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Ulad using crop residues

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Information about Ulad using crop residues
Business-Finance

Published on April 9, 2008

Author: Arkwright26

Source: authorstream.com

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Using Crop Residues Efficiently in Crop/Grazing Areas in a Fossil Fuel Hungry World:  Using Crop Residues Efficiently in Crop/Grazing Areas in a Fossil Fuel Hungry World By Ron A Leng, Emeritus Professor, UNE. Sponsored by YLAD Living Soils. Why use crop residues such as straw-1?:  Why use crop residues such as straw-1? 1) Considerable amounts are wasted [ burned] a] No contribution to SOIL C and N fixation b] Increases greenhouse gas emissions per unit of meat/wool production c] Eventually legislation will stop the burning of crop stubbles 2) Straw with technology inputs can support a] Maintenance in mature animals in dry period or early pregnancy [rumen nutrients] b] Weight gain in weaners or breeding stock [RN plus bypass protein] c] Considerable weight gain in fattening stock [with treatment, processing and supplementation] d) And faecal materials can be returned to the soil as fertilizer 3) Straw generally has few toxic components and is a useful supplement to: a] dilute plant and fungal toxins – prevent endophyte toxicity, phalaris staggers etc b] reduce incidence of bloat on legume pastures c] capture nitrogen surplus to rumen needs that would be otherwise passed in urine d] dilute high nutrient content pasture materials Why use crop residues such as straw-2?:  Why use crop residues such as straw-2? 4) Expensive oil will increase the cost of crop production and drought and dry season feeding with grain, lupins and hays will be prohibitively expensive 5) Use of byproducts such as straw, oat hulls corn stover and cobs to feed ruminants can offset some of the increased costs of fertilizers, tillage, transport and marketing 6) Annually -35 million tonnes of straw produced in Australia could feed 7 million cattle or 70 million sheep Essential approach to future agriculture as fuel prices rise:  Essential approach to future agriculture as fuel prices rise Minimise energy use in agriculture Minimal tillage Maximise recycling and microbiological sources of nutrients Optimize water use for crop production Minimize soil erosion and soil mineral runoff. Optimize the use of available resources for animal use [pastures, agro-industrial byproducts and crop residues] Diversify production for local consumption Production Forecast :  Production Forecast Discovery Trend:  Discovery Trend Confirmed by Exxon-Mobil Summary of World Oil Supplies 1:  Summary of World Oil Supplies 1 Oil use in the world has increased to around 80 million barrels/day or 1 billion barrels are used every 12 days All the major oil fields were discovered long ago and many have exceeded Peak Production and are in decline. Spare capacity is about 2 million barrels per day The discovery of large oil fields [that is>0.5 billion barrels or 60 days of world requirement ] has dwindle to zero, small finds are occurring but not at a sufficient rate and global oil production capacity is contracting by over 1 million barrels each day every year. Summary of World Oil Supplies 2:  Summary of World Oil Supplies 2 Demand for oil ,particularly by China, India, Pakistan and some Latin American countries is increasing at unprecedented rates. Each year global demand is expected to increase by 1 million barrels per day Result: Oil will be a scarce and expensive resource in years to come 2007-2008 is most likely time for massive increase in oil prices:  2007-2008 is most likely time for massive increase in oil prices Production will drop by 3-4 million barrels/day New capacity coming on line will increase by 8 million barrels/day Spare capacity would be 4 million barrels/day Therefore 3-4 years of increasing demand, which is likely to be 1 million barrels /day each year, will wipe out any potential surplus and severe oil shortages will occur These predictions do not allow for a sudden drop in Saudi Oil or disruption to supply by natural disasters, war, terrorism or political upheaval etc Price Shocks - the first signs:  Price Shocks - the first signs Prices rise then crash with recessions Shocks as production capacity limits breached Five times what it costs to produce Where are the likely most sensitive areas:  Where are the likely most sensitive areas Environment and global warming [greater use of coal] All forms of transport Car makers and subsidiaries Tourism Food/goods transport Natural resource movement [coal, ores etc] Wars on terror [USA spends approx $20/barrel for protection of its supply] All food producing systems Social structures Suburbs v City v Self Sustaining communities  Most significant effects of scarce and expensive oil. :   Most significant effects of scarce and expensive oil. Gradual, permanent cut-off of fuel for transport and for industrial machinery. Global