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UEE12 Habiter Mars EPFL

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Information about UEE12 Habiter Mars EPFL
Education

Published on February 20, 2014

Author: haroldclenet

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Lecture on Mars' geology, course living on Mars, UEE12 EPFL
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PLANET MARS Environmental conditions and human exploration DR. HAROLD CLENET Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Earth and Planetary Science Laboratory harold.clenet@epfl.ch Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

OUTLINE • • Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Mars exploration • Why Mars? • History of exploration • Few geophysical parameters Resources and constraints for human exploration • Water • Climate / radiation • Building blocks • Constraints for the base site 2 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

WHY MARS? Wednesday, February 19, 2014 3 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

MARS EXPLORATION Giovanni Domenico Cassini Wednesday, February 19, 2014 4 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

MARS EXPLORATION Percival Lowell (≈1900) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 5 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

MARS EXPLORATION H.G. Wells, 1898 France Soir, 8/7/1947 Wednesday, February 19, 2014 6 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

MARS EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 7 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

MARS EXPLORATION Viking (1975) Mariner (1965-1971) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 8 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

MARS EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 9 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

MARS EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 10 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

MARS EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 11 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

FEW GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS Propriété Valeur martienne Distance au soleil AU 1.524 Valeur terrestre (Mars % Terre) 1 Rayon moyen 3 389,5 km 6 371,0 km (53,2 %) Masse 6,4185×1023 kg 3,711 m/s2 5 027 m/s 1 sol ≈ 1,027 day ≈ 24.6 h 25,19° 6681 sols ≈ 686,971 d 5,9736×1024 kg (10,7 %) 9,780327 m/s2 (37,9 %) 11 186 m/s (44,9 %) 1 d = 24 h (102,75 %) 23,439281° 365d 6h 14m (188,1 %) 492 à 715 W/m2 1 321 à 1 413 W/m2 -63 °C ≈ 210 K 14 °C ≈ 287 K -3 °C ≈ 270 K 58 °C ≈ 331 K -133 °C ≈ 140 K -89 °C ≈ 184 K Gravité de surface à l'équateur Vitesse de libération Durée du jour solaire Inclinaison de l'axe Période orbitale Rayonnement solaire Température moyenne au sol Température la plus élevée Température la plus basse Wednesday, February 19, 2014 12 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

FEW GEOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS Atmospheric pressure 560 Pa (T=105 Pa) Temperatures -133°C / 27°C No liquid water at surface conditions Wednesday, February 19, 2014 13 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

OUTLINE • • Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Mars exploration • Why Mars? • History of exploration • Few geophysical parameters Resources and constraints for human exploration • Water • Climate / radiation • Building blocks • Constraints for the base site 14 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

RESOURCES AND CONSTRAINTS FOR HUMAN EXPLORATION Wednesday, February 19, 2014 15 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER THEMIS IR Mosaic in the Warrego Valles area Valley networks HIRISE image Small Valley Networks in the Ancient Southern Highlands (ESP_012519_1320) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 16 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER Lake deltas and fans High rate of erosion for the craters in the southern hemisphere Wednesday, February 19, 2014 17 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER MOLA in the Kasei Valles area Outflow channels Wednesday, February 19, 2014 18 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

EVIDENCE FOR PAST WATER Resurfacing of North planes and rampart craters Wednesday, February 19, 2014 19 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 20 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Layered deposits on the North polar cap Wednesday, February 19, 2014 21 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS South Polar Ice Cap: 1.6 x 106 km3, which is equivalent to a global water layer of approximately 11 meters thick Wednesday, February 19, 2014 22 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 23 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 24 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 25 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Minerals that need water to be produced Local detections: Clays in Nili Fossae region Large scale detections: Clays in Mawrth Vallis Wednesday, February 19, 2014 26 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Terra Meridiani (Opportunity) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Interior Layered Deposits (ILD) in Valles Marineris (HRSC) 27 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Sulfates in ILD Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Sulfate over clays in Colombus crater 28 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS COMMON HYDRATED MG-SULPHATE MINERALS • Epsomite (MgSO4.7H2O) = 51% H2O • Kieserite (MgSO4.H2O) = 14% H2O • Hexahydrite (Mg(SO4) · 6H2O) = 47% H2O • Bloedite (Na2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O) = 37% H2O OTHER COMMON HYDRATED MINERALS • Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) = 14% H2O • Montmorillonite clay (Al,Mg,Fe)8(Si4O10)3(OH)10.12H2O) = 26% H2O Sulfates in ILD Wednesday, February 19, 2014 29 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 30 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

ACTUAL WATER RESERVOIRS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 31 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

CLIMATE / RADIATIONS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 32 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

CLIMATE / RADIATIONS A=Glacial (permanent ice cap); B=Polar (covered by frost during the winter which sublimates during the summer); C=North (mild) Transitional (Ca) and C South (extreme) Transitional (Cb); D= Tropical; E= Low albedo tropical; F= Subpolar Lowland (Basins); G=Tropical Lowland (Chasmata); H=Subtropical Highland (Mountain) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 33 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

CLIMATE / RADIATIONS Wind speed: 60-90 km/h But not the same effect as on Earth! Wednesday, February 19, 2014 34 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

CLIMATE / RADIATIONS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 35 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

CLIMATE / RADIATIONS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 36 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Phoenix Wednesday, February 19, 2014 37 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Phoenix @northern plains Wednesday, February 19, 2014 38 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Sojourner Wednesday, February 19, 2014 39 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Sojourner Wednesday, February 19, 2014 40 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Opportunity Spirit Wednesday, February 19, 2014 41 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Opportunity @Endurance crater Wednesday, February 19, 2014 42 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Wednesday, February 19, 2014 43 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Curiosity Wednesday, February 19, 2014 44 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Wednesday, February 19, 2014 45 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Curiosity @Gale crater Wednesday, February 19, 2014 46 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

HOW LOOKS MARS’ SURFACE? Curiosity @Gale crater Wednesday, February 19, 2014 47 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 48 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Regolith Basaltic rocks Sand Wednesday, February 19, 2014 Clays 49 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Wednesday, February 19, 2014 50 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Gravel Wednesday, February 19, 2014 51 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

“BUILDINGS” BLOCKS Iron/Nickel meteorites (Opportunity) Wednesday, February 19, 2014 52 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

CONSTRAINTS FOR THE BASE SITE Landing ellipse 50 km Wednesday, February 19, 2014 53 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

CONSTRAINTS FOR THE BASE SITE Wednesday, February 19, 2014 54 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

DRIVING Wednesday, February 19, 2014 55 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

DRIVING Wednesday, February 19, 2014 56 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

CONSTRAINTS FOR THE BASE SITE Wednesday, February 19, 2014 57 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

THE END Wednesday, February 19, 2014 58 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

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