyone is fully motivated and on task at all times otherwise the production could end up a huge flop. When editing the final cut of the movie or television show a director will always make sure they delegate tasks to the appropriate person for the final production. Directors will usually interpret a script, create storyboards of the production to make it easier for the cast to understand how they want certain things to be portrayed, directing actors, managing the technical details of the production and working with the production manager to make decisions about the location and design of specific sets. They must make sure that they constantly stick to the schedule of the film and don’trun over schedule. Directors will typically work harsh hours in order to get the production up to scratch. Without the director constantly available, production can’ttake place as they don’thave anyone to refer back to. Patience and great attention to detail are very important in this job as a director cannot miss anything.
job: Costume designer The costume department is of course, in charge of whatever the actors are wearing throughout the whole production. However they are also in charge of manufacturing, purchasing and the hire and fitting of the costumes. Since the costume designer is in charge of designing all the costumes that are needed throughput the production, they can also be responsible for the creating, hiring and transport too. A director will give the costume designers a simple brief on what they wish the characters to be portrayed as, as it is a very important part of the production. As the costumes of the characters reveal a lot about the character without anything having to be said by the character, it is extremely important for the costumes to be accurate. Since clothing helps people to decipher the time period of which the film was set in, its important the costume designers do their research and get the costumes as accurate as the can in order to make the film as realistic as possible. Costume designers must always be on top of the budget and make sure that all deliveries come on time so the production can stick to the schedule. The typical salary for a costume designer will be £13,000 and £18,000 a year, which has the possibility to rise to £28,000 a year with experience.
job: Editorial The editing process is simply selecting the appropriate written, visual, audible and film medium which will be used in the final cut of the production. An editor will correct, condense, organise and use other forms of modification to produce the final cut. The editor will work with the director to decide what footage goes into the final cut of the film and they will process the footage and script to make any changes that are necessary. The different job roles in editing are: Editing and post production overview, Editor, Post production supervisor, assistant editor, second assistant editor and title designer.
job: Title designers Title designers are the people who design the titles that we see at the beginnings of films. They also design the captions that appear during the film which give information about the location or time of the scene. Another thing they do is the end credits and moving roller listing or all the cast and crew members. The quality of these all depend on the budget of the film because the opening title of a production could either be complex or simple. We can tell a lot from the title of a film and it is important that we are not disappointed with the opening title. A title designer also decides on the font type and the colour schemes and they usually have to make sure that the font and colour scheme fits the genre and time period of the film. Typically they will start the title sequences at the end of the editing process so they have an overall idea of the film and what they need to create based on what they’vecreated so far in terms of the film. Usually a Title Designer is freelance, working independently in their own studio or are employed by Digital and Optical Effects companies and are often required to work long hours.
job: Lighting department Lighting is a very crucial part of a production as it sets the mood of each scene. If there is too much light in a scary situation, the effect its meant to create isn’tachieved. A wide variety of equipment is used and set up to achieve the correct mood and feel the lighting department and director wishes to achieve. With the correct amount of light in a certain situation, it can also help the actors look the part. The lighting department needs to be specially trained to work safely with lighting and electricity. A range of different lights will have been used to set up the scene, varying from tea lamps to huge £1000 industrial lights all which create a different effect when used alone or combined. One specific job within the lighting department is the Directors of Photography. The Directors of Photography are the Head of Department within film productions and they will typically work in close hands with the director and production designer as they will mainly have an idea of what they want the lighting for each scene to be like.
