Published on February 26, 2009
Understanding the Nature of Mobile Learning eLearning Portland, Oregon 2009 Jeff Kissinger 1
mobile learning Agenda: Jeff Kissinger 1. mobile misconceptions 2. enabling access, continuation of access through emerging DL, serving access-challenged populations 3. deﬁning mobile learning 4. the mobile learning experience & framework 5. modes of interaction learning theory 6. teaching for the mobile environment 7. supporting mobile learning 8. six mobile courses for U.S. Army 9. development timeline 10. course example, interface, scaffolded learning 11. faculty designers 12. infrastructure CMS LMS 13. publishers 14. costs & developing mobile programs 15. future ---------------------------------------------------- 2 16. device and course demonstrations
mobile misconceptions • blackberry businessmen • tiny screen, learning through a microscope • affordability, technology & plans • taking access for granted (rural, developing countries) • one size ﬁts all 3
Timeline: Evolution of DL Access 1900 1998 2003 disbursed, various levels of learning community, text-driven, self-directed, connectivity, interactive, disbursed, asynchronous, asynchronous, isolation, technology-mediated, technology-mediated, indirect and infrequent less frequent instructor interactions, direct and frequent interaction with instructor instructor interaction, learner media rich, self-directed, learner content interactions content interactions, situated, authentic 4
early mLearning • tehnocentric • ignored experience • development focused on device, media, technology functionality • assumed mLearning equates to online learning • faculty training needed • relied on much repurposed content & media 5 • device speciﬁc & bound
deﬁning mobile learning • ﬂexible, contextual • ofﬂine or online • empowers learners with slow or no connectivity • situated, authentic • accessible • content, media rich • collaborative • learners as authors • device independent 7 • another learner choice...
Mobile Learning Framework – considered minimal correspondence with the instructor and design was a3uned to addressing the unique challenges of transac6onal distance for the oﬄine mobile learner – grounded in construc6vist and adult learning principles while a3emp6ng to build upon situa6onal and authen6c learning opportuni6es – employed the use of faculty‐authored media to mo6vate, guide, and connect with mobile students – learning modules were chunked, sequenced, and were designed to scaﬀold students through their learning 8
authentic mobile learning experience motivation learner motivation isolation conceptual framework learner centered is may decrease creates correspondence enhances -guided all phases of is development for Army courses courses higher order facilitates learning Situated higher order allows for learning promotes learning self directed learning Learner-Instructor Interactions promotes Social transactional distance? Learner-Learner technology constructivist the mobile Interactions competence learning learning experience requires motivation enhances Learner-Content Interactions creates opportunities and instructional pedagogical learning culminates in environment multimedia agents creates opportunities for is acts as further surrogate assessment affective increases instructor promotes 9 promotes learner learner motivation engagement active learning
interaction-based model of eLearning modes of interaction 10 (Anderson, 2003; 2007)
teaching & instructional feedback loops • learning contracts • iTunes U • schedules • podcasting • LMS scoring/syncing • email/phone • SMS • blogging • Google Gears • ofﬂine gmail 11
supporting the mobile learner • • college on a stick instructor as guide • information, media, contacts • degree roadmaps • advisement plans • ofﬂine learner support center • help and FAQs 12
developed courses • ENC 1101 – English Composition I (3SHs) • CCJ 1020 – Introduction to Criminal Justice (3 SHs) • SPN 1120 – Beginning Spanish I w lab(4 SHs) • CGS 1100 – Microcomputer Applications for Business and Economics (3 SHs) • MAC 1105 – College Algebra (3 SHs) • GLY 1001 & 1001L – Earth and Space Science 13 w lab (4 SHs)
development cycle ... 14
course example US Army 15
Learning Design Modules were designed to foster a guided, sequenced, scaﬀolded learning • experience Academic success, help, and technology support provided an end‐to‐end • learning experience The “college” was preloaded on the mobile device • Media‐rich content authored by real faculty was used to mo6vate and • reduce transac6onal distance Grounded in Social Construc6vist & Situa6onal Learning • Mobile Learner Theore6cal Framework • Use of interac6ve Media • Integra6on of Textbook Materials • Ergonomic Interface & Naviga6on • 16
Linux‐based Pepper Pad & Course Interface 17
Tablet Kiosk UMPC Delayed and indirect interactions with instructor would have to be taken into design consideration to reduce transactional distance. Usability in the navigation was also a key factor in the technical design, and we opted for a tabbed two level, scaffolded interface. 18
32 faculty as active designers
Faculty Cer6ﬁca6on • FCCJ created a custom DL cer6ﬁca6on for faculty designing and teaching these courses Based on learning and mo6va6on theory – Coauthored by Palloﬀ and Pra3 – 33
Faculty Training Plan Training Method Learning Outcomes ID for self-directed and Workshop, Elluminate, and By the end of this training, participants will be able to: paced content & Moodle instruction •Apply research-based motivational techniques in course development, learning activities, and assessment •Apply motivation research & best practices to media development •Acquire best practices based on learning and motivation research to promote effective instructional practices in a distributed and untethered distance course delivery model. • Become proficient at creating instructional media using iMovie iMovie Workshop, Elluminate, and Moodle • Become proficient at creating instructional media using Garage band Garage Band Pod-casting Workshop, Elluminate, and Moodle 34
