TwentiethCenturyPhys icalEducationandSport 000

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Information about TwentiethCenturyPhys icalEducationandSport 000

Published on April 16, 2008

Author: Dionigi


TWENTIETH CENTURY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT:  TWENTIETH CENTURY PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT MODERN PHYSICAL EDUCATION:  MODERN PHYSICAL EDUCATION 1893—Thomas Wood—"The great thought in physical education is not the education of the physical nature, but the relation of physical training to complete education, and then the effort to make the physical contribute its full share to the life of the individual, in environment, training, and culture." LUTHER GULICK:  LUTHER GULICK LUTHER GULICK:  LUTHER GULICK YMCA Training School (1887-1900) Director of Physical Training for New York City Public Schools (1903-1908) 1903—Public Schools Athletic League in New York Class athletics—track and field; basketball; baseball Athletic badge tests—dash; broad jump; pull-ups Interschool athletics—Madison Square Garden LUTHER GULICK:  LUTHER GULICK Jesse Bancroft served as Assistant Director for physical training in New York Elizabeth Burchenal directed the Girls' Branch of the Public Schools Athletic League, which featured folk dancing 1906—Playground Association of America 1913—Campfire Girls Play was the most important educational aspect THOMAS WOOD:  THOMAS WOOD THOMAS WOOD:  THOMAS WOOD 1891-1901—Stanford—physical education and health undergraduate curricula established 1901-1932—Teachers College—physical education and health undergraduate and graduate curricula (1927—moved into health education) Emphasized educational goals through "natural activities"—sports, games, dances, aquatics, arts, and recreation. 1927—The New Physical Education with Rosalind Cassady CLARK HETHERINGTON:  CLARK HETHERINGTON CLARK HETHERINGTON:  CLARK HETHERINGTON Stanford under Wood (1893-1896—student and instructor) Clark University under G. Stanley Hall—child-study and developmentalism 1900-1910—Missouri—rid athletics of abuses (supported women's activities) 1923-1929—New York University—physical education curriculum 1929-1938—Stanford CLARK HETHERINGTON:  CLARK HETHERINGTON Play was a child's chief business in life Stressed attainment of educational goals in physical activities 1910—Four phases of the educational process Organic education Psychomotor education Character education Intellectual education JAY NASH:  JAY NASH JAY NASH:  JAY NASH New York University (1926-1953) Influenced by Hetherington Recreation—part of total life experiences for all ages Emphasis on carry-over sports JESSE WILLIAMS:  JESSE WILLIAMS JESSE WILLIAMS:  JESSE WILLIAMS Teachers College of Columbia University (1919-1941) Expanded Wood's ideas of physical education as part of education, i.e., social education (John Dewey), unified whole, and living in a democratic society "Education through the physical" Physical development is a means to an end (educational objectives) THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS:  THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS         THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS:  THE NEW PHYSICAL EDUCATORS   CHARLES MCCLOY:  CHARLES MCCLOY CHARLES MCCLOY:  CHARLES MCCLOY YMCA—22 years of service at home and abroad University of Iowa (1930-1954) Organic unity—physical dimension—the major aspect of the whole being “Education of the physical” Educational objectives—secondary to the development of the physical Measurement—to develop skill and strength PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT:  PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT Colonial amusements—Puritan work ethic First playgrounds in urban settings 1880s—Boston—sand boxes—later in schools 1890s—New York (Central Park), Boston, and Chicago provided green space for the upper class; opened playgrounds for others 1894—Chicago—Jane Addams' Hull House—one of several settlement houses where play opportunities were provided for children PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT:  PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT Commonalities of early playgrounds Preadolescent children Summer months initially Outdoor equipment In urban (populated) areas Philanthropic support (donated land); later cities financed Supervisors were mothers and police Slide21:  South Park in Chicago—fields, gymnasium, and other activity spaces Sport was used as a means of social control for the assimilation of immigrants' cultures and the socialization of American youth Began with playgrounds for children and transitioned into recreation for all 1906—Playground Association of America 1906—Boys' Clubs of America PLAYGROUND MOVEMENT PLAYGROUNDS TO RECREATION:  PLAYGROUNDS TO RECREATION 1910—Boy Scouts of America 1911—Playground and Recreation Association of America 1912—Girl Scouts 1913—Campfire Girls of America 1930—National Recreation Association 1965—National Recreation and Park Association Clark Hetherington—The Normal Course in Play—to train recreation workers RECREATION MOVEMENT:  RECREATION MOVEMENT Depression—increased leisure time—softball and bowling Industrial Recreation—1940s— facilities and equipment provided for leisure time usage by workers—softball, bowling, and basketball 1950s—beginning of outdoor education movement—hiking, camping, and backpacking FITNESS:  FITNESS 1965—Lifetime Sports Foundation—carry-over sports to play throughout life Archery Bowling Badminton Golf Tennis 1970s—Fitness boom—jogging; tennis; racquetball; aquatic sports ORGANIZED YOUTH SPORTS:  ORGANIZED YOUTH SPORTS 1920s—American Legion baseball 1930—Pop Warner Football—Joe Tomlin 1939—Little League Baseball—Carl Stoltz 1950—Biddy Basketball—Joe Archer 1950—AAU age-group swimming; later wrestling, skiing, and track and field 1967—AAU Junior