Published on July 2, 2007
Gustavo Machado Robert Leigh GR 6050 UA History of Graphic Design II Miami University of Art & Design MFA in Graphic Design
“After Architecture, Typography provided the most characteristic picture of a period, and the strongest testimonial of the spiritual progress and development of a people”. Peter Behrens Peter Behrens (1868-1940) German artist, architect and designer
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS OVERALL CONCEPT I’d like to thank all my classmates This project has the intention to not just at Miami University for their extraordinary reflect the History of Graphic Design contributions through critique, discussions in the 20th century, but also to raise and high-level debates. Without any doubt awareness about concerning facts I having been learning a lot with all of them during this turbulent era. through my personal journey. The advent of digital age, and more I would also like to thank MIU’s History specifically the Internet, completely of Graphic Design II professor, changed the communication landscape. Mr. Robert Leigh, for his categorical Now, social media networks allow guidance and support. professionals around the globe to join forces and make a positive impact over the world; unquestionably, the creative possibilities are almost endless as a result of this new era of synergy. AUTHOR Gustavo Machado is a designer and educator with an almost utopian dream: redesign the world. Gustavo Machado
CONTENTS 1912 - Expressionism 1916 – Dada 1919 - Bauhaus 1924 - Surrealism Conceptual Image World War II.quot; Online Photograph. Encyclopedia Britannica Online. 13 June 2007 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/art-73179>. /anukoski/40864622/
Expressionism is a style that started in Germany around 1912, encompassing painting, sculpture, literature, film, music, and architecture. Having its roots on writings from the German philosopher named Friedrich Nietzsche, a revival on some thoughts from the ancient world took place; the eternal dispute between rationality and emotion, resulting in enormous pain and anxiety. The expression of anguish is depicted through the distortion of reality, specially form and color. Two-dimensional art, no perspective applied, distorted shapes and bold colors are responsible for conveying emotion in a very intense way. Classic examples of this style include: Van Gogh’s “Portrait of Dr. Gachet”, Edvard Munch’s “The Scream” and Wassily Kandinsky’s “On White II” paintings, Fritz Lang’s “Metropolis” and Robert Wiene’s “The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari movies, as well as Franz Kafka’s “The Metamorphosis” novel.
1893 – The Scream - Edvard Munch 2000 – Sudan - Luba Lukova
1927 – Metropolis 2002 – Metropolis (restored version)
1946 – The Key - Jackson Pollock 2007 – Mudspot - Joshua Davis
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Davis, Joshua. quot;Joshua Davis.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.joshuadavis.com>. quot;Fritz Lang's Metropolis.quot; 2002. Kino International. 13 Jun 2007 <http://www.kino.com/metropolis>. Lukova, Luba. quot;Luba Lukova Studio.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.lukova.net>. Manetas, Miltos. quot;Jackson Pollock Simulator.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://jacksonpollock.org>. The Munch Museum. 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.munch.museum.no>.
Dada is an art movement that started in Switzerland around 1916 as a protest against World War I and classic art. According to one of his founders, Tristan Tzara, Dada has no meaning, simply because like everything in life, is useless. It spanned art, literature, and performances, which started in a place called Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich, Switzerland. In few years Dada became a global force, spreading over several countries in Europe as well as the United States. Due to its absolute denial on art and aesthetics, Dada has been also labeled as “anti-art.” Humor, cynicism, non-sense, unconventional media, and extremism are the main features found on this highly controversial cultural movement. The result could not be more diverse: political pieces, non-sense poetry, art theory, collage, everyday objects (readymades); everything carefully produced in a way to shock the audience, instead of engaging them. Several artists became well known during the 20’s including Tristan Tzara, Marcel Duchamp, Man Ray, John Heartfield, Hans Arp, Max Ernst, and Kurt Schwitters. Also important to note is the fact that some of them took part of other movements, such as Futurism and Surrealism.
