Published on March 20, 2014
UNC Respiratory ProtectionUNC Respiratory Protection Program for Energy ServicesProgram for Energy Services CoGeneration FacilityCoGeneration Facility Mechanical Maintenance Work UnitsMechanical Maintenance Work Units Presented byPresented by UNC-CH Environment, Health &UNC-CH Environment, Health & SafetySafety
Class ObjectivesClass Objectives • Introduction to the Respiratory Protection ProgramIntroduction to the Respiratory Protection Program • Review of General Work Operations -Respirator UseReview of General Work Operations -Respirator Use • Review of Potential Health Hazards PresentReview of Potential Health Hazards Present • Review of Respirator Types UsedReview of Respirator Types Used • Review Respirator Manufacturer Operating & MaintenanceReview Respirator Manufacturer Operating & Maintenance InstructionsInstructions • Review Respirator Fit-Testing ProceduresReview Respirator Fit-Testing Procedures • Complete Post-TestComplete Post-Test
IntroductionIntroduction The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH)The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) Respiratory Protection Program describes written policy andRespiratory Protection Program describes written policy and procedures for the use of respirators to protect the health ofprocedures for the use of respirators to protect the health of employees in accordance with the Occupational Safety andemployees in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) Respiratory ProtectionHealth Administration’s (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard, 29 CFR 1910.134 (General Industry RespiratorStandard, 29 CFR 1910.134 (General Industry Respirator Standard).Standard).
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements An evaluation was performed for the use of respirators at the CoGeneration (CoGen) Facility. A review of the respiratory protection program was performed with CoGen site supervisors/superintendents at later dates. The evaluation consisted of conducting a site visit to tour plant areas and to interview work unit supervisors and employees in areas where respirators are used. Our goal was to determine if the type of respiratory protection currently used is sufficient. Findings were shared with the Workplace Safety Manager and plant superintendents. Based on the evaluation findings, respirators are stored and used at the CoGeneration facility for both general operations/maintenance work requirements and for emergency response use during emergency response situations. This training module covers general operations/maintenance work requirements for respirator use, not emergency response use. Emergency Response use will be covered in a separate training module.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Findings: Only specific employees at the facility use and require respirators for general operations and maintenance work requirements. Not all employees at CoGen need to be enrolled in the UNC-CH Respiratory Protection Program based on survey results. Primarily Maintenance Mechanics (Boiler Mechanics) and Fuel Handlers (Coal & Ash Mechanics) have been issued and use respirators and are enrolled in the UNC-CH Respiratory Protection Program (RPP).
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Respirators are properly stored inside a designated storage locker at the CoGen Plant. The respirators appeared to be in good material condition and are properly maintained.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Maintenance Mechanics (Bolier Mechanics) are issued North full face & half-face air purifying respirators (APRs) equipped with P100 filters and combination chemical cartridges for infrequent plant boiler cleaning and inspection operations. 3M 8511 N95 filtering facepiece respirators are also worn during part of this process. The primary inhalation hazard is exposure to coal dust during the use of the plants Milling Machine and (Fly Ash) particulate matter from the coal burning process during the cleaning and inspection process of the boiler plant components. The respirators currently used by the Boiler Mechanics are acceptable and protective against coal dust and fly ash. A half-face N95 filtering facepiece respirator is the recommended respirator for up to 10 times (x) the applicable Occupational Exposure Limit (OELs) for coal dust. The OELs are the OSHA permissible exposure limit (PEL) and the ACGIH Threshold Limit Value (TLV). The following slide indicates a summary of work processes, potential health hazards, recommended respirators, filters and cartridges.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Boiler Mechanic Maintenance Respirator Recommendations Work TaskWork Task Potential HazardPotential Hazard MinimumMinimum RespiratorRespirator RecommendedRecommended Filters/ChemicalFilters/Chemical CartridgesCartridges RequiredRequired Inspecting & Cleaning out the interior of the Plant Mills Coal dust Disposable filtering facepiece (e.g. N95) Either N, R, P, 95, 99, or P100 filters When entering in the various areas of the plant boilers to perform inspections, cleaning, and maintenance work Fly Ash Full face air purifying respirators P100 filters Replacing the baghouse filters; and opening the hoppers to inspect the filters Fly Ash Disposable filtering facepiece (e.g. N95) Either N, R, P, 95, 99, or P100 filters During “heavy” aerosol paint operations and when cleaning plant equipment Organic vapors *(caustic and acid when cleaning caustic and acid tanks) Full face air purifying respirators Combination chemical cartridges; *(acid gas when cleaning acid tanks)
