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Understanding Practice Change by Rural Landholders

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Information about Understanding Practice Change by Rural Landholders
Education

Published on November 14, 2008

Author: ruralpracticechange

Source: slideshare.net

Description

by: Prof Dave Pannell
Full details see: http://www.ruralpracticechange.org/
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Understanding Practice Change by Rural Landholders David Pannell ARC Federation Fellow School of Agricultural and Resource Economics University of Western Australia

 

Key points Practice change depends on: The human dimension (learning, social processes, goals, perceptions, …) The technologies (relative advantage, trialability) Each practice has its own unique adoption story For policy, extension and research, it pays to anticipate adoptability

Practice change depends on:

The human dimension (learning, social processes, goals, perceptions, …)

The technologies (relative advantage, trialability)

Each practice has its own unique adoption story

For policy, extension and research, it pays to anticipate adoptability

The human dimension The innovative practice 

At the individual level It’s a learning process Initially uncertainty is high e.g. about a new pasture plant’s response to climate, soils, pests, weeds, inputs, grazing, etc. Over time, learning  uncertainty falls Subjective perceptions – it’s personal

It’s a learning process

Initially uncertainty is high

e.g. about a new pasture plant’s response to climate, soils, pests, weeds, inputs, grazing, etc.

Over time, learning  uncertainty falls

Subjective perceptions – it’s personal

Learning process - stages Awareness of problem or opportunity Non-trial evaluation Trial evaluation Adoption (or not) Review and modification Disadoption Continuum Process is never complete

Awareness of problem or opportunity

Non-trial evaluation

Trial evaluation

Adoption (or not)

Review and modification

Disadoption

Social factors influence adoption Related to communication, trust, credibility Social networks Physical proximity Extension Ethnic/cultural divisions Related to benefits from adopting the practice Off-farm income Property size Age/education Reason for holding land Goals

Related to communication, trust, credibility

Social networks

Physical proximity

Extension

Ethnic/cultural divisions

Related to benefits from adopting the practice

Off-farm income

Property size

Age/education

Reason for holding land

Goals

A variety of goals (i) material wealth & financial security (ii) environmental protection and enhancement (iii) social approval and acceptance (iv) personal integrity, ethics (v) balance of work and lifestyle

(i) material wealth & financial security

(ii) environmental protection and enhancement

(iii) social approval and acceptance

(iv) personal integrity, ethics

(v) balance of work and lifestyle

Categories of adopters Kernal of truth But given too much emphasis Don’t forget the practices An individual could be Early adopter for a new crop variety Laggard for a new pasture species

Kernal of truth

But given too much emphasis

Don’t forget the practices

An individual could be

Early adopter for a new crop variety

Laggard for a new pasture species

The human dimension The innovative practice 

 Characteristics of practices Relative advantage Trialability

Relative advantage Economic benefits Profitability of practice Farming systems effects Adjustment cost Riskiness Compatibility Complexity Opportunity cost Compatibility with Beliefs/values Family goals Self image Brand preference Environmental Values of landholder Threats Benefits of practice

Economic benefits

Profitability of practice

Farming systems effects

Adjustment cost

Riskiness

Compatibility

Complexity

Opportunity cost

Compatibility with

Beliefs/values

Family goals

Self image

Brand preference

Environmental

Values of landholder

Threats

Benefits of practice

Relative advantage driving peak adoption

‘ Convenience agriculture’ More management demands Less time available The challenge for ‘inconvenient’ agricultural practices e.g. Intensive livestock systems?

More management demands

Less time available

The challenge for ‘inconvenient’ agricultural practices

e.g. Intensive livestock systems?

 Characteristics of practices Relative advantage Trialability

Trialability How easy is it to get over the learning hump?

How easy is it to get over the learning hump?

Factors reduce value of trialling Observability low or costly Highly novel new practice Previous experience not transferable Long time scales Survey of farmers in Upper Kent, 1997 Of the farmers who invested in Landcare (e.g. drainage, trees, lucerne) less than half had observed any benefit

Observability low or costly

Highly novel new practice

Previous experience not transferable

Long time scales

Survey of farmers in Upper Kent, 1997

Of the farmers who invested in Landcare (e.g. drainage, trees, lucerne) less than half had observed any benefit

Each practice has its own adoption story Influential factors Time frame Groups of adopters and non-adopters

Influential factors

Time frame

Groups of adopters and non-adopters

Factors influencing no-till adoption Higher education Participation in extension activities Use of paid consultant Years since first awareness of nearby no-till adopter Occurrence of a very dry year Fall in price of glyphosate Location (region/state) & average rainfall Effectiveness of pre-emergent herbicide (trifluralin) Soil-moisture-conservation & seeding timeliness NOT SIGNIFICANT: Erosion risk; soil conservation benefits; Landcare 82% of decisions correctly predicted Source: D’ Emden et al. 2006

Higher education

Participation in extension activities

Use of paid consultant

Years since first awareness of nearby no-till adopter

Occurrence of a very dry year

Fall in price of glyphosate

Location (region/state) & average rainfall

Effectiveness of pre-emergent herbicide (trifluralin)

Soil-moisture-conservation & seeding timeliness

Factors influencing IWM adoption Higher use of extension Higher education Lower discount rate for future returns Perception of higher ryegrass control (efficacy) Perception of higher economic value of practices Perception of longer time until new herbicide Uncertainty of when new herbicide will be available Higher proportion of the farm cropped The resistance status of the farm 86% of decisions correctly predicted Source: Llewellyn et al. 2006

Higher use of extension

Higher education

Lower discount rate for future returns

Perception of higher ryegrass control (efficacy)

Perception of higher economic value of practices

Perception of longer time until new herbicide

Uncertainty of when new herbicide will be available

Higher proportion of the farm cropped

The resistance status of the farm

It pays to anticipate adoptability Researchers Target research effort to practices and technologies with better prospects

Researchers

Target research effort to practices and technologies with better prospects

It pays to anticipate adoptability Extension Sustained adoption requires relative advantage Ignoring that threatens credibility

Extension

Sustained adoption requires relative advantage

Ignoring that threatens credibility

It pays to anticipate adoptability Policy Anticipate adoptability when considering policy responses (what mechanism, if any) Non-adoption is generally for good reasons, especially if it persists

Policy

Anticipate adoptability when considering policy responses (what mechanism, if any)

Non-adoption is generally for good reasons, especially if it persists

Key points Practice change depends on: The human dimension (learning, social processes, goals, perceptions, …) The technologies (relative advantage, trialability) Each practice has its own unique adoption story For policy, extension and research, it pays to anticipate adoptability

Practice change depends on:

The human dimension (learning, social processes, goals, perceptions, …)

The technologies (relative advantage, trialability)

Each practice has its own unique adoption story

For policy, extension and research, it pays to anticipate adoptability

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