Published on July 7, 2009
Analysis and Specification of Information Systems Spring 2007 Session 9: Activity Diagrams Eran Toch firstname.lastname@example.org Specification and Analysis of Information Systems Spring 2005 1
Outline • Introduction • Basics – Activities, Tokens, objects, signals • Structures – Decomposition 2
Modeling Process Phase Actions Outcome Business Initiation Raising a business need documents Interviewing stakeholders, exploring the Organized Requirements system environment documentation Analyze the engineering aspect of the Formal Specification system, building system concepts specification Define architecture, components, data Formal Design types, algorithms Specification Program, build, unit-testing, integrate, Testable Implementation documentation system Testing & Integrate all components, verification, Testing results, Integration validation, installation, guidance Working sys System Maintenance Bug fixes, modifications, adaptation versions Intro | Basics | Structures 3
Behavior Modeling Sequence Diagrams State Diagrams Activity Diagrams Checkout Order Add to cart Manager message: create In process Order Check supplied availability message: change [problem] [okay] status Inventory Notify Supply User Order Intro | Basics | Structures 4
Strengths • Best for modeling complex behavior – Which does not rely on interactions. – Has parallel behavior. • Examples: – Business workflow (authorizing a loan). – User behavior (login/logout). – Algorithms. Intro | Basics | Structures 5
Outline • Introduction • Basics – Activities, Tokens, objects, signals • Structures – Decomposition 6
Customer Service Modeling Intro | Basics | Structures 7
Activity Diagram for Customer Service Start Action Fork decision merge Join Final Node Intro | Basics | Structures 8
Tokens • The conceptual model of activity diagrams is based on tokens. Intro | Basics | Structures 9
Tokens The initial node creates a single token An action requires a token to execute, and produce a token when it ends Each fork node generates tokens, according to the number of paths. Each join “collects” all the incoming tokens, producing a token afterwards. Intro | Basics | Structures 10
Object Flows • Objects describe the interface between actions Object Receive Call Call Data Log Call Flow Call data Pins Receive Call Log Call Call data Call data Initiate Call Intro | Basics | Structures 11
Pins • Pins declare the interface between two actions. Output Pin Input Pin Parameter Transformation Intro | Basics | Structures 12
Objects with States • Object nodes allow state change modeling: Call Data Find Customer Call Data Receive Call [created] Type [classified] Intro | Basics | Structures 13
Data Store • A datastore is a stereotype for an object which stores objects persistently. All entering tokens are copied so that tokens never leave the data store If a token already present in the data store, it replaces the old one Intro | Basics | Structures 14
Catching Signals Time Signal Event Signal Flows when the time expression Flows when an Sends an event is true event occurs when a flow enters Intro | Basics | Structures 15
Example: Volvo Blind Spot Info System (BLIS) Intro | Basics | Structures 16
BLIS Camera Behavior Safety Controller Behavior Side Object Check Objects Detected in Camera Is object [no] Detected? Detection data [yes] Alarm Deciding Side Object Detected Side? [left] [right] Left Alarm Right Alarm Intro | Basics | Structures 17
Outline • Introduction • Basics – Activities, Tokens, objects, signals • Structures – Decomposition 18
Final Nodes the activity is terminated when the activity is terminated when the first token arrives all tokens in the graph are destroyed Intro | Basics | Structures 19
Decomposition • An action can be decomposed into an subactivity. • The invoked activity graph can be used by many subactivity states. Input Parameter Final Action Intro | Basics | Structures 20
Partitions • Partitions (swimlanes) can group actions by: – class, business unit, person etc… • Can be multidimensional (not always possible). Management Evaluate Revise Impact Plan [ priority = 1] Support Register Release Bug Fix Engineering Fix Test Bug Fix Intro | Basics | Structures 21
Pre / Post Conditions for Decompositions for Actions Intro | Basics | Structures 22
Exceptions • Exception represent errors and unexpected situations Exception Edge interruptible Exception region Handler What happens to the tokens? Intro | Basics | Structures 23
Exception – cont’d Multiple events Actions can Multiple event throw events too handlers Exception info can be modeled Intro | Basics | Structures 24
Summary Activity Diagrams: – Represent workflows – Good for designing activities Basic Elements – Activities – Objects – Signals Structures – Tokens – Decomposition – Interfaces 25
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