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Coal dust health hazard information (from OSHA Health Guidelines Literature): Good industrial hygiene practices requires that engineering controls be used where feasible to reduce workplace concentrations of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. However, some situations may require the use of respirators to control exposures in accordance with OSHA guidelines. Conditions for respirator use (in accordance with OSHA health guidelines) to control exposures to coal dust include: Respirators must be worn if the ambient concentration of coal dust exceeds the prescribed exposure limits. Respirators may be used: 1) Before engineering controls have been installed 2) During work operations such as maintenance or repair activities that involve unknown exposures 3) During operations that require entry into tanks or closed vessels 4) During emergencies
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Routes of exposure for coal dust exposure can occur through inhalation, ingestion, and eye contact. The signs and symptoms of exposure to coal dust include: Acute exposure: symptoms of inhalation of excessive amounts of coal dust include coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Chronic exposure: Chronic exposure to coal dust may result in symptoms of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Coal dust causes coal workers’ Pneumoconiosis (CWP). Complicated CWP is characterized by lesions consisting of a mass of rubbery well defined black tissue that is often adherent to the chest wall. This is associated with decrements in ventilatory capacity, low diffusing capacity, abnormalities of gas exchange, low arterial oxygen tension, pulmonary hypertension, and premature death.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Milling Machine Used to Crush Coal: Mechanics use N95 disposable respirators when inspecting/cleaning out the interior of the Plant Mills.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Fly-Ash Health Hazard Information: Fly ash (one of several coal combustion products) is the finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in electric generating Plants. Fly ash consists of inorganic, incombustible matter present in the coal that has been fused during combustion into a glassy, amorphous structure. Fly ash material solidifies while suspended in the exhaust gases and is collected by electrostatic precipitators or filter bags. Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in size from 0.5um (micrometers) to 100 um. Particles mostly consist of silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, and iron oxide. Fly ash may also contain trace concentrations of heavy metals known to be hazardous to health in sufficient amounts.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Excessive exposure to Fly ash dust can cause short term acute health effects: Eye Contact: Can cause abrasive irritation. Prolonged exposure can lead to ulceration of the eye (this is why Full face APRs are used!); Skin Contact: Can cause dermatitis in susceptible individuals (primarily due to high PH, alkalinity). Inhalation: Fly ash itself is classified as non-toxic. Health effects are dependent on duration of exposure and the exposure concentration of the chemical constituents present in Fly Ash (e.g. crystalline silica content and heavy metals content which both can cause ill health effects, based on the concentrations of these contaminants).
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Full face Air Purifying Respirators (APRs) are also used when entering the various areas of the boiler for protection against Fly-Ash from the coal burning process.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Full face Air Purifying Respirators (APRs) equipped with P100 filters are also used when entering the various areas of the boiler for protection against Fly-Ash from the coal burning process.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Full face Air Purifying Respirators (APRs) equipped with P100 filters are also used when entering the various areas of the boiler for protection against Fly-Ash. Cyclone
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements N95 filtering facepiece disposable respirators are used when replacing the baghouse filters or when opening the hoppers to inspect the filters. (Two Bag houses) (6-7 hoppers/per baghouse)
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Employees should ensure the respirator is properly donned and a user seal check is performed prior to entering the contaminated work environment. Employees who handle or potentially come into contact with coal dust or Fly Ash should follow proper personal hygiene procedures including thoroughly washing hands, forearms, and face with soap and water before eating, using tobacco products, using toilet facilities, or taking medicine. If coal dust or fly ash contacts the skin, employees should wash the affected areas with soap and water.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Maintenance Mechanics also use various aerosol chemical lubricants, cleaners, and aerosol can paints on occasion during maintenance and repair work. Respirators are sometimes worn during “heavy” aerosol can spray painting operations after refurbishing plant equipment and when cleaning plant equipment (e.g. process tanks, caustic and acid tanks). The actual frequency and duration of these operations is variable. The primary potential hazard is exposure to organic vapors from the chemical ingredients and skin and eye exposure to caustic and acid chemicals. The respirator and chemical cartridges used (with combination chemical cartridges) is protective against organic vapors found in aerosol can spray paints, lubricants, and cleaners, and acid gasses.