Olympics PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS 1953—Results of the Kraus-Weber Minimal Muscular Fitness Test: 58% of U.S. youth failed one or more items, while 9% of the European youth failed (tested flexibility) On stomach—Raise legs (10 seconds each) On stomach—Raise upper body On back—Raise legs Straight leg sit-up Bent-knee sit-up Touch toes PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS 1956—President Eisenhower through an Executive Order established the President's Council on Youth Fitness as an outgrowth of the President's Conference on Physical Fitness 1956—AAHPER Fitness Conference June 1 -7, 1958—National Fitness Week PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS 1957—AAHPER's National Research Council developed the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test Pull-ups (boys) Flexed-arm hang (girls) Sit-ups Shuttle run Standing broad jump 50-yard dash 600-yard run-walk Softball throw PHYSICAL FITNESS:  PHYSICAL FITNESS 1958—Operation Fitness sponsored by AAHPER to stimulate fitness nationally 1958—Results of the AAHPER Fitness Youth Test showed poor performance by youth (8500 boys and girls tested in grades 5-12) Slide30:  1961—President's Council on Youth Fitness published the "Blue Book" with suggestions for a school-centered program Identify the physically underdeveloped student and work to improve Provide at least 15 minutes of vigorous activity daily for all Use valid fitness tests to determine abilities and evaluate progress PHYSICAL FITNESS Slide31:  1963—President Kennedy changed name to the President's Council on Physical Fitness 1965—Retesting of youth with AAHPER Youth Fitness Test showed improvement in students' fitness levels 1968—Aerobics (Kenneth Cooper) male = 30 points per week female = 24 points per week 1974—Retesting of youth with AAHPER Youth Fitness Test showed no overall improvement in fitness levels since 1965 PHYSICAL FITNESS Slide32:  1981—AAHPERD Lifetime Health-Related Physical Fitness Test Body composition using skin-fold measures Function of heart and circulatory system using a 1.5 mile or 12-minute run Strength using bent-knee sit-ups in 60 seconds (number done) Flexibility using straight leg with arm extension PHYSICAL FITNESS Slide33:  1994—Physical Best (AAHPERD's educational materials) combined with the FITNESSGRAM developed by the Cooper Institute Aerobic capacity in a one-mile walk/run or pacer for young children Body composition Muscular strength and endurance using curl-ups, push-ups, or alternatively pull-ups, modified pull-ups, or flexed-arm hand and trunk lift Flexibility using sit-and-reach PHYSICAL FITNESS ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION:  ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION Adapted physical education is for exceptional students who are so different in mental, physical, emotional, or behavioral characteristics that in the interest of quality of educational opportunity, special provisions must be made for their proper education. Slide35:  Physical limitations Deaf Blind Hard of hearing Orthopedically impaired Speech impaired Visually handicapped Injured Low skilled CATEGORIES Slide36:  Mental limitations Mentally challenged Learning disabled Behavioral limitations Attention-deficit disorder Emotionally disturbed Interrelated (multiple handicaps) CATEGORIES HISTORICALLY:  HISTORICALLY Excused Corrective or remedial Individualized Mainstreaming Inclusion—integration of children with special needs with students in regular classes Least restrictive environment REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973, SECTION 504—INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES IN EDUCATION:  REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973, SECTION 504—INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES IN EDUCATION “No otherwise qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program which receives or benefits from Federal financial assistance.” PUBLIC LAW 94-142:  PUBLIC LAW 94-142 The Education of all Handicapped Children Act of 1975 Required the development of an Individualized Education Program (IEP) for every child with special needs, including specifically for physical education IDEA:  IDEA The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has fostered significant changes in the lives of children with disabilities and their families and in the roles of schools and teachers in the education of children with disabilities. The basic tenets of IDEA have remained intact since the original passage of the law in 1975. However, each set of amendments has strengthened the original law. Slide41:  Statement of the child’s current levels of educational performance Statement of measurable annual goals, including short-term objectives or benchmarks Statement of the specific special education and related services to be provided to the child Statement of the extent (if any) to which the child will not participate with non-disabled children in regular class and other school activities Statement of any individual modifications in the administration of statewide or district wide assessment of student achievement INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM Slide42:  Statement of when services will begin, how often they will be provided, where they will be provided, and how long they will last Statement of transition services needs (beginning at age 14) and transition services needed to prepare for leaving school (beginning at age 16) Statement of any rights that will transfer to the child at the age of majority (at least one year prior) Statement of how the child’s progress will be measured and how parents will be informed of the progress INDIVIDUALIZED EDUCATION PROGRAM MEN'S ATHLETICS:  MEN'S ATHLETICS Socially elite—horse racing, dancing, gambling, cards, and yachting Baseball (1744—England; not 1839 