1917 – Fountain - Marcel Duchamp 2006 – Mini Cooper – Taxi Advertising
1919 – L.H.O.O.Q - Marcel Duchamp 2007 – CanTheLitter.ca – City of Toronto
2003 - The Public Theater – Paula Scher 1922 - Small Dada Evening – Theo van Doesburg
2004 – Tools with Construction Text - Substance 1922 – Champ Delicieux - Man Ray
What make’s a good host? – Dave Plunkert 1932 –The meaning of the Hitler salute: little man asks for big gifts - John Heartfield
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Getty Images. 2007. Getty Images, Inc. 5 Jun 2007 <http://creative.gettyimages.com>. quot;Heartfield vs. Hitler.quot; Brasscheck Historical Archive. 2007. Brasscheck's Counterintelligence Project. 7 Jun 2007 <http://www.brasscheck.com/heartfield>. quot;Home.quot; Can the Litter. 2007. The Toronto Board of Trade. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.canthelitter.ca>. quot;Man Ray Photo.quot; 2007. Man Ray Trust. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.manray-photo.com>. quot;Marcel Duchamp Studies Online Journal.quot; Tout Fait. 2005. Art Science Research Laboratory, Inc. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.toutfait.com>. quot;Pentagram.quot; 2007. Pentagram. 13 Jun 2007 <http://www.pentagram.com>. Plunkert, Dave. quot;Plunkert Illustration Portfolio.“ 2007. Spur Design. 7 Jun 2007 <http://www.spurdesign.com/dp_port.php?nav=David> quot;Taxi.quot; 2007. Taxi Advertising and Design. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.taxi.ca>.
Bauhaus is a term coined by Walter Gropius in 1919 to designate a revolutionary school located in Weimar (Germany), merging art and architecture under the same foundation. This new vision, placing emphasis on multidisciplinary approach, played a major role in redefining design education in the 20th century. In addition, it also promoted a huge impact in many areas, including: art, architecture, interior design, graphic design, typography, and industrial design. Bauhaus style embraced the use of new materials (e.g. glass, steel, concrete), functionalism and simple geometric shapes. Ornamentation, a quality available on several previous art movements, was strongly rejected. For example, in typography several classic sans-serif typefaces were created in this period: Futura, Kabel, Bauhaus, Bayer Universal, to name a few. Several professionals became prominent during this phase, as practitioners and eventually also as educators: Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe in architecture; Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Piet Mondrian and Josef Albers in art; Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Herbert Bayer and Max Bill in graphic design. With so many developments across several disciplines, it’s not surprising that Bauhaus has been considered one of the most important events during modernism.
1925 – Bauhaus School, Dessau – Walter Gropius 1997 – Esisar School, Valence – Ruedi Baur
2002 – Jazzanova – Jutojo 1925 – Wassily Chair – Marcel Breuer
1929 – Bauhaus Book – Laszlo Moholy-Nagy 1992 – A Flock of Words – Why Not Associates
1927 – Futura Black – Paul Renner 2006 – StatAttak – Stolen
2005 – National Waterfront Museum – Why Not Associates 30’s – Bauhaus Style Building, Tel Aviv
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES quot;Bauhaus-Archiv, Berlin.quot; 2007. Bauhaus Archiv quot;Paul Renner.quot; Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Museum. 30 Jun 2007 <http://www.bauhaus.de>. 17 April 2007. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 30 Jun 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Renner>. quot;Bauhaus, Dessau.quot; 2007. Foundation Bauhaus Dessau. 5 Jun 2007 quot;StatAttak.quot; 2007. Stolen. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.bauhaus-dessau.de>. <http://www.statattak.com>. Baur, Ruedi. ”Ruedi Baur et Associes.quot; 2007. Tossin, Clarissa. quot;A’_.quot; 2007. A-Linha. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.ruedi-baur.com>. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.a-linha.org>. ”Jutojo.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 ”Why Not Associates.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.jutojo.de/>. <http://www.whynotassociates.com>. quot;Marcel Breuer - A Centennial Celebration.” Archives of American Art. 06 April 2002. Smithsonian Institution. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.aaa.si.edu/exhibits/pastexhibits/breuer/ Intro.htm>.