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements When possible apply aerosol cans of paints, lubricants, cleaners, etc, in well-ventilated areas and remain upwind when possible. Do not apply chemical products in poorly ventilated areas without the use of supplemental ventilation or respiratory protective equipment. Ensure all other required personal protective equipment is worn (e.g. chemical protective gloves such as disposable nitrile gloves, eye protection such as safety glasses or chemical goggles). Contact the EHS Industrial Hygiene Section at 3-2735/3-7313 during “heavy” spray operations and caustic and acid tank cleaning operations so these processes can be further evaluated.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Findings: Coal and Ash Mechanics also use respirators when unloading coal and limestone from railcars inside the coal unloading facility.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements 3M 8511 N95 filtering facepiece respirators are used by Coal and Ash Mechanics when unloading coal from railcars. Additional full face and half face tight-fitting elastomeric respirators are maintained for use by some of the mechanics. Respirators are also used when sweeping and cleaning the railcar unloading area weekly as needed. However, contractors perform “heavy” cleaning operations. Respirators are available and properly stored in a sanitary location at the coal and ash control room.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Engineering Controls Used to Minimize Dust Exposure: The railcar unloading area is equipped with a built in water sprinkler system to suppress dust when generated from the unloading process when needed. There is a dust suppression activation panel both in the railcar unloading area and in the Coal and Ash Control Room (as pictured on the first page of this survey). Built in dust collection devices (additional engineering controls) are used in different areas of the coal transfer system.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Coal and Ash Mechanics have not recently unloaded limestone, because it is currently being trucked in and delivered via an enclosed process. Respirators are not generally worn during the coal unloading or transfer process, but they are available when needed. The limestone unloading process (when using railcar) consists of positioning the loaded railcar in the facility, using a mechanical vibrator to shake material from the railcar. The material then settles into a hopper underneath and the material is then piped to the boiler plant. Employees reportedly do not perform any physical removal or disturbance of the limestone, they remain in the control room during the unloading process and only have to be positioned in the railcar unloading process for short periods of time as needed during this process. However, due to the dust levels, employees use respirators (3M 8511 N95 filtering facepiece respirators) when entering the railcar unloading area even for short periods of time.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Information from the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) about Limestone
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Information from NIOSH about Limestone (Pure Calcium Carbonate): Used to neutralize acidic coal air emissions. Physical description: Odorless, white to tan powder. Incompatible & reactive with acids, ammonium salts, fluorine, magnesium Routes of exposure: Includes inhalation, ingestion, and/or eye contact Signs and symptoms of acute exposure include: Irritation to the eyes, skin, respiratory system, and cough. Target Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system (However, it is claimed that pure calcium carbonate does not cause adverse health effects including pneumoconiosis).
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Information from NIOSH about Calcium Oxide (CaO): Sometimes CaO is a component of Limestone that is a mixture (0 - 43%) Physical description: White or gray, odorless lumps or granular powder. Incompatible with water (reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide). Routes of exposure: Includes inhalation, ingestion, and/or eye contact It is more hazardous compared to pure limestone Signs and symptoms of exposure include: Irritation to the eyes, skin, upper respiratory tract, ulcer, perforation of the nasal septum, pneumonitis, and dermatitis. Target Organs: Eyes, skin, respiratory system
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Findings: The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends the use of any particulate respirator (N,R,P series) equipped for up to 10 times the OEL for calcium oxide. The type of respirator used by Coal and Ash Mechanics (3M 8511 N95 filtering facepiece) is adequate if properly worn and properly fitted.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Continue to use a half-face N95 filtering facepiece respirator with safety glasses or chemical goggles when entering the railcar unloading area during the unloading of limestone from railcars. A half face or full face air-purifying respirator with N, R, or P100 filters may also be worn. Ensure the respirator is properly donned and a user seal check is performed prior to entering the area where limestone dust is being generated. Employees should prevent skin and eye contact and wash affected skin areas if exposed. If eye exposure occurs, the eyes should be irrigated immediately by using an emergency eyewash or quick drench. Recommend that this process (rail car unloading process of limestone or aragonite) be monitored by our IH Department when the process resumes in the near future.
