Types of Mutations

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Information about Types of Mutations
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Published on June 25, 2008

Author: science208

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 1: MUTATIONS Slide 2: A change in the genetic material of a cell. Good Bad Neutral Mutation :  Germ cell mutations Somatic mutations occur in the organisms body cells occur in organisms germ cells 2 types: Chromosome Mutations either changes in the structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome. : Chromosome Mutations either changes in the structure of a chromosome or the loss of an entire chromosome. Where can mutations occur? Gene Mutations involve large segments of DNA or a single nucleotide within a codon. Slide 5: Point mutation - substitution Frameshift mutation - insertions - deletions Gene Mutations THECATSAWTHEDOG : THECATSAWTHEDOG THE CAT SAW THE DOG Word = Codon Sentence = Gene Letter = Nucelotide base Substitution of one letter : Substitution of one letter THE BAT SAW THE DOG THE CAT SAW THE DOG 2. THE CAT SAW THE HOG 3. THE CAT SAT THE DOG ↑ ↑ ↑ Slide 8: - when a single nucleotide is replaced with a different nucleotide Base substitution Point Mutation Sickle Cell Anemia : Sickle Cell Anemia DNA mRNA Amino acid C G T A Glutamic acid T A C G A U Valine T A Normal Substitution Deletion- one nucleotide in a codon is deleted : Deletion- one nucleotide in a codon is deleted THE CAT SAW THE DOG THE ATS AWT HED OG Loss of one letter Loss of C Insertion one nucleotide in a codon is added : Insertion one nucleotide in a codon is added THE CAT SAW THE DOG THE CMA TSA WTH EDO G Gain of one letter Insertion of M ↑ Slide 12: THE CAT SAW THE DOG THE ATS AWT HED OG THE CMA TSA WTH EDO G - Caused by the insertions or deletions of a nucleotide - Alters the triplet grouping of nucleotides into codons - Shifts the reading frame so that all nucleotides downstream will be improperly grouped. Frameshift mutations Chromosome Mutations : Chromosome Mutations Deletions Inversions Translocations Nondisjunction Deletion : Deletion Loss of piece of a chromosome due to chromosomal breakage Lethal mutation- cause death of the organism D E F G Inversion : Inversion Chromosomal segment breaks off and reattaches in reverse orientation to the same chromosome Translocation : Translocation Chromosome piece breaks off and reattaches to another nonhomologous chromosome Nondisjunction : Nondisjunction homologous chromosomes during meiosis fail to separate ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ Slide 18: Point Mutations- Substitutions Frameshift Mutations- Insertions or deletions Gene Mutations RECAP Chromosome Mutations Deletions Inversions Translocation Nondisjunction Homework due TOMORROW!

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