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Understanding Human Nature and Behaviour

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Information about Understanding Human Nature and Behaviour
Education

Published on December 16, 2008

Author: aSGuest6828

Source: authorstream.com

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Understanding Human Nature and Behaviour : © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Understanding Human Nature and Behaviour Presented by Muhammad Iqbal Malik Slide 2: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. To develop an understanding about human nature and its influence on behaviour Becoming more self-aware and have a deeper understanding about others To develop an appreciation for diversity Today’s Objectives Slide 3: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. What is personality? What makes us what we are? What are the key elements of personality? Are there generic types or classes? Is this personality “good” or “bad”? Is diversity a “curse” or a blessing? Application of what we have learnt We will cover: Why Bother? : © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Why Bother? Know thyself The unexamined life is not worth living! : © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Know thyself The unexamined life is not worth living! Slide 6: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Self-awareness People are the most important organizational resource Improving predictability and self-confidence Building relationships Effective utilization of human resources Avoiding or managing conflicts Improving the quality of life and work environment Slide 7: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Have you ever faced a person whom you failed to understand? Have you ever been misunderstood (as a person)? Have you ever been frustrated by people who looked, behaved, thought or felt very different than you? Have you ever looked down on someone who behaved, thought or felt differently? Reflection What is Personality? : © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. What is Personality? Slide 9: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. “Every man is in certain respects like all other men, like some other men, like no other man” Kluckhohn & Murray Personality Slide 10: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Personality describes the character of emotion, thought, and behavior patterns unique to a person It is a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and situations that differentiates one person from another Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual react and interacts with others Personality Slide 11: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation It explains how each individual is unique Personality is one of the key determinants of human behaviour – but there are also other factors of behaviour e.g. situation, attitude, cognition, motivation, belief etc. Personality What makes us what we are?How do we become “us”? : © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. What makes us what we are?How do we become “us”? Slide 13: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Nature vs. Nurture Heredity and biology - genes, nervous system, endocrine system and other systems Environment and life experiences Identical twins share the same template but have different “states” Twins raised in different families have often demonstrated similar tastes, choosing the same profession and even using the same brands of products The Development of Personality Slide 14: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Some traits may be more strongly linked to heredity than others The initial few years are critical in the formation of personality Plaster vs. Plasticity hypothesis Set like plaster Changes throughout adulthood The Development of Personality Slide 15: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Trait Theories – personality is a set of mental structures/systems, different for each individual, resulting in characteristic responses to situations Humanist Theories – difficult to predict behaviour – lives are not scripted – personalities are defined by their own different perceptions and experiences Behavioural Theories – Personality is the constantly changing set of learned behaviour, influenced by reinforcements Views on Personality Slide 16: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Human behaviour is influenced by: Personality traits The situation The interaction between personality and situation How one perceives or defines a situation is a critical factor of behaviour Interactionism Slide 17: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Doctors report that the child would never be able to play any physically exerting sport… the child grows to be the fittest athlete in the world How did the parents define the situation? How did the child define the situation? How did it influence their behaviour? CASE Slide 18: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Locus of Control (internal/external)The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate Self-Esteem - Feelings of self-worth stemming from the individual's positive or negative beliefs about being valuable and capable Self-awareness - being aware of oneself, including one's traits, feelings, behaviours and limitations Risk Taking - a person’s willingness to take chances or risks Other Attributes Personality Models : © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Personality Models Slide 20: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Before we examine various types of personalities we should remember: There is no “right”, “wrong”, “good” or “bad” type Each type has “strengths” and “weaknesses” A personality may however be more “suitable” for a given role or situation Personality traits may shift over time Behaviour/performance is not dependent on personality alone Is this Personality Good or Bad? Slide 21: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. The Big Five Cattell’s 16 Primary Factors Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Personality Models Slide 22: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. The Big Five Slide 23: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors Slide 24: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors Slide 25: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors Slide 26: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors Slide 27: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. 4 Scales Extraversion - Introversion Sensing – Intuition Thinking – Feeling Judging - Perceiving 16 Types Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Slide 28: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. MBTI Scales Slide 29: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. MBTI Scales Slide 30: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. MBTI – 16 Personality Types Slide 31: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. MBTI – 16 Personality Types Slide 32: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. MBTI – 16 Personality Types Slide 33: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. MBTI – 16 Personality Types Slide 34: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Self-management Understand strengths, weaknesses and preferences Predict, plan and avoid failures Self-optimize, excel and adapt Managing relationships Understand strengths, weaknesses and preferences Predict, plan and avoid conflict and failures Adapt and support Application Slide 35: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Try to accommodate type mismatch Remember, type mismatch is unavoidable Remember, 50% of the mismatch is caused by you ? Do not blame the person for something s/he hasn’t done ? Do not forget that the perceived weakness could be a real advantage in a different situation Application Slide 36: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Diversity Recognizing differences as natural Appreciating diversity Developing complementary work teams Expertise and task assignment Caution: other components of behaviour + development of others Synergy n1 + n2 = k x (n1 + n2)where k > 1 Application Slide 37: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. For those traits that are not dominant Avoid over exposure and over commitment Understand the consequences Cognition (thinking) Self-monitoring Positive attitude Learning and practice Changes in socio-technical environment Application: Other Considerations Slide 38: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Can you visualize someone who: would panic under stress, is a frequent worrier or would be intensely tense on slightest criticism is very open to change, new idea or suggestion would do all it takes to get the job done, on time, even if it involves taking on enormous stress Enjoys parties and gatherings, is talkative even with strangers, is adventurous and is action oriented Is very considerate and sympathetic, and works hard to ensure that others feelings are not hurt Exercise: Trait Recognition Slide 39: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Identify a trait that you perceive as a “weakness”, then think of a situation where it could be utilized as a strength Exercise: “Undesirable” Traits Slide 40: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Awareness and recognition is the first step towards change After self-evaluating your personality, observe other available templates and see how that may help you in adapting into a “new” person or adopting a different response set If no traits are absolutely bad, then recognize that differences, perspectives and conflicts are actually opportunities to broaden our thinking and prospects Afterthoughts Slide 41: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. While dealing with people, lose your spectacle and put on their glasses – try to understand first before being understood Final Word Thank you : © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Thank you Q & A : © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. Q & A Slide 44: © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. http://www.personalitypathways.com/MBTI_intro.html http://www.personalitypathways.com/MBTI_geyer-2.html http://www.jungtype.com/types/infp.htm http://changingminds.org/explanations/personality/personality.htm http://www.apa.org/releases/personality.html http://www.centacs.com/quickstart.htm What Color is Your Personality, by Carol Ritberger Further Reading

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