UMB2 27 07 The Primates

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Information about UMB2 27 07 The Primates

Published on January 15, 2008

Author: Carla


The Primates:  The Primates Chapter 6, Jurmain Chapter 9,10 &12, Angeloni Focus Questions: :  Focus Questions: What are the major characteristics of primates? Why are humans considered primates? Why is it important to study nonhuman primates? Primates as Mammals:  Primates as Mammals The order Primates is a subgroup of the class Mammalia. Mammals are divided into three groups: marsupials, egg-laying mammals and placental mammals. Primates are placental mammals. Ancestral Traits of Primates:  Ancestral Traits of Primates Primates are generalized mammals and have retained many ancestral mammalian traits, such as: body hair A relatively long gestation period and live births mammary glands heterodont dentition homeothermy increased brain size, and capacity to learn Derived Traits of Primates:  Derived Traits of Primates A few traits that set primates apart from other mammals are: A tendency toward erect posture. A flexible, generalized limb structure. Lack of dietary specialization and generalized dentition. Color vision (in diurnal species) Derived Traits of Primates:  Derived Traits of Primates Decreased reliance on sense of smell Expansion and increased complexity of the brain. Delayed maturation and extension of lifespan. Greater dependence on learned behaviors. Tendency to live in social groups. Primate Adaptations:  Primate Adaptations Locomotor Traits prehensile hands and feet Retention of 5 digits on hands and feet opposable thumb and big toe nails instead of claws on digits Tactile pads at end of digits erect sitting position Generalized limb structure Primate Adaptations:  Primate Adaptations Sensory Traits stereoscopic vision color vision forward placed eyes reliance on vision reduction of snout and olfaction large brain relative to body size Primate Adaptations:  Primate Adaptations Dental & Dietary Traits Tooth formula reduction primitive placental mammal prosimians and NWMs OWMs & apes (Note, that it is the anterior 2 premolars that anthropoids have lost). Omnivorous– generalized dentition What is the human dental formula? Primate Adaptations:  Primate Adaptations Social-Reproductive Traits Social groups Adult males are a permanent fixture in the groups grooming Habitat Arboreal/Tropical diurnal Primate Adaptations:  Primate Adaptations Growth and Development The primates are characterized by the prolongation of gestation, infant dependency & juvenile period & maturation Increased parental care = wide IBI’s decreased number of offspring per birth Prolonged life span Evolutionary Explanations:  Evolutionary Explanations Primate adaptations have been explained by three hypotheses: The arboreal hypothesis Visual predation hypothesis Rise of the angiosperms hypothesis Primate Distribution:  Primate Distribution Forested Habitats :  Forested Habitats Savannah Habitats:  Savannah Habitats City Life:  City Life City Life:  City Life Primates: Habitat Use :  Primates: Habitat Use Primates: Habitat Use:  Primates: Habitat Use Food Resources :  Food Resources Food Resources :  Food Resources Locomotion:  Locomotion Arboreal Quadrupeds:  Arboreal Quadrupeds Arboreal Quadrupeds:  Arboreal Quadrupeds Arboreal Quadrupeds:  Arboreal Quadrupeds Terrestrial Quadrupeds:  Terrestrial Quadrupeds Terrestrial Quadrupeds:  Terrestrial Quadrupeds Terrestrial Quadrupeds:  Terrestrial Quadrupeds Paniscus vs. Troglodytes :  Paniscus vs. Troglodytes Brachiation:  Brachiation Brachiation:  Brachiation Brachiation:  Brachiation Semi-Brachiators :  Semi-Brachiators Vertical Clinging & Leaping :  Vertical Clinging & Leaping Vertical Clinging & Leaping:  Vertical Clinging & Leaping Leaping:  Leaping Leaping:  Leaping The Living Primates :  The Living Primates The primate order is divided into 2 suborders, which is further divided into 2 infraorders. Primate Classification:  Primate Classification Primate Family Tree:  Primate Family Tree The Prosimians:  The Prosimians Lemurs, Lorises & Tarsiers The Lemuriformes:  The Lemuriformes Most lemuriformes are nocturnal, with eyes adapted for night vision. Their sense of smell is well-developed. Lemurs are restricted to the island of Madagascar. Lorises are found in Asia & Africa. The Lemurs :  The Lemurs Large lemurs are diurnal and eat leaves, fruit, bark & shoots. Several species live in large social units. Others live in monogamous family units. The Tarsiiformes :  The Tarsiiformes Tarsiers are very small, insectivorous primates. Their name is derived from their elongated tarsal (ankle) bones, which enable them to leap long distances. Tarsiers are strictly nocturnal, with very large eyes. Tarsiers are restricted to the islands of S.E. Asia. Social unit = mated pair & offspring Tarsiers :  Tarsiers The Anthropoids:  The Anthropoids New World Monkeys, Old World Monkeys, Apes & Humans New World Monkeys :  New World Monkeys New World monkeys (Platyrrhines) tend to be smaller than those of the Old World. They are strictly arboreal and some have a prehensile tail. New World monkeys are divided into two groups: the Callatrichidae (marmosets and tamarins) the Cebidae (remaining NW Monkeys) Marmosets & Tamarins:  Marmosets & Tamarins Retain claws and give birth to twins. The most primitive monkeys. Old World Monkeys:  Old World Monkeys The most widely distributed NHP Generally less arboreal than NW monkeys Monogamy is rare; sexual dimorphism common. Divided into two families: The cercopithecines (omnivorous, cheek- pouched monkeys) The Colobines (leaf-eating) Colobus Monkey (Colobinae):  Colobus Monkey (Colobinae) Baboons (Cercopithecinae):  Baboons (Cercopithecinae) The Hominoids:  The Hominoids Apes & Humans Hominoids :  Hominoids Relative to monkeys, larger body size No tail More complex brains & behaviors Longer period of infant dependency Superfamily: Hominoidea Includes::  Superfamily: Hominoidea Includes: The family Hylobatidae (gibbons and siamangs) The family Pongidae (orangutans, gorillas, bonobos, chimpanzees). The family Hominidae (humans) Endangered Primates:  Endangered Primates How does Human impact on the Earth’s ecosystem affect extinction processes? Primates Compete for Valuable Human Resources :  Primates Compete for Valuable Human Resources Primate Habitat Loss:  Primate Habitat Loss Logging is a constant pressure on primate habitat. Habitat Destruction Due to Logging :  Habitat Destruction Due to Logging The Bushmeat Trade:  The Bushmeat Trade Increasing human population growth Demand for tropical hardwoods by wealthy nations Demand for food resources by local pop. Changing ideas of food “delicacies” by wealthy nations Lack of strict enforcement of conservation laws Great Apes on the Brink:  Great Apes on the Brink Great apes (Gorillas, Chimpanzees and Orangutans) could be exterminated from parts of Indonesia, West and Central Africa by 2010. By 2030, could be completely extinct from the wild. Conservation:  Conservation How might we help slow the bushmeat trade? How can the needs of people be addressed while encouraging them not to kill or sell nonhuman primates? Primate Conservation:  Primate Conservation Mountain Gorillas Endangered :  Mountain Gorillas Endangered The gorilla range includes parts of the countries of Rwanda, Uganda and Zaire in Central Africa located high in the Virunga Mountains. Mountain Gorillas:  Mountain Gorillas Ecotourism: Hope for the Mountain Gorillas:  Ecotourism: Hope for the Mountain Gorillas Habituation: Pros & Cons:  Habituation: Pros & Cons Black Howler Monkey:  Black Howler Monkey Howler Conservation:  Howler Conservation

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