Published on January 5, 2017
1. SUB = ELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERING TOPIC = STONE PREPARED BY:- 1. C-27 PRASHANT A CHELANI 2. C-40 VIJAY D VADHER 3. C-43 NIKHIL R PATIL 4. C-21 PRATIK B PATEL DR S.&S.S GANDHY GOVERNMENT ENGINEERING SURAT.
3. Stone Masonry Def :-The craft of shapping rocks into accurate geometric shapes,mostly simple but some are considerably complex and then arranging the resulting stones,often together with mortar .
4. Uses 1) Building foundations, walls, piers, pillars, and architectural works. 2) Lintels, Beams, beams Arches, domes etc., 3) Roofs and Roof coverings. 4) Cladding Works 5) Dams, light houses, monumental structures. 6) Paving jobs 7) Railway, ballast, black boards and electrical switch
5. Selection of stone for stone masonry: 1) Availability 2) Ease of working 3) Appearance 4) Strength and stability 5) Polishing characteristics 6) Economy 7) Durability
6. Through Stone
7. CLASSIFICATION OF STONES IGNEOUS STRATIFIED SILICIOUS ROCKS ROCKS ROCKS SEDIMENTRY UNSTRATIFIED ARGILLACEOUS ROCKS ROCKS ROCKS METAMORPHIC FOLITIED BUILDING STONES ROCKS GEOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATIO N PHYSICAL CLASSIFICATIO N CHEMICAL CLASSIFICATIO N
8. LAYING THE STONE Decrease the stone thickness from the bottom to the top of wall. Ensure that the headers in the heart of the wall are the same size as in the face and extend at least 12 in (300 mm) into the core or backing. (Avoid Dumb-bell shaped stones) Ensure that headers in “walls of 2 feet (600 mm) or less in thickness” extend entirely through the wall. The headers shall occupy at least 20 percent of the face of the wall.
9. Lay the masonry in roughly leveled courses. Ensure that the bottom of the foundation is large, with selected stones. Lay the courses with leaning beds parallel to the natural bed of the material. Regularly diminish the thicknesses of the courses, if varied, from the bottom to the top of the wall. Keep a surplus supply of stones at the site to select from. Before laying the stone in the wall, shape and dress it so that it will not loosen after it is placed. No dressing or hammering which will loosen the stone will be permitted after it is placed. LAYING THE STONE
10. Clean each stone and saturate it with water before setting it. Clean and moisten the bed that will receive it. Bed the stones in freshly made mortar with full joints. Carefully settle the stones in place before the mortar sets. Ensure that the joints and beds have an average thickness of not more than 1 inch. (25 mm). Ensure that the vertical joints in each course break with the adjoining courses at least 6 in. (150 mm). Do not place vertical joints directly above or below a
11. If a stone is moved or if the joint is broken after the mortar has set, take the stone up and thoroughly clean the mortar from the bed and joints. Reset the stone in fresh mortar. NOTE: Do not lay the masonry in freezing weather or when the stone contains frost, except with permission subjected to the required conditions. Whenever possible, properly point the face joints before the mortar sets. If joints cannot be pointed, rake them out to a depth of 1 in (25 mm) before the mortar sets. Do not smear the stone face surfaces with the mortar forced out of the joints or the mortar used in pointing.
12. Thoroughly wet the joints pointed after the stone is laid with clean water and fill with mortar. Drive the mortar into the joints and finish with an approved pointing tool. Keep the wall wet while pointing. In hot or dry weather, protect the pointed masonry from the sun and keep it wet for at least three days after the pointing is finished. NOTE: Do not perform pointing in freezing weather or when the stone contains frost. After the pointing is completed and the mortar is set, thoroughly clean the walls and leave them in a neat condition.
13. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD BUILDING STONES A good building stone should essentially have the following qualities: (i) Appearance. For the face work of buildings this property is of extreme importance. From architectural point of view colour of the stone should be such as to go well with the surroundings. Lighter shades should be preferred to the darker ones as the latter are less durable, Red and the brown shades of sedimentary rocks are due to the presence of oxide of iron-which, if present in excess, is liable to disfigure the stone with rust stains and to disintegrate it. Stones should be of uniform colour and free from clay holes, bands or spots of colour whatsoever. (ii) General Structure. Stone, when broken in a direction other than that of cleavage (if it exists), should not give dull appearance. It should show uniformity of texture. It must be either crystalline in structure of homogeneous and close- grained. It should be free from cavities, cracks or patches of soft or loose material. For ornamental carvings it should be fine grained. Stratification (found in sedimentary rocks) should not be visible to naked eye except by difference in colour. These can be easily split along their planes of stratification known as planes of cleavage, and are, therefore, useful for use in pavings, floorings and roofings etc.
14. (iii) Heaviness. Heavier varieties of stones are more compact, less porous and have greater specific gravities. For constructions in water, like weirs, barrages, dams, docks, harbours and for retaining walls the heavier varieties of stones are to be preferred. For construction of domes and for roof coverings and similar other usages the lighter varieties have to be used. (iv) Strength. In usual constructions the stones used are generally quite strong to withstand the forces likely to be encountered yet in case of construction where unusually bigger forces are likely to come the stone to be used should be tested for its strength. Stones of igneous class are generally stronger than those of the sedimentary class. Stones with compact fine crystalline texture are stronger. (v) Hardness. It is the resistance of stone to abrasive forces caused by much wear and friction as in floors, pavements and aprons of bridges and weirs in rivers. Stones to be used at such places should be hard.
