Published on December 14, 2016
1. Understanding Gender Dr. Paramita Majumdar Senior Consultant, Gender Budgeting Ministry of Women and Child Development Gender Resource Centre, Government of Bihar 6 August, 2016
2. Exercise: Roles and Responsibilities • Brainstorm: –What do men do in your society? –What do women do in your society? –Only list activities, not professions or traits
3. Exercise: Who Controls? Resources/Decision regarding Access Control Male Female Male Female Land Bank Account Car Jewellery Cash
4. Exercise: Whose Issue? Issue Men Women Both Controlling sales of guns Providing free pre-natal care Criminalizing gender-based violence Supporting development of small businesses
5. Understanding Gender • Gender refers to the socially constructed relationships between men and women. • These relationships change over time, space and circumstances. • Each institution has its own gender culture, that is relationships between women and men. • For instance, many Organisations interpret gender issues as issues only concerning women. This results in only women being sent to represent the institution at gender forums – resulting in the marginalisation of gender issues as women’s issues. Thus it is vital to make sure of male participation. Activity – What is the gender culture of your Department? Compare with any other institution. List the gender similarities and differences & Identify the reasons Activity – What is the gender culture of your Department? Compare with any other institution. List the gender similarities and differences & Identify the reasons
6. Understanding Sex The term 'sex' refers to biological differences between men and women. Thus, a person is a male or female regardless of their race, class, age or ethnicity. Activity - How do University perpetuate or transform the importance of sex in the pursuit of knowledge? For example, you can look at which academic fields are popularised for male as opposed to female students and vice-versa. Use your institution to illustrate your responses. Activity - How do University perpetuate or transform the importance of sex in the pursuit of knowledge? For example, you can look at which academic fields are popularised for male as opposed to female students and vice-versa. Use your institution to illustrate your responses.
7. Gender Stereotype • Stereotypes produce behaviour patterns that conform to expectations – traditional roles • Stereotypes stand in the way of our perceptions of reality and social change e.g defence • In education institutions, stereotypes result in certain fields being reserved for certain group. For example, scientific and technical fields for men. In workplaces, managers and directors are men, secretaries and personal assistants are women • Gender stereotypes inhibit women from realizing their full potential • Stereotypes have a strong influence in decision-making about distribution of valued resources such as funding for research for lecturers
8. Gender Sensitivity • Gender sensitivity is the translation of awareness into practices, which result in changes in the perceptions, plans and activities of institutions and organizations. • A gender aware institution is not necessarily a gender sensitive one because awareness might not necessarily generate any will or resolve to act on the basis of the gender awareness. In fact, it is possible for gender awareness to generate resistance, obstruction and other practices that make gendering an institution difficult. • In attempting to make institutions more gender sensitive, gender policies are usually developed in order to guide action and ensure that the stated objectives of the policy are realised. WHAT IS THE STATED GENDER POLICY OF YOUR DEPARTMENT?
9. Gender inequalities: e.g. BBBP - reduce program effectiveness and waste resources - Inhibit growth and development - limit opportunities and potential Costs of Gender Discrimination
10. What are gender commitments in the Indian context ? Public Expenditure Programmes Constitutional Provisions Legal Framework Policies
11. Constitutional Mandate Article 14 Equal Rights and Opportunities in Political Economic and Social Spheres Article 15 Prohibits discrimination on grounds of sex Article 15(3) Enables affirmative discrimination in favour of women Article 39 Equal means of livelihood and equal pay for equal work Article 42 Just and Humane conditions of work and maternity relief Article 51(A)(e) Fundamental Duty to renounce practices, derogatory to dignity of women 11
12. Key Legislations with a Gender perspective • The Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 • Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 • Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2010 • National Employment Guarantee Act 2006 • Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques Act, 1994 • The Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006 • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 • The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 • Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 • Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 (amended Bill 2016 approved by Rajya Sabha) December 14, 2016 12
13. Institutional Mechanism – Creating Spaces for Gender Equality December 14, 2016 13 State District Block Village • District Collector • Development Officer/ PO • Anganwadi Worker National State • State Commission for Women
14. Gender Mainstreaming • Concept introduced in the UN Third World Conference on Women in Nairobi, 1985. Further developed in the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing,1995 • Gender mainstreaming is a systematic inclusion of both women’s and men’s concerns, experiences and needs. • It is a process of consistently incorporating sensitivity to gender differences in governance, decision-making, policy, needs analysis, institutional offices and mechanisms, planning, budgeting, implementation, monitoring and evaluation in institutions so as to create an organisation that is gender equitable • Mainstreaming gender necessitates that gender perspectives become part of the normal perspective of an organization without its having to resort to special vehicles, units or offices that isolate and marginalize these issues.
15. How to mainstream gender? • Effective gender mainstreaming should be context-and content-oriented. This means a much more qualitative analysis over and beyond the quantitative presentation. • Pre-requisites for context and content analysis - Profiling generally provides a quantitative picture of the status of men and women in the employment circle at university. Gender analysis is an essential first step of collecting and analysing sex- disaggregated information in order to understand gender differences and how these differences may have an effect on policies' effectiveness. Gender audit is an evaluation process aimed at figuring out whether set policies or interventions are doing that which they are meant to be doing. It is an Institution’s self-assessment, monitoring and evaluation of interventions with the broad aim diagnosis and transformation.
16. • Gender-sensitive indicators compare the situation of one sex with the other. The emphasis is on the gap between women and men, rather than on the actual level for one or the other • Women-specific indicators record the absolute position of women at particular points in time Indicators