U1 l3 ppt scientific investigations

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Science

Published on July 25, 2014

Author: MrsStroud

Source: slideshare.net

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Science Fusion PowerNotes - Grade 8
Unit 1 Lesson 3 - Scientific Investigations

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations Indiana Standards Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • NOS 8.1 Make predictions and develop testable questions based on research and prior knowledge. • NOS 8.2 Plan and carry out investigations as a class, in small groups or independently often over a period of several class lessons. • NOS 8.3 Collect quantitative data with appropriate tools or technologies and use appropriate units to label numerical data.

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations Indiana Standards Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • NOS 8.4 Incorporate variables that can be changed, measured or controlled. • NOS 8.5 Use the principles of accuracy and precision when making measurement. • NOS 8.6 Test predictions with multiple trials. • NOS 8.7 Keep accurate records in a notebook during investigations.

Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations Indiana Standards Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company • NOS 8.8 Analyze data, using appropriate mathematical manipulation as required, and use it to identify patterns and make inferences based on these patterns. • NOS 8.9 Evaluate possible causes for differing results (valid data). • NOS 8.10 Compare the results of an experiment with the prediction.

Testing, Testing, 1, 2, 3 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company What are some parts that make up scientific investigations? • Scientists investigate the natural world through experiments and observations. • An experiment is an organized procedure to study something under controlled conditions. • Observation is the process of obtaining information by using the senses. Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some parts that make up scientific investigations? • Scientific investigations may also involve the use of models. • A model is a representation of an object or system. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some parts that make up scientific investigations? • A testable idea or explanation that leads to scientific investigation is called a hypothesis. • A scientist may think of a hypothesis after making observations or after reading findings from other scientists’ investigations. • Hypotheses must be carefully constructed so they can be tested in a practical and meaningful way. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some parts that make up scientific investigations? • If an investigation does not support a hypothesis, it is still useful. • The information from the investigation can help scientists form a better hypothesis. • Scientists may go through many cycles of testing and analysis before they arrive at a hypothesis that is supported. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some parts that make up scientific investigations? • A variable is any factor that can change in a scientific investigation. • An independent variable is the factor that is deliberately manipulated. • A dependent variable changes as a result of manipulation of one or more independent variables. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some parts that make up scientific investigations? • Data are information gathered by observation or experimentation that can be used in calculating or reasoning. • This information may be anything that a scientist perceives through the senses or detects using instruments. • During their investigations, scientists record all their observations, setup, and procedures so that they will not forget anything. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some parts that make up scientific investigations? • Scientists analyze data to determine the relationship between the independent and dependent variables in an investigation. • Then they draw conclusions about whether the data support the investigation’s hypothesis. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

Many Methods Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company What are some scientific methods? • Scientists do not always use the same steps or same order of steps in every investigation. • They may even repeat some steps. Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some scientific methods? • Consider one possible path that a scientist might follow while conducting an experiment. • First, the scientist clearly and precisely defines the problem or question that needs to be answered. • Next, the scientist forms a hypothesis and makes predictions about what will happen in the investigation. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some scientific methods? • To test the hypothesis, the investigation must be carefully planned, taking into account the materials and equipment needed. • The scientist must also decide how the independent variable will change and identify other variables that will be controlled. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some scientific methods? • The scientist must also determine how the results of the experiment will be measured. • The data collected in an investigation must be recorded and properly organized. • After the data are collected, the scientist may analyze them and draw conclusions about the results. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

Life Lessons Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company How are scientific methods used? • Science is an ongoing process, as scientific investigations provide evidence that can either support or contradict a hypothesis. • A hypothesis can be replaced by a new or modified hypothesis after further investigation. • Thus, scientists are always prepared to modify their understandings of the natural world. Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

How are scientific methods used? • Scientific methods are used in physical, life, and earth sciences. • Scientists carefully choose the setting for an investigation, such as the field or a laboratory. • Scientists may use models when studying things that are very large, small, or complex. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

High Quality Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company What are some characteristics of good scientific investigations? • Good scientific investigations share some important characteristics. • Scientific observations should be well documented and have supporting evidence. • In an experiment, the variables should be controlled as much as possible. Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some characteristics of good scientific investigations? • Experiments should be repeated multiple times by the original investigator. • All scientific investigations should be replicated by scientists not involved with the original work. • Before publishing a study, scientific journals ask other scientists to review the article. This is called peer review. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

What are some characteristics of good scientific investigations? Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

How can you evaluate the quality of scientific information? • The most reliable scientific information is published in scientific journals, but it is often difficult to understand. • Reliable books are written by scientists and others who are knowledgeable about a particular field. • Reliable Internet sources are government and academic web pages. Commercial web pages are often unreliable because they are trying to sell something. Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Unit 1 Lesson 3 Scientific Investigations

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