trade will greatly decline. Decline in agricultural production--depends heavily on fertilizers and chemicals made from oil. Food shortages, increased by competition for food crops as feedstock for bio-fuels such as vegetable oil and alcohol Changes in land use as inputs decline and crop yields are lowered. Shortages of 500,000 other goods made from oil. Therefore, reduction of virtually all business and government activity. Very serious unemployment The most serious area may be a downturn in agriculture and food production 1:  The most serious area may be a downturn in agriculture and food production 1 In the developed countries. Reduced industrial scale farming with single crop such as corn and soybean. Return to permaculture incorporating microbial activities for fertilisers and recycling of nutrients [requiring more people in agriculture] Social restructuring of rural, city and suburban communities Production of home grown fuels and competition for food, feed and feedstock for local consumption and export The most serious area may be a downturn in agriculture and food production 2:  The most serious area may be a downturn in agriculture and food production 2 Developing countries: down turn in staples greater need for small integrated systems dependent on recycling of nutrients What happens when another Rwanda or Dufur[2.4 million refugees presently without support] erupts in a future world with few food reserves? The need for fuel for cooking could result in deforestation and erosion in countries such as Nigeria In developed countries approximately 1400 liters of oil equivalents are expended to feed each citizen; energy consumption is broken down :  In developed countries approximately 1400 liters of oil equivalents are expended to feed each citizen; energy consumption is broken down 31% manufacturing inorganic fertilizers 19% operation of field machinery 16% transportation 13% for irrigation 8% raising livestock [not feed lot feed] 5% crop drying 5% pesticide production 8% other inputs Does not include energy costs of packaging, refrigeration,transport to outlets and energy for cooking World Fertilizer Use 1960-2004:  World Fertilizer Use 1960-2004 World Grain Production Per Ton of Fertilizer Use-1960-2004:  World Grain Production Per Ton of Fertilizer Use-1960-2004 Earth Policy Institute 2005 US Farm Energy Use:  US Farm Energy Use Earth Policy Institute 2002 Total energy use 1,691trillion btu Direct 1,113 t-Btu Pesticide plus fertilizer 578 t-Btu US Food System Energy Use:  US Food System Energy Use Earth Policy institute Total 10.25 quadrillion btu How the US Farm policy is seen by Peter Nicholson Australian July 31st 2003:  How the US Farm policy is seen by Peter Nicholson Australian July 31st 2003 Cereal grains and root crops will have diversified markets:  Cereal grains and root crops will have diversified markets World production 1900 million tonnes annually Food for humans Feed for animals--- one third of all cereals are fed to livestock Feedstock-------about 20% of the US maize crop is now used for ethanol production. GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BEEF, PORK AND POULTRY 1968 - 2003:  GLOBAL CONSUMPTION OF BEEF, PORK AND POULTRY 1968 - 2003 Trends in the world use of cereal grain as feed for livestock:  Trends in the world use of cereal grain as feed for livestock Delgado et al 2002 World ethanol production by country. USA is likely to become the world’s largest producer using maize as the feedstock:  World ethanol production by country. USA is likely to become the world’s largest producer using maize as the feedstock Berg C[2003]World biofuel production Int. Sugar J, 1 [1] 5-15 Fuel Alcohol Despite Doubtful Energy Balance Will Have Enormous Effects On World Food Availability :  Fuel Alcohol Despite Doubtful Energy Balance Will Have Enormous Effects On World Food Availability World total production of alcohol 33 billion liters USA is to lift its production to about 16 billion liters Many countries are contemplating establishing fuel alcohol production. A guess at possible production is 100 billion litres by 2010 O.43 liter alcohol requires fermentation of 1kg dry grain or roughly 2.5 kg grain /liter Potentially 250 million tonnes of grain will be needed for alcohol production Slide28:  Ethanol Inducing Policies are being applied widely in the world World Cereal Stocks [Estimated total carryover of cereals]:  World Cereal Stocks [Estimated total carryover of cereals] FAO Rome 2004 The price of steak from grain fed ruminants must be measured in terms of oil costs involved in growing the feed, managing and marketing the meat:  The price of steak from grain fed ruminants must be measured in terms of oil costs involved in growing the feed, managing and marketing the meat I kg of beef requires approximately 5.7 litres of oil. Or to produce this little beauty at 600kg live weight 1075 litres of oil National Geographic June 2004 Avian Influenza:  Avian Influenza Slide32:  27 people killed Over 100 