in America) Cycling—late 1800s Tennis—1874 from England Golf—Scotland Cricket and croquet clubs—late 1800s 1891—Basketball—James Naismith at the YMCA Training School 1896—Volleyball—William Morgan at YMCA AMATEUR SPORTS—1850-1900s:  AMATEUR SPORTS—1850-1900s Athletic clubs (especially the New York Athletic Club)—provided sports opportunities for members (especially track and field) 1879—Amateur Athletic Union (1888)—"check the evils of professionalism and promote amateur sport" 1912—538 athletic clubs and the AAU had 19,000 members Competition offered (and said to control) 40 sports; later 16 sports—especially basketball, track and field, and boxing MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS:  MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Students promoted, financed, and controlled athletics—faculty and administrators did not want to be involved (no standard rules or eligibility regulations) Rowing—1852—Harvard over Yale Baseball—1859—Amherst over Williams Football—1869 (actually rugby)—Rutgers over Princeton MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS:  MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Social function Winning=fans=money=winning=fans=money Recruiting Professional coaches Newspaper coverage Graduate managers Walter Camp controlled the collegiate football rules committee (1879-1925) Slide47:  Control established in colleges Injuries; property damage; class absences; rule confusion; gambling; drunkenness; professionalism; commercialism; loss of values Benefits—improved health; taught values such as fair play and teamwork; diminished use of tobacco and alcohol; reduced rowdyism; improved discipline; enhanced school spirit MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Slide48:  Late 1800s—students unified various rules of sports Harvard faculty attempted to control class absences and to regulate athletic abuses 1882—Harvard model with three faculty 1885—added two students and one alumnus; 1888—three faculty; three students; three alumni Slide49:  1895—Midwestern colleges (Intercollegiate Conference of Faculty Representatives—today’s Big Ten) Required to be students Six months residence for transfers Must remain eligible academically MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Slide50:  Representatives from 13 colleges attended the initial meeting in December, 1905, called by President MacCracken of New York University to investigate the future of football due to deaths and injuries, dishonesty, gambling, and eligibility; in January, 1906, a second meeting led to the establishment of the NCAA and the reform of football to prevent injuries and deaths; legalized the forward pass 1906—National Collegiate Athletic Association was established by 28 colleges AAU AND NCAA CONFLICTS:  AAU AND NCAA CONFLICTS Olympic team selection (1920s to the 1970s) National Amateur Athletic Federation—1922 Sanctioning of events Certification of records 1978—Amateur Sports Act Slide52:  1929—Savage study of college athletics found problems as reported in American College Athletics Commercialism Loss of educational values PROBLEMS IN MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Slide53:  Faculty control—institutional or home rule Conferences—save money; fewer classes missed; equal philosophy and size; rivalry No seasonal coaches—in departments of physical education to gain faculty status Rules of sports standardized and provide national tournaments (track and field—1921) Recruitment and scholarship policies—Sanity Code (1948-1951) SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Slide54:  National Junior College Athletic Association—1938 National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics—1940 (only basketball until 1952) ORGANIZATIONS IN MEN’S INTERCOLLEGIATE ATHLETICS Slide55:  Activities among participants “within the walls” of an institution Begun in 1913 at the University of Michigan under Elmer D. Mitchell Initially organized and funded by athletics Later, administered through departments of physical education Today, comprehensive campus recreation opportunities are provided within student affairs INTRAMURALS Slide56:  Constructive use of leisure time Opportunity to experience success Physical fitness Mental and emotional health Social interaction and contacts Esprit de corps Promote permanent participant interest Practice skills learned in physical education classes Training ground for future varsity athletes PURPOSES OF INTRAMURALS Slide57:  Traditional intramurals—competitions in traditional team and individual sports; usually a fairly narrow offering of activities; league competition is well structured and organized; requires a solid commitment from participants Campus recreation includes non-athletic activities (games, crafts, dances, movies, etc.), special programs and workshops, open recreation, club sports, free play, faculty-staff programs, and co-recreation INTRAMURALS TO CAMPUS RECREATION Slide58:  Club sports—groups of students, faculty, and staff who get together to share a mutual interest in a particular sport or activity; European concept that spread to this country, clubs are self-organized, administered, funded, coached, and otherwise maintained Funding State appropriations (within physical education) Student fees CLUB SPORTS AND FUNDING HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS Colonial period Horseback riding; dancing; fox hunting Next 100 years Riding; walking; dancing; calisthenics Late 1800s Croquet; cycling; hiking (with clothing restrictions) Tennis—1874 Gymnastics in bloomers BASKETBALL:  BASKETBALL 1892—Smith College (Senda Berenson) 1896—Stanford defeated California in the first intercollegiate game 1899—Standardized rules No snatching the ball Could hold ball only three seconds Could bounce ball only three times Divided court into three areas to limit exertion HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS Basketball 1936—two-division game 1949—rover game in AAU; 1962 in colleges 1970—full court game in colleges Colleges—track and field; field hockey; archery; rowing; golf HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS Preferred events by physical education teachers Field Day—interclass play within a school Play Day—mixed teams competed with a social emphasis Sports Day—within own team, competition with a social emphasis Telegraphic Meet—send scores to a central location HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS Philosophical justifications for the opposition of women in competitive sports Competition might be physically and emotionally harmful Undesirable examples from men's programs Philosophy of mass participation Societal belief of women as homemakers, not athletes Slide64:  Participation rather than competition in 1909—about half of the colleges had intercollegiate competition, especially in the West and Midwest Allowed if these conditions met: Women officials and coaches Audience by invitation only College-financed only No "win-at-all costs” attitude—for fun and social interaction Outside schools—Amateur Athletic Union sponsored leagues and tournaments HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS High schools followed the colleges—but problems arose: Males coached Used boys' rules Spectators allowed Newspaper covered games Competition was intense All the above meant pressure to win HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS 1917—APEA Committee on Women's Athletics—set standards and rules of sports 1917—Athletic Conference of American College Women Opposed intercollegiate competition Emphasis on participation by all Aligned with physical education departments and teachers HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS 1923—Women's Division of the National Amateur Athletic Federation Opposed international competition Favored play days for girls and women “A sport for every girl, and every girl in a sport"—National Section on Women's Athletics HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS 1941—National Tournament in golf—opposed by the National Section on Women’s Athletics Industrial recreation and All-American Girls’ Professional Baseball League HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS Increased Competition Olympic development thrust after defeat by Russians in 1956 and 1960 Olympic Games U. S. Olympic Development Committee in 1961—"to broaden the base of participation for girls and women in Olympic sports and to provide better experiences for the skilled athlete" 1963-1969—National Institutes on Girls' Sports—to train teachers and coaches HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS 1966-1967—Commission on Intercollegiate Athletics for Women—set up by the Division of Girls and Women in Sport Encourage and govern intercollegiate competition for women at all levels Sanction intercollegiate events Hold national tournaments—first national tournaments in track and field and in gymnastics HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS:  HISTORY OF WOMEN’S SPORTS 1969—Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women Members were colleges Educational goals and purposes Set standards and policies for women's athletics NAGWS game rules Separated from NAGWS in 1979 39 championships in 17 sports Ended June, 1982 TITLE IX OF THE EDUCATION AMENDMENTS OF 1972 :  TITLE IX OF THE EDUCATION AMENDMENTS OF 1972 "No person shall on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, be treated differently from another person or otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club or intramural athletics offered by a recipient, or no recipient shall provide athletics separately on such basis." TITLE IX TIMELINE:  TITLE IX TIMELINE 1975—Federal government published guidelines for Title IX 1976—Schools and 1978 (colleges) required to be in full compliance with Title IX 1979—Congress adopted its policy interpretation of Title IX 1984—United States Supreme Court ruled in Grove City College v. Bell that Title IX was applicable only to educational programs that directly received federal funding TITLE IX TIMELINE:  TITLE IX TIMELINE 1988—Congress passed (over presidential veto) the Civil Rights Restoration Act, which stated that Title IX applied on an institution-wide basis, including athletics 1992—United States Supreme Court ruled in Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public Schools that plaintiffs could sue for compensatory and punitive damages in cases alleging intentional discrimination TITLE IX TIMELINE:  TITLE IX TIMELINE 1993—NCAA released the report of its Gender Equity Task Force report that showed that women comprised 35% of the varsity athletes; received 30% of the athletic grant-in-aid dollars; were allocated 17% of the recruiting dollars; received 23% of the operating budget dollars; had access to 37% of the athletic opportunities for participation Slide76:  1996—Females comprised 42% of the United States Olympic team competing in Atlanta; they won 38% of the medals awarded to athletes from the United States 1997—United States Supreme Court refused to grant certiorari and hear the appeal of Cohen v. Brown University, thus affirming that schools and colleges must provide varsity athletic positions for males and females matching the overall percentage of the student body TITLE IX TIMELINE TITLE IX TIMELINE:  TITLE IX TIMELINE 2003—Upheld the use of proportionality in the three-part test for access to participation opportunities 2005—Permitted the use of a web survey to determine if there was sufficient interest to support an additional varsity team for the underrepresented sex; creates a presumption of compliance with part three of the three-part test

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