15. (vi) Toughness. It is a measure of the impact that a stone can with stand. Stones used at places subject to vibrations of machinery and to moving loads should be tough. Stones used in the construction of roads should be hard and tough. (vii) Ease of working. The ease with which the stone can be worked upon i.e., cut, dressed, carved and moulded etc., is an important consideration from economy point of view. But this property is opposed to strength, durability and hardness. (viii) Porosity and absorption. More pozrous building stones are unsuitable for use in construction especially for exposed surfaces of structures. Rain water while coming down carries some acidic gases forming light acids which lodge on the surface of stones and soak in them. Stones should as such be tested for porosity and care should be taken to use more porous stones only at places where they are not likely to encounter frost, rain or moisture in any other form.
16. (ix) Seasoairrg. All freshly quarried stones contain a certain amount of moisture known as quarry sap, which makes them soft and easier to work upon. Stones become considerably harder on seasoning. After quarrying, when all the work has been done upon stones, they should be left to season under sheds having no walls so as to permit free circulation of air. Sheds protect them from rains. A period of 6-12 months is generally enough for proper seasoning. (x)Weathering. It is the extent to which the face of a stone resists the action of weather. The best way of knowing the weathering properties of a particular stone is to inspect ancient buildings made with the same quality of stone possibly in the nearby place or at a place having similar atmospheric conditions. Inspection of an old face of some quarry could also be informative. (xi)Resistance to fire. To be fire-resistant stones should be free from calcium carbonate and oxide of iron and be not composed of minerals with differing co-efficients of thermal expansion.
17. Masonry Joints
18. Types of Stone Masonry: Based on the arrangement of the stone in the construction and degree of refinement in the surface finish, the stone masonry can be classified broadly in the following two categories 1. Rubble masonry 2. Ashlar masonry
19. 1) Rubble masonry: In this category, the stones used are either undressed or roughly dressed having wider joints. This can be further subdivided as uncoursed, coursed, random, dry, polygonal and bint. (i) Uncoursed rubble masonry: This is the cheapest, roughest and poorest form of stone masonry. The stones used in this type of masonry very much vary in their shape and size and are directly obtained from quarry. Uncoursed rubble masonry can be divided into the following. a) Uncoursed random rubble b) Uncoursed squared rubble
20. Uncoursed rubble masonry a) Uncoursed random rubble masonry: The weak corners and edges are removed with mason’s hammer. Generally, bigger stone blocks are employed at quoins and jambs to increase the strength of masonry.
21. b) Uncoursed squared rubble: In this type the stone blocks are made roughly square with hammer. Generally the facing stones are given hammer-dressed finish. Large stones are used as quoins. As far as possible the use of chips in bedding is avoided. Uncoursed rubble masonry
22. Regular Course (iv) Built to regular course: In this type of stone masonry the uniform height stones are used in horizontal layers not less than 13cm in height. Generally, the stone beds are hammered or chisel dressed to a depth of at least 10cm from the face. The stones are arranged in such a manner so that the vertical joints of two consecutive curse do not coincide with each other as shown in figure below.
23. (v) Polygonal rubble masonry: In this type of masonry the stones are roughly dressed to an irregular polygonal shape. The stones should be so arranged as to avoid long vertical joints in face work and to break joints as much as possible. Small stone chips should not be used to support the stones on the facing as shown in the figure below. Quoins
24. Flint rubble masonry (vi) Flint rubble masonry: This type of masonry is used in the areas where the flint is available in plenty. The flint stones varying in thickness from 8 to 15cm and in length from 15 to 30cm are arranged in the facing in the form of coursed or uncoursed masonry as shown below.
25. Dry rubble masonry This type of masonry is used in the construction of retaining walls pitching earthen dams and canal slopes in the form of random rubble masonry without any mortar. The hallow spaces left around and stones should be tightly packed with smaller stone pieces as shown below.
26. Ashlar Masonry This type of masonry is built from accurately dressed stones with uniform and fine joints of about 3mm thickness by arranging the stone blocks in various patterns. The backing of Ashlar masonry walls may be built of Ashlar masonry or rubble masonry. The size of stones blocks should be in proportion to wall thickness.
27. Ashlar Masonry The various types of masonry can be classified under the following categories are 1) Ashlar fine 2) Ashlar rough 3) Ashlar rock or quarry faced 4) Ashlar facing 5) Ashlar chamfered 6) Ashlar block in course
28. Ashlar fine Ashlar rough Ashlar Masonry
29. Ashlar rock or quarry faced Ashlar block in course Ashlar Masonry
30. Ashlar facing Ashlar chamfered Facing Ashlar Masonry
31. Cornice A cornice (from the Italian cornice meaning "ledge") is generally any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element— the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall. The function of the projecting cornice of a building is to throw rainwater free of the building’s walls.
32. Decorative Cornice Slope to Drain off Rain water Rain water collection Channel over the top of Decorative Cornice
33. SILLS Stone SILL Sloped Outer REVEAL
34. Chamfered Quoins Stone Sill Edge Drop Rubble Masonry Wall
35. Min 25Cm Overlap into the abutting masonry
36. Sill as a Ledge in the Interior
38. Traditional Plinth
39. Plinth in Random Rubble Masonry to receive A Load-Bearing wall Above.
40. Plinth Platform Conventional Plinth in Rural Areas
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