Surrealism is an art movement that started in the mid-20’s in Paris by some Dada artists. His founder, Andre Breton, defined it as a revolutionary movement, based on the liberation of the imagination through the unconscious mind. Similar to Dadaism, Surrealism also rejected classic art and aesthetics; although non-sense was employed by Surrealists, it took a different form: unexpected juxtapositions, and non-sequiturs (logical fallacies) were common practice among its practitioners. Despite the fact that this movement covered both art and literature, visual arts became central; names such as Man Ray, Duchamp, Arp and Ernst from Dada, as well as Rene Magritte, Juan Miro and probably the most controversial artist of all time, Salvador Dali, completely dominated the scene.
2004 – War and Peace - Luba Lukova 1941 – Le Therapeute - Rene Magritte
1961 – Moebius Strip I – M. C. Escher 2000 – Pop Magazine Identity – Suburbia
1996 – The Public Theater – Paula Scher 1966 – Le Pelerin - Rene Magritte
1976 – S. Fischer Verlag - Gunter Rambow 2007 – Nail Biter?
1980 – Die Hamletmaschine - Gunter Rambow 2005 – Nike Speed – Taxi Advertising
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES quot;Foundation Magritte.quot; 2007. Magritte Foundation. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.magritte.be>. Lukova, Luba. quot;Luba Lukova Studio.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.lukova.net>. quot;Pentagram.quot; 2007. Pentagram. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.pentagram.com>. Rambow, Gunter. quot;Gunter Rambow.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.gunterrambow.de>. Scary Ideas. 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.scaryideas.com>. “Suburbia.quot; 2007. Suburbia. 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.suburbia-media.com>. quot;Taxi.quot; 2007. Taxi Advertising and Design. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.taxi.ca>. “The Official M. C. Escher Website.quot; 2007. M. C. Escher Foundation. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.mcescher.com>.
After World War I, classic illustration was no longer seen as an effective to communicate with the audience during this new era. As a result, an innovative generation of images, now based on ideas/concepts was born. At this point, professionals started applying a new visual language coming from the revolutionary art movements of that period, including Dada, Futurism, Cubism, Expressionism and Surrealism. This was unquestionably a great period for graphic designers, who had the opportunity to experiment new techniques (e.g. Illusion, distortion, merge, synthesis) and develop their own style. Poster, in special, was the most popular medium during this era. Names like Armando Testa in Italy, Milton Glaser and Seymour Chwast in the U.S., Waldemar Swierzy in Poland, Gunter Rambow in Germany, Robert Massin in France, became well-known around the world and still greatly influence contemporary artists.
2004 – Daydream Nation – Post Typography 1966 – The Association – Wes Wilson
2006 – Kiss FM - Adhemas Batista 1967 – Bob Dylan - Milton Glaser
2006 – Skatebard - GrandPeople 1970 – Love – Peter Max
2001 – Stop Gun Trafficking - Woody Pirtle 2001 – Peace - Luba Lukova
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Batista, Adhemas. Adhemas. 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.adhemas.com>. ”GrandPeople.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.grandpeople.org>. Glaser, Milton. quot;Milton Glaser.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.miltonglaser.com>. Lukova, Luba. quot;Luba Lukova Studio.” 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.lukova.net>. Max, Peter. ”Peter Max Art Online.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.petermax.com>. ”Post Typography.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.posttypography.com>. Wilson, Wes. ”Wes Wilson.quot; 2007. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.wes-wilson.com>. quot;Woody Pirtle: Medalists: Inspiration: AIGA.“ 2007. AIGA. 5 Jun 2007 <http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/medalist- woodypirtle>.
TECHNOLOGY ART Sony CyberShot DSC-W17 (7.2 megapixels), This publication was produced under the influence of: Canon CanoScan D1230U, Dell PC with 1Gb RAM, Robert Rauschenberg, Andy Warhol, Jackson Pollock, Adobe Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Acrobat Mark Rothko, Cy Twombly, Peter Beard, Dan Eldon, Professional, Microsoft Word, Microsoft Power Point. Shinro Ohtake, Tide Hellmeister, Vaughn Oliver, P. Scott Makela, Stefan Sagmeister, Tibor Kalman, Milton Glaser, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, El Lissitzky, Man Ray, Marcel Duchamp, Cirque du Soleil, Starbucks, MTV, Misprinted Type, Die Gestalten Verlag, Tupigrafia, and many others.
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