Respirator Use: Maintenance Work Requirements Coal and Ash Mechanic Maintenance Requirements Work TaskWork Task Potential HazardPotential Hazard MinimumMinimum RespiratorRespirator RecommendedRecommended Filters/ChemicalFilters/Chemical CartridgesCartridges RequiredRequired Unloading limestone from railcars* *When entering the railcar unloading area during unloading or physical removal of product Limestone* (calcium carbonate & potentially calcium oxide) *Refer to the product MSDS for actual constituents present & percentage Disposable filtering facepiece (e.g. N95) *A half or full face air purifying respirator may also be used instead of a disposable respirator Either N, R, P, 95, 99, or P100 filters Performing maintenance operations on the coal transfer system or anytime visible high levels of coal dust are generated (Need to change to include new changes) Coal dust Disposable filtering facepiece (e.g. N95) *A half or full face air purifying respirator may also be used instead of a disposable respirator Either N, R, P, 95, 99, or P100 filters
Review of North 7600 Full Face Air Purifying Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instruction Manual & 3M 8511/8211 Particulate N95 Instruction Manual Review of Respirator Types Used
Review of Respirator Types Used North 7600 Series Full Face Air Purifying Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Read and Understand Operating and Maintenance Instructions (handout provided) General Warnings: This respirator is not to be used in Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) atmospheres. An IDLH atmosphere is any atmosphere which has a concentration of any toxic, corrosive, or asphyxiant substance that poses an immediate threat to life, which would cause irreversible debilitating effects on health, or which would interfere with the ability to escape from a dangerous atmosphere. IDLH is also an atmospheres where the concentration of the contaminant exceeds the respirator’s Maximum Use Concentration. This is where the concentration of the contaminant exceeds: 100 times the contaminant’s permissible exposure limit (the maximum permissible 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) concentration) established by applicable OSHA or other government regulations, or by NIOSH or ACGIH publications.
Review of Respirator Types Used North 7600 Series Full Face Air Purifying Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Read and Understand Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions (handout provided) General Warnings: Do not use any air purifying respirator when conditions prevent a good facepiece-to-face seal. Examples of such conditions are: The growth of beards, bangs, or sideburns which will pass between the facepiece sealing area and the face; The use of head or face coverings which contain materials which will pass between the facepiece sealing area and the face (e.g. head bandannas).
Review of Respirator Types Used North 7600 Series Full Face Air Purifying Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Read and Understand Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions (handout provided) Immediately leave the contaminated area if: 1) Breathing becomes difficult 2) Dizziness or other distress occurs 3) You smell, taste or sense irritation from the contaminants 4) The air purifying element is equipped with an End-of-Service-Life Indicator which has changed color to indicate expiration, or 5) The respirator becomes damaged.
Review of Respirator Types Used North 7600 Series Full Face Air Purifying Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Inspections: You are required to perform an inspection of the respirator prior to use. Inspect all components of the respirator prior to use (e.g. straps, facepiece). Periodic Seal Checks: Each time that the respirator is put on, before entering an area containing hazardous atmospheres, and periodically while wearing the respirator in the contaminated area, the respirator wearer should check the effectiveness of the seal of the facepiece to the wearer’s face by carrying out a negative and positive pressure seal check (turn to page 8 of instruction manual). Positive Pressure Check Negative Pressure Check
Review of Respirator Types Used North 7600 Series Full Face Air Purifying Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Review Page 6, pre-use instructions (facepiece, filters, assembling the respirator, corrective lenses) Review Page 7-8, Putting on the respirator Adjust the head straps Spreading the head strap Placing the facepiece on your head Tightening the lower head straps Tightening the upper head straps Tightening the forehead head strap
Review of Respirator Types Used North 7600 Series Full Face Air Purifying Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Review Page 10, Chemical cartridge change out schedule Particulate filters Taking off the respirator Filter and cartridge replacement Inspection Storage Review Page 11 Cleaning and Sanitizing
Review of Respirator Types Used North 7600 Series Full Face Air Purifying Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Now, Practice the donning of the respirator and perform both a positive and negative user seal check. You should feel comfortable with donning your respirator without assistance. Your respirator fit-test score will depend on your ability to properly don the respirator and to obtain an appropriate fit with the respirator.
Review of Respirator Types Used 3M 8511 Particulate N95 Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Read and Understand Operating and Maintenance Instructions (handout provided) The filtering facepiece respirator that you use has a NIOSH approval Rating of N95: This means the respirator has been tested by NIOSH to provide at least 95% filtration efficiency against solid (particulate) and liquid aerosols that do not contain oil. Examples of ok uses include: particles generated from sweeping, sawing, bagging, or processing minerals, coal, iron, ore, wood, pollen, liquid, or non-oil based particles from sprays that do not also emit oil aerosols or vapors. This respirator may not be used for protection against gasses and vapors, oil aerosols, toxic metals (e.g. cadmium, lead), or ok particles in concentrations that exceed 10 times their OSHA standard. Not to be used in IDLH atmospheres (toxic and oxygen deficient atmospheres).