million birds culled Psychological effect on consumers and impact on industry Poultry industry down by 15 - 30% Recurring outbreaks – degree of impact depends on crisis management Future food production will need to be based on lower inputs of fossil fuels :  Future food production will need to be based on lower inputs of fossil fuels Chicken, pork, fish will become expensive. Reduced industrial production more alternative feed systems The threat of disease pandemic must surely reduce poultry production Ruminant, horse, rabbit meat from cellulose biomass will be more attractive [crop residues] Fruits ,vegetables produced with permaculture principles will predominate Crop and animal protein production will need to be integrated It’s still down the track but needs to be planned now Human population explosion coincided with the increasing availability of “Cheap Oil”:  Human population explosion coincided with the increasing availability of “Cheap Oil” First Oil Well ? The Challenge for Future Agriculture :  The Challenge for Future Agriculture World population is increasing rapidly now 6.4 billion may rise to 10 billion[???] Food production has to keep pace with population Quantity Quality,largely a balanced protein ,mineral and energy intake Protein availability critical for health and well being of people.Requirements for essential amino acids from plant and animal protein Food production has to be maintained or increased with minimal: loss of soil fertility, salinity and erosion Efficient exploitation of water resources low fossil fuel inputs pollution both in run off of nutrients production of greenhouse gases The future price of grain will favour ruminant enterprises?:  The future price of grain will favour ruminant enterprises? Ruminants have the capacity to use biomass not used by monogastric animals Ruminant production is at a low efficiency in most countries[1.2 billion large ruminants] with tremendous scope to improve in particular reproductive efficiency The supply of supplements needed to use the biomass will arise from by-products of the feed and fuel industries [gluten meal, brewers grains] Ruminants are multi-purpose for power, food, fibre Wool will be much more competitive with synthetic fibers which are produced from fossil fuel Straw can be viewed as an impediment to cultivation or can be used as animal feed or incorporated into soil as a carbon source :  Straw can be viewed as an impediment to cultivation or can be used as animal feed or incorporated into soil as a carbon source Burning will eventually be unlawful Straw [stubble] can be fed direct or after treatment to improve its digestibility Some straw [lower stalks and roots] need to be retained to conserve soil carbon and fertility Ruminant Nutrition :  Ruminant Nutrition Ruminant nutrition depends on a fermentative digestive system involving a complex mix of microorganisms The animal largely depends on the end products of fermentation but small amounts of dietary [escape] nutrients can have major effects on the efficiency it uses the fermentation products for production Slide39:  Fungi Protozoa Bacteria Ruminants convert forage in the rumen to organic acids with the production of microbial cells:  Ruminants convert forage in the rumen to organic acids with the production of microbial cells Forage Organic Acids Or Volatile Fatty Acids Or VFA Microbial cells Protein Essential amino acids Energy Slide41:  Forage Carbohydrates Protein Minerals: S.P.Co.Cu etc. Fermentation intermediates Microbe building blocks Microbial cells Short chain organic acids: acetic, propionic & butyric Microbial dry matter Energy for microbe synthesis Methane Ammonia Absorbed from rumen Digested in small intestines Fermentation of Feed in the Rumen Mineral sources Urea Bypass protein Slide42:  Deficient medium Digestible forage Fermentation intermediates Microbial cells Short chain organic acids + methane + heat Digestible forage Fermentation intermediates Microbial cells Short chain organic acids + methane + heat Well balance growth medium 1.0 1.0 0.17 0.83 0.34 0.66 Deficiencies of Growth Factors Alter the Flow of Fermentation Intermediates Into Products Bypass protein explained: suckled milk the ultimate source of bypass nutrients:  Bypass protein explained: suckled milk the ultimate source of bypass nutrients Forage Protein Ammonia +short chain fatty acids [energy] Protein digested in the intestines Rumen Intestines Feed The constraints to using straw as a major feed component for ruminants:  The constraints to using straw as a major feed component for ruminants Highly fibrous tough composition [difficult to breakdown by chewing- reduces intake] Deficiency of minerals and crude protein to supply rumen nutrients: depending on soil and harvest conditions. No escape or bypass protein Low and variable digestibility depending on soil rainfall and harvest conditions Low bulk density that limits feed intake Priorities in Ruminant Nutrition 1 Getting the Balance of Nutrients Right:  Priorities