Published on April 2, 2014
Business Research Methods MGT 524 Abu Bashar
Types of Research Causal Research (research that looks for cause & effect) Exploratory Research (research that explores) Descriptive Research (research that describes)
Difference between Exploratory & Conclusive Research Exploratory Conclusive Objective To provide insight & understanding To test specific hypothesis & examine relationship Characteristics Information needed is defined loosely Process is flexible & unstructured Sample small/non representative Qualitative data analysis Information needed is clearly defined Process is formal & structured Large & Representative Quantitative data analysis Findings Tentative Conclusive Outcome Generally followed by further exploratory or conclusive research Used as inputs into Decision Making
COMPLETELY CERTAIN ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY CAUSAL, COMPARATIVE, ASSOCIATIONAL, OR DESCRIPTIVE EXPLORATORY Uncertainty Influences The Type of Research
Degree of Problem Definition Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Causal Research (Unaware of Problem) (Aware of Problem) (Problem Clearly Defined) “Our sales are declining and “What kind of people are buying “Will buyers purchase more of we don’t know why.” our product? Who buys our our products in a new package? competitor’s product?” “Would people be interested “Which of two advertising in our new product idea?” “What features do buyers prefer campaigns is more effective?” in our product?”
Say it backwards: research that explores Initial research conducted to explore (clarify and define) the nature of a problem Does not provide conclusive evidence so subsequent research is expected Helps to diagnose a situation Screen alternatives Discover new ideas Exploratory Research
Descriptive Research Research that describes Describes characteristics of a population or phenomenon Some understanding of the nature of the problem Deals with the who, what, where, when, how…but not the why?
Causal Research Research that looks at cause & effect Conducted to identify cause and effect relationships Statistics: Correlations, regression, t-test, ANOVA, etc.
Causal Research Comparative Research Looks for differences Associational Research Looks for relationships Designs: Experimental Quasi-experimental Ex post facto Time series Predictive Correlational Comparative Surveys Multivariate Longitudinal Stats: T-test ANOVA Correlation Multiple regression Chi Square Spearman Rho Phi – Cramers V Etc, etc, etc
Stages of the Research Process Problem Discovery and Definition Research Design Sampling Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Discovery and Definition and so on
Problem discovery Problem definition (statement of research objectives) Secondary (historical) data Experience survey Pilot study Case study Selection of exploratory research technique Selection of basic research method Experiment Survey Observation Secondary Data StudyLaboratory Field Interview Questionnaire Selection of Sample Design Sampling Probability Nonprobability Collection of data (fieldwork) Editing and coding data Data processing Interpretation of findings Report Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Research Design Problem Discovery and Definition
Problem Definition, Objectives, and Research Questions If you do not know where you are going, any road will take you there.
“The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution” -Albert Einstein
Two Types of Problems Management Decision Problem What decision makers need to do Sales are on the decline Customer base is aging and younger consumers prefer competitor’s brands Research Problem Specifies information needed to address managerial problems & how it can be obtained
MDP Action Oriented Focus on symptoms Should new product be introduced Should advertisement be changed Should price be increased Research Problem Information oriented Focus on underlying causes Determine consumer preferences Determine effectiveness of current ad. Price elasticity of demand
Research Objectives Research objectives address information gaps that must be closed so the manager solves the marketing management problem Each research objective must be precise, detailed, clear, and operational Example: “Compare the demographic profiles of AT&T buyers to nonbuyers using age, sex, education, and annual family income.”
Research Questions A research question is the researchers’ paraphrase of the research objective(s) in the form of a question. Example: “Are AT&T’s non-buyers different demographically from AT&T’s buyers? Or better yet: “Are AT&T’s non-buyers younger than AT&T’s buyers?” Specific questions are better
Research Hypotheses A hypothesis is an unproven proposition or supposition that tentatively explains certain facts or phenomena; a probable answer to a research question. Hypotheses are statements about the nature of the world. They are guesses. Example: “AT&T’s non-buyers are younger than AT&T’s buyers”
Research Hypotheses Null Hypothesis: Conservative statement about the status quo. It is what our research is set out to disprove. H0: AT&T non-buyers do not differ in age from AT&T buyers Alternative Hypothesis: A statement that states the opposite of the null hypothesis. HA: AT&T non-buyers are younger than AT&T buyers
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