Review of Respirator Types Used 3M 8511 Particulate N95 Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Fitting Instructions: The following procedure must be followed each time the respirator is worn (procedure is from the 3M 8511 instruction manual handout): 1) Cup the respirator in your hand, with the nospiece at your fingertips, allowing the headbands to hang freely below your hand. 2) Position the respirator under your chin with the nosepiece up. Pull the top strap over your head resting it high at the top back of your head. Pull the bottom strap over hour head and position it around the neck below the ears.
Review of Respirator Types Used 3M 8511 Particulate N95 Respirator Operating and Maintenance Instructions Fitting Instructions: The following procedure must be followed each time the respirator is worn (procedure is from the 3M 8511 instruction manual handout): 3) Place your fingertips from both hands at the top of the metal nosepiece. Using two hands, mold the nose area to the shape of your nose by pushing inward while moving your fingertips down both sides of the nosepiece. 4) Perform a User Seal Check prior to each wearing. To check the respirator-to-face seal, place both hands completely over the respirator and inhale sharply. Be careful not to disturb the position of the respirator. A negative pressure should be felt inside the respirator. If air leaks around the nose, readjust the nosepiece as described in step 3.
Respirator Fit-Testing Procedures Employees at UNC-CH are required to receive a quantitative fit test with the respirator that they will be using. The fit-testing will occur prior to initial use of the respirator, or whenever a different respirator facepiece (size, style, model, or make) is used, and at least annually thereafter. An additional fit-test is conducted annually thereafter and whenever the employee, supervisor, the Environment, Health, and Safety, or the UEOHC makes visual observations of changes in the employee’s physical condition that could affect respirator fit. Such conditions include, but are not limited to, facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or any obvious change in body weight. The employee may select a different respirator if he/she does not think the respirator fit is acceptable, even after passing the test.
Respirator Fit-Testing Procedures Quantitative fit testing is an assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator. Testing is accomplished by modifying the face piece to allow sampling inside the face piece in the breathing zone of the user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement is accomplished by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of sampling air from inside the face piece.
Respirator Fit-Testing Procedures A quantitative fit-test determines a fit-factor for the employee based on the type of the respirator used. A fit-factor is a quantitative estimate of the fit of a particular respirator to a specific individual, and estimates the ratio: Fit Factor = Concentration of particles in the ambient air Concentration of particles inside the respirator when worn To pass the fit-test, you need to obtain a fit-factor of at least 1,000. After the test, the fit-test report will indicate your overall fit-factor. This sums up this training module, now you will need to take the Post Test!!
1120 Estes Drive Ext.1120 Estes Drive Ext. Campus Box 1650Campus Box 1650 Chapel Hill, NC, 27599Chapel Hill, NC, 27599 Any questions regarding UNC-CH Respiratory Protection Program, please call: Workplace Safety @ 962- 5507
References 1) U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration Guidelines for Coal Dust: http://www.osha.gov 2) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg 3) Material Safety Data Sheet for Limestone, Martin Marietta Materials; 2710 Wycliff Road, Raleigh, NC 27607 4) Materials Safety Data Sheet for Coal Fly Ash, Pro-Ash; Baltimore Gas and Electric STI Processed Ash, LLC.
Canvas Prints at Affordable Prices make you smile.Visit http://www.shopcanvasprint...
30 Días en Bici en Gijón organiza un recorrido por los comercios históricos de la ...
Con el fin de conocer mejor el rol que juega internet en el proceso de compra en E...
With three established projects across the country and seven more in the pipeline,...
Retailing is not a rocket science, neither it's walk-in-the-park. In this presenta...
... aspects of the UNC-CH Respiratory Protection Program in ... Safety Training; Radiation Safety for UNC School of ... Environment, Health & Safety
UNC Respiratory Protection Program Presented by UNC-CH Environment, Health & Safety ... Health and Safety Respiratory Protection Training OSHA 29 ...
... UNC Environment, Health, and Safety ... training module, Respiratory Protection, was created to be a comprehensive review of the UNC-CH Respiratory ...
Welcome to the University of North Carolina at Charlotte's Office of Environmental Health and Safety ... Overview and Training ... UNC Charlotte | All ...
UNC Respiratory Protection ... Safety Department Emergency Responders Presented by UNC-CH Environment, Health & Safety ... UNC Respiratory ...
... Education & Training; ... Health & Safety - UNC Respiratory Protection ... Units Presented by UNC-CH Environment, Health & Safety - UNC Respiratory ...
type of respiratory protection to implement ... Department of Environment, Health and Safety. ... the Distribution of Masks and Respirators during ...
Environmental Sciences and Engineering . ... Overcoming environmental health challenges in developing ... UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health ...