in Ruminant Nutrition 1 Getting the Balance of Nutrients Right Priority 1.Balance the nutrition of the rumen microbes to ensure maximum growth Macro and micro minerals Ammonia Sulphur/Phosphorus Priority 2. Feed additional escape protein in catalytic amounts Mechanisms to balance diets include:  Mechanisms to balance diets include The use of mineral mixes and /or urea as: Added to feed Loose mixes and block licks of minerals and urea In water medication Fortified molasses with urea and minerals Organic feeds high in the deficient nutrients Lupins,mill run,seed meals such as peas Protein meals capable of escaping fermentation in the rumen [brewers grains, gluten feed, copra, cottonseed, linseed, soybean, wheat bran and rice pollard] Priorities in ruminant nutrition 2 Getting Intake High:  Priorities in ruminant nutrition 2 Getting Intake High Feeding always more then they can consume Chopping to lengths that can be consumed quickly [sheep approx 2cm,cattle 5-10cm lengths] Lifting the moisture content Lifting digestibility by treatment with acid or alkalis or cellulase or white rot fungi Compacting feed to increase density Utilization of cereal crop residues has a number of strategies that can increase efficiency of animal production:  Utilization of cereal crop residues has a number of strategies that can increase efficiency of animal production Stubble grazing under set stocking with cattle and or sheep. In stubble grazing ruminants heavily select for Spilt grain Green and nutritious weeds Crop leaf material The nutritional value of the stubble quickly decreases because of this selection and with or without supplements the highest proportion of the crop residue is unusable The nutritional value and the numbers of animals that can be fed on straw can be increased greatly by Harvesting a proportion of the crop residue[ say half] and hand feeding with supplements with or without treatment of straw Grazing the spilt grain and weeds with supplementation The disappearance of components of a stubble under grazing by sheep for 4 months at Merredin WA. [crop 1 tonne/ha]:  The disappearance of components of a stubble under grazing by sheep for 4 months at Merredin WA. [crop 1 tonne/ha] Fels H E cited by Dixon and Doyle 1996 Overcoming the constraints to utilization of straw by ruminants:  Overcoming the constraints to utilization of straw by ruminants Highly fibrous tough composition [difficult to breakdown by chewing- reduces intake] Deficiency of minerals and crude protein to supply rumen nutrients: depending on soil and harvest conditions. No escape or bypass protein Low and variable digestibility depending on soil and harvest conditions Low bulk density that limits feed intake Chop or macerate Supplementation with rumen nutrients Supplementation with bypass protein depending on production expectations Treatment with acids or alkalis to improve digestibility Compress or pellet feed Sheep Require Forages to Be Chopped for High Intake;Silage Chop Length Effects on Intake and Live Weight Gain of Lambs:  Sheep Require Forages to Be Chopped for High Intake;Silage Chop Length Effects on Intake and Live Weight Gain of Lambs *Fitzgerald[1984] ** Apolant &Chestnut [1985] Utilization of barley straw[ 5% CP] by cows in the last trimester of pregnancy:  Utilization of barley straw[ 5% CP] by cows in the last trimester of pregnancy Form of presentation of straw effects intake and live weight gain. Ingredients Straw---86% Barley--- 3% Soybean meal---10% Trace mineral-vitamin mix---0.77% Weisenburger and Mathieson 1977 The Effects of Minerals and Urea Supplementation on Straw Intake by Cattle[200kg LWt]:  The Effects of Minerals and Urea Supplementation on Straw Intake by Cattle[200kg LWt] Perdok&Leng [1985] Response to rumen nutrients [in block licks] by cattle[200kg] fed forages of low and high digestibility [Perdok &Leng 1990]:  Response to rumen nutrients [in block licks] by cattle[200kg] fed forages of low and high digestibility [Perdok &Leng 1990] Supplemented with rumen nutrients [block licks] No rumen nutrients Digestibility of a poorly digested forage may be increased by acid or alkali treatment Response to cottonseed meal intake by cattle[200kg] fed long rice straw or urea treated rice straw [Perdok &Leng 1990]:  Response to cottonseed meal intake by cattle[200kg] fed long rice straw or urea treated rice straw [Perdok &Leng 1990] Supplemented with rumen nutrients No rumen nutrients Suppl. with rumen nutrients and bypass protein increases live weight gain of crossbred lambs. :  Suppl. with rumen nutrients and bypass protein increases live weight gain of crossbred lambs. Abidin and Kempton 1989 Supple: gain ratio 1:1 CSM versus Grain Supplementation and Growth of Cattle Fed Hay [Poppi and McLennon 1990]:  CSM versus Grain Supplementation and Growth of Cattle Fed Hay [Poppi and McLennon 1990] CSM Barley Sorghum Increase in live weight gain when steers on low quality forage are supplemented with protein bypass:  Increase in live weight gain when