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U.S. History Since Reconstruction ~ Week Five, Lecture Two

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Information about U.S. History Since Reconstruction ~ Week Five, Lecture Two
Education

Published on February 19, 2009

Author: redemma

Source: slideshare.net

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Atlanta Journal Constitution editor Henry W. Grady, who coined the term “New South.” Reconstruction had ended Southerners hoped to: 1. Modernize the economy 2. Diversify the economy 3. Maintain white supremacy

Investment poured into the South after 1878. 1. Northern & foreign capitalists dominated the economy. a. Invested in the railroad. b. Invested in extractive industries. 2. Racism kept blacks from becoming industrial workers. 3. Xenophobia kept immigrants out of the South 4. Some southern investment in industry, esp. tobacco 5. Reliance upon cotton cultivation & crop-lien system

Investment poured into the South after 1878.

1. Northern & foreign capitalists dominated the economy.

a. Invested in the railroad.

b. Invested in extractive industries.

2. Racism kept blacks from becoming industrial workers.

3. Xenophobia kept immigrants out of the South

4. Some southern investment in industry, esp. tobacco

5. Reliance upon cotton cultivation & crop-lien system

 

 

 

South remained extractive economy 1. Lumber 2. Coal 3. Turpentine 4. Phosphate 5. Seafood 6. Cotton

South remained extractive economy

1. Lumber

2. Coal

3. Turpentine

4. Phosphate

5. Seafood

6. Cotton

Black farmers generally farmed as sharecroppers. White tenants were allowed to rent. With falling wholesale cotton crop prices, both fell into debt.

Black farmers generally farmed as sharecroppers.

White tenants were allowed to rent.

With falling wholesale cotton crop prices, both fell into debt.

“ Furnishing merchants” charged interest & higher rates for credit customers. In return: received a “lien” on the crop insisted that debtors grow cotton Factors 1. 1894 crop double of that in 1873, but the prices were 1/3. 2. Competition from cotton grown in Egypt, India & Brazil. 3. Renters & croppers got caught in a system of falling crop prices as worldwide supply increased. To make ends meet, they grew less of their own foodstuffs Bought food & supplies at inflated prices on credit Resulting cycle of “debt peonage.” Croppers & tenants couldn’t afford to move & couldn’t climb out of debt

“ Furnishing merchants” charged interest & higher rates for credit customers. In return:

received a “lien” on the crop

insisted that debtors grow cotton

Factors

1. 1894 crop double of that in 1873, but the prices were 1/3.

2. Competition from cotton grown in Egypt, India & Brazil.

3. Renters & croppers got caught in a system of falling crop prices as worldwide supply increased.

To make ends meet, they grew less of their own foodstuffs

Bought food & supplies at inflated prices on credit

Resulting cycle of “debt peonage.” Croppers & tenants couldn’t afford to move & couldn’t climb out of debt

Swept across the South between 1890 & 1905 Consisted of 1. Social Segregation 2. Political Disenfranchisement Upheld by Supreme Court 1. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) “separate but equal” not a violation of 14 th Amendment 2. Williams v. Mississippi (1898) poll taxes & literacy tests do not violate 14 th Amendment

 

 

 

"In all things that are purely social, we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.” ~ Booker T. Washington Atlanta Exposition Speech (1895) Washington’s Program African-American Self-Help Black Self-Segregation Build Black Businesses Vocational Education Foreswear Politics

"In all things that are purely social, we can be as separate as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all things essential to mutual progress.”

~ Booker T. Washington Atlanta Exposition Speech (1895)

Washington’s Program

African-American Self-Help

Black Self-Segregation

Build Black Businesses

Vocational Education

Foreswear Politics

 

Between 1882-1930: 2805 confirmed lynchings across the South 87.7% Black 97.2% Male Southern claims Lynching was only protection against black criminal behavior 47.1% of victims accused of murder or nonsexual assault 33.6% accused of violating sexual norms Purpose of Lynching Take care of dangerous blacks (per Southern claims) State-Sanctioned Terror Giving Whites Leverage Over Blacks Target Black Competitors for Social, Economic or Political Power Affirm White Racial Unity & Superiority

Between 1882-1930: 2805 confirmed lynchings across the South

87.7% Black 97.2% Male

Southern claims

Lynching was only protection against black criminal behavior

47.1% of victims accused of murder or nonsexual assault 33.6% accused of violating sexual norms

Purpose of Lynching

Take care of dangerous blacks (per Southern claims)

State-Sanctioned Terror Giving Whites Leverage Over Blacks

Target Black Competitors for Social, Economic or Political Power

Affirm White Racial Unity & Superiority

 

 

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