WHAT RIGHTS ARE WORKERS ENTITLED TO? trade unions, HEALTH AND SAFETY, EQUAL OPS RIGHTS, ETHICS AND LEGAL (P3, M3, D3) As an employee to a certain company or organization, your employer by law, must deduct income tax and national insurance contributions from your salary or wages before handing your pay slip over to you. Other rights you’reentitled to are: -maternity, adoption and paternity leave -the right not to be unfairly dismissed -statutory redundancy pay -all rights given to ’workers’ All workers have the right to: -the national minimal wage -rest breaks, paid holiday and limits on night work under the Working Time Regulations -Protection against unauthorized deduction from pay -maternity, paternity and adoption pay (but no leave) -protection against less favourable treatment because of being a part time worker -statutory sick pay -protection against less favourable treatment if you make a disclosure in the public interest (often called ’whisteblowing’) -not to be discriminated against unlawfully. http://www.nidirect.gov.uk/are-you-a-worker-employee-or-self-employed
IDENTIFY ANY EXAMPLES OF WHERE YOU CONSIDER THE CREATIVE MEDIA INDUSTRIES TO HAVE BROKEN ETHICAL CODES There are a few ways in which the media have broken ethical codes. Most of these break the idea of privacy; many celebrities have been denied the right to privacy due to the media getting involved in their personal lives. Phone hacking is one of the biggest issues that has been highlighted this year. With newspapers such as News of the World hacking into peoples phones to get exclusive information before anybody else could, phone hacking became one of the biggest issues in 2012. Another issue with the phone hacking scandal was the bribery of police officers and exercising improper influence in the publishing of news stories. The specific victims of the phone hacking was the Royal Family, limited celebrities and politicians. It was later revealed in 2011 that Milly Dowler (a school girl who was murdered), relatives of deceased British soldiers and victims of the 7/7 London Bombings had also had their phones hacked into. While this scandal didn’t only upset celebrities, many normal people were affected by the phone hacking issue. Private photographs is another form in which the media have broken ethical codes. An incident involving Prince Harry leaked all over the papers due to the media exploiting his privacy.
WHAT ARE THE MAIN RESPOSIBILITIES AND ROLES OF THE FOLLOWING THE BROADCASTING act THE BBFC ofcom Designed by Margaret thatcher to control what people watch on their televisions e British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), originally British Board of Film Censors, is a non-governmental organisation, funded by the film industry and responsible for the national classification and censorship of films within the United Kingdom. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Board_of_Film_Classification Ofcom regulates the UK telecoms sector, defining and enforcing the conditions by which all mobile and fixed-line phone and broadband companies must abide. These general conditions are wide-ranging rules relating to matters such as telephone numbering, emergency services, sales, marketing and interconnection standards. Ofcom’sinvestigation unit monitors compliance with the conditions and resolves disputes between providers. Ofcom is also the competition authority for telecoms, enforcing remedies in markets where it believes dominant operators may have a potentially harmful influence on competition or consumers. One of its most high-profile interventions was to require BT to split its wholesale and retail arms into separate companies, bringing about the creation of Openreach which supplies wholesale services to both BT Retail and competing providers.
WHAT HAVE BEEN THE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES TO THE TV INDUSTRY IN RECENT YEARS? INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENTS (P4, M4, D4) One of the significant change which have occurred to the television industry in recent years is colour television which started in 1946 after the Second World War not verified until 1953. The first television channel to feature colour was NBC network in the United States in 1966. One important change throughout the years is the amount of channels that have been created for public service named Freeview (2002) Previously there was only 3 channels available; BBC1, BBC2, and ITV) which were only available at certain times during the day, however to this day there are over 500 channels available 24/7. Private Television companies are something which has just come about to the television industry in recent years. These include Sky and Virgin Media. This allows viewers to watch films and television shows multiple times. Equipment used in the television industry have improved significantly over the years and graphic designers have been able to gain access to new software which have just come about in recent years, allowing special effects to become a lot better. Cameras and Microphones have been improved over the years too and made picture and sound quality so much better than previous years. Television models have also changed throughout the years and become flatter and wider screens, with HD picture quality.
WHAT HAVE BEEN THE SIGNIFICANT CHANGES TO THE FILM INDUSTRY IN RECENT YEARS? One of the significant changes which have been made to the film industry in recent years is special effects. Green screens were also invented and introduced in the 1930s which made room for better special effects and such. Green screen is something which has dramatically improved over the years and CGI and SFX have come a long way for films. Similarly to television, equipment used in film have also improved with new cameras and microphones being introduced and improving the quality of sound and image over years which provides a better viewing experience for audiences.
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