steers on low quality forage are supplemented with protein bypass Poppi & McLennon [ 1995] y = 0.548x R2 = 0.632 y = 0.161x + 0.240 R2 = 0.760 Slide59:  Litter mates: weaned at same time and fed oaten caff with soluble or bypass protein Same protein % same energy content same mineral concentration 66 Slide60:  At low levels of CSM meal [below 0.6kg cattle or 100g sheep] growth response is about 1.1g live-weight gain/g of meal given] Above these levels of protein meal supplementation the response is only 0.25g/g protein meal Once the rumen nutrients are in place the following rules of thumb may be used Optimising steer growth on dry pasture From the established relationships the live weight gain can be predicted from the graphs:  From the established relationships the live weight gain can be predicted from the graphs The Response of Young Cattle Given Treated Straw and fed increasing levels of Bypass Protein [Cottonseed Cake]:  The Response of Young Cattle Given Treated Straw and fed increasing levels of Bypass Protein [Cottonseed Cake] Dolberg & Finlayson[1995] Expt 2 Expt 1 The No.of Young Cattle That Can Be Fattened on 6 Tonne of Straw with Strategic Supplements:  The No.of Young Cattle That Can Be Fattened on 6 Tonne of Straw with Strategic Supplements Conversion Efficiency of Cottonseed Cake[CC] to Live Weight Gain:  Conversion Efficiency of Cottonseed Cake[CC] to Live Weight Gain *Tonnes of CC to fatten group of animals There are many ways to approach the utilisation of straw and there is a major need for farmer invention.:  There are many ways to approach the utilisation of straw and there is a major need for farmer invention. Treatment possibilities 4% urea on wet straw[40% dry mater, ground sheet and covered to retain ammonia 1-2% urea plus 2-3% hydrated lime on wet straw 2-4% caustic soda on damp straw[80-90%dry matter] 2-6 weeks for digestibility to increase by 5 units 2% ammonia gas on damp straw Enzyme Fungi treatments Treatment with 2-4% acid [potential from acid soil] All require 2-6 weeks for digestibility increases of 5-10% 3% hydrated lime on dry straw kept for 1 year prior to feeding[?????] Round bale choppers are avilable:  Round bale choppers are avilable Slide67:  Straw Combine - harvesting wheat straw, conditioning and loading 50 HP Tractor, trailed type, 7 feet cutter bar Slide68:  Cost Rs 1akh approximately Supplier : BHARAT INDUSTRIAL CORP, AKALSAR ROAD, MOGA – 142001 PUNJAB, INDIA. PHONES : 0091 1636 224075, 0091 1636 22 4076 ®, MOBILE 9814069075 CONTACT PERSON Sh Baldev Singh Slide69:  STRAW DENSITY is only 25 Kg/Cubic meter (only 750 kg in 4x2.5x 3) A possible strategy to use straw:  A possible strategy to use straw Harvest a proportion of the straw Round bales Chopped straw [Bhusa combine] Treat with alkali in round bales or after chopping or from combine Compact the feed material with or without supplements Feed with supplements of rumen nutrients and bypass protein. The rewards can be high :  The rewards can be high Cattle finished on a diet of treated 70% oat straw chaff with correct supplementation. Live weight gain 1.45kg/day. FCE 10:1 Twin bearing ewes were successfully taken through last part of pregnancy on a diet of 70% treated oat husk:  Twin bearing ewes were successfully taken through last part of pregnancy on a diet of 70% treated oat husk Slide73:  Lambs finished on treated oat straw [70% total diet] plus supplements. Overall growth rate 350g/head/day Industries heavily dependent on cheap oil are at risk: e.g. Airline Industry [and Agriculture] is [will] Having Great Difficulties Maintaining Profitability As Fuel Price Increase:  Industries heavily dependent on cheap oil are at risk: e.g. Airline Industry [and Agriculture] is [will] Having Great Difficulties Maintaining Profitability As Fuel Price Increase Airline industry net profit/loss with different oil prices in 2005 Fuel prices [$/tonne] Fuel Use: an index of fuel use per revenue tonne km [1990=100] Kevin Done, Financial Times July 29 2005 see also www.ft.com/oil 2005 Slide75:  The future resides in capturing solar energy [including wind and wave or current energy capture] and harnessing it to fuel our needs for energy Slide76:  Pregnant Trucks Taking Wheat Bhoosa over 500km to drought areas of Rajhasthan Emphasises the enormous dependency on straw as a feed for cattle and buffalo in India Slide77:  Using straw to feed ruminants is detailed in DROUGHT AND DRY SEASON FEEDING STRATEGIES FOR CATTLE,SHEEP AND GOATS. By R A Leng www.penambulbooks.com Thank you for your attention Countries import and export similar quantities of foods:  Countries import and export similar quantities of foods Britain imports 240,000 tonnes of pork and 125,000 tonnes of lamb Britain exports 195,000 tonnes of pork 102,000 tonnes of lamb Australia exports Arnot biscuits to New Zealand and imports NZ biscuits Globalization is unsustainable ,illogical and bizarre and is only possible in a world that has cheap oil

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