Faculty Training Plan Training Method Learning Outcomes Applying Motivational Online Asynchronous By the end of this training, participants will be able to: Research to Create through Blackboard Optimum Learning Environments •Identify the factors that make up what we call motivation Define motivation and its related components Explore motivation theory through a real-life case example Identify the research trends regarding motivation research Identify the major theoretical approaches to the study of motivation Apply the research in various fields such as education, business, and marketing Design self-regulatory strategies that will aid learners in developing self-motivation LMS Demonstrated Online Asynchronous •By the end of this workshop, participants will be able to: use common Competency or prior through Blackboard Blackboard features to: post an online syllabus and assignments; training [BlackBoard] interact via discussion board; develop quizzes; and manage grade books; use the tools to enhance interactivity such as teams and collaboration understand the experience of a course management system from both the student and instructor perspective; convert existing content for display in Blackboard use the communication and course management tools 35
Key Findings: Faculty • Faculty as ac6ve designers in development process • Training was transforma6onal (pedagogy, new design skills) • Iden6ﬁed Characteris6cs of successful faculty designers • Faculty gained new instruc6onal communica6on medium: media 36
ofﬂine software ebooks kindle, readers, immersive, interactive environments, SIRIUS publishers 37
Key Findings: Publishers FCCJ developed partnerships with two major publishing companies • who worked to modify academic materials to func6on in a oﬄine fashion Collabora6on of exper6se and resources resulted in high‐level • academic rigor and overall quality Online materials were ported oﬄine through collabora6ve eﬀorts • eBooks were embedded in courseware when available • New portable publisher materials for access‐challenged contexts • [military, rural, digital divide] Publishers were eager to develop for this access‐challenged • popula6on College is now going to mobilize its Sirius courses • FCCJ plans to oﬀer cost‐saving mobile‐enabled ebooks and materials • to all of its students via the Sirius Project via the Sirius Project 38
infrastructure • Backpack • D2L 2Go • Go Course Agilix • ofﬂine Moodle (UK Open University & Intel) • Jolongo • Google Gears 39 • Adobe Air (RIA runtime environment)
next steps in research... case studies developing rich record of experiences -Stake Self-Efﬁcacy f =The mobile learner Social Constructivism New insight Modes of Instruction emergent f themes for mobile Self-Directed Learning learners Transactional Distance Learning theories, collectivity Connectivism forming the framework and lens through which to study the Self-Determination mobile learner experiences.
costs $ • device cost/responsibility • who are your students? • LMS/CMS synching • who are your faculty? • training for faculty • what learning infrastructure do you • course development have? • how you work with • what professional publishers development do you have? • level of student support • is access a core mission? 41 • long term DL plan
the future...is ﬂexible ...open....accessible • accessible • horizon report: mobiles this year! • more opportunity for rural, military, digital • on demand divide, and other • blended unserved populations • integrated • more student choices • authentic, situated learning opportunities 42 • connectivism
firstname.lastname@example.org Jeff Kissinger presentations ofﬁce 904.632.5052 Learning Solutions •2/2009 Designing mobile learning, National Alliance of Community & Technical Colleges, Norfolk, Virginia •7/2008 Mobile Learning: Beyond Online, Military Advanced Education •2/2008 Mobilizing Education Technology to Support Combat Deployment, Council of College and Military Educators CCME, San Francisco, California •2/2008 Paper and Presentation: Designing Mobile Courses with College Faculty, Society for Applied Learning Technology SALT New Learning Technologies 2008 Orlando, Florida •2/2008 Workshop: Technology Playground: Creating Instructional Media with a Diverse Toolkit, Instructional Technology Council eLearning 2008, St. Petersburg, Florida •11/2007 Training Faculty for Mobile Course Development and Instruction, The 13th Sloan-C International Conference on Asynchronous Learning Networks, Orlando, Florida. •8/2007 Taking Online Courses Offline with an “Untethered” Mobile Course Model, 23rd Annual Conference on Distance Teaching & Learning, Madison, Wisconsin •3/2007 Creating Instructional Media and Interactions Using Adobe Captivate, 18th International Conference on College Teaching & Learning Faculty, Atlantic Beach, Florida •1/2007 Mobile Course Design: Language Courses on iPods, Society for Applied Learning Technology SALT New Learning Technologies, Orlando FL •3/2006 DOD Grant, Mobilizing Educational Technology: Untethered Distance Learning •1/2006 Using PDA Devices for Distance Learning Instructional Technology Council Washington D.C. Audio Conference Series •11/2005 Using Mobile Learning Devices to Address New Learning Environments: Coast Guard Personnel at Sea and Taking College Courses Project Update, 11th Sloan-C International Conference on Asynchronous Learning Networks, quot;The Power of Online Learning: Mobilizing to 43 Expand Community •8/2005 Using Mobile Learning Devices to Address New Learning Environments: Coast Guard Personnel at Sea and Taking College Courses, The 21st Annual Conference Distance Learning Teaching & Learning
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