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Tutorial 6 - User-Generated Content on the Internet

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Information about Tutorial 6 - User-Generated Content on the Internet
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Published on October 27, 2008

Author: dpd

Source: slideshare.net

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Tutorial 6 Real-Time Communication on the Internet New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Objectives Understand push and pull communication Learn about mailing lists and newsgroups Understand Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds Explore the technology used in podcasting Use mashup sites Explore a social bookmarking site New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Understand push and pull communication

Learn about mailing lists and newsgroups

Understand Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds

Explore the technology used in podcasting

Use mashup sites

Explore a social bookmarking site

Objectives Explore the different methods of chatting, including instant messaging Learn about Web 20 Learn about online social, political, and business networks Learn about blogs Learn about video sharing sites Understand the ways to protect your privacy, identity, and reputation New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Explore the different methods of chatting, including instant messaging

Learn about Web 20

Learn about online social, political, and business networks

Learn about blogs

Learn about video sharing sites

Understand the ways to protect your privacy, identity, and reputation

Push and Pull Communications Some communication methods use push technology to send content to users who request to it Chat Instant Messaging Online Social Networks Blogs The other communication method, called pull technology because subscribers “pull” content to their computers when they want it Mailing lists Newsgroups Newsfeeds Podcasts New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Some communication methods use push technology to send content to users who request to it

Chat

Instant Messaging

Online Social Networks

Blogs

The other communication method, called pull technology because subscribers “pull” content to their computers when they want it

Mailing lists

Newsgroups

Newsfeeds

Podcasts

Email-Based Communication on the Internet Two popular ways of pulling information via email are mailing lists and newsgroups A mailing list is a list of names and email addresses for a group of people who share a common interest in a subject or topic and exchange information by subscribing to the list Sometimes known as discussion groups You send your information and opinions to a mailing list by posting Email list software , or list server , automatically forwards your message to every address on the mailing list New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Two popular ways of pulling information via email are mailing lists and newsgroups

A mailing list is a list of names and email addresses for a group of people who share a common interest in a subject or topic and exchange information by subscribing to the list

Sometimes known as discussion groups

You send your information and opinions to a mailing list by posting

Email list software , or list server , automatically forwards your message to every address on the mailing list

Email-Based Communication on the Internet Commands request the list server to take a prescribed action The administrative address is the email address to which you send commands The list address , or the list name , is the address to which you send messages and replies For most lists, one person, known as the list moderator , moderates a mailing list to ensure that the list always receives and sends appropriate and relevant information to its members New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Commands request the list server to take a prescribed action

The administrative address is the email address to which you send commands

The list address , or the list name , is the address to which you send messages and replies

For most lists, one person, known as the list moderator , moderates a mailing list to ensure that the list always receives and sends appropriate and relevant information to its members

Email-Based Communication on the Internet When a list moderator is responsible for discarding any messages that are inappropriate for or irrelevant to the list’s members, the list is known as a moderated list A closed list is one in which membership is not automatic The list administrator is a person assigned to oversee one or more mailing lists You unsubscribe from the mailing list when you want to leave the list New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

When a list moderator is responsible for discarding any messages that are inappropriate for or irrelevant to the list’s members, the list is known as a moderated list

A closed list is one in which membership is not automatic

The list administrator is a person assigned to oversee one or more mailing lists

You unsubscribe from the mailing list when you want to leave the list

Email-Based Communication on the Internet New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Email-Based Communication on the Internet The Usenet News Service , or Usenet , was founded in 1979 at Duke University as a way of collecting information and storing it by topic category The topic categories on Usenet originally were called newsgroups forums Internet discussion group A series of postings on a particular issue is called a thread The server that stores a newsgroup is called a news server Each news server site employs a news administrator Most feeds occur over the Internet using the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

The Usenet News Service , or Usenet , was founded in 1979 at Duke University as a way of collecting information and storing it by topic category

The topic categories on Usenet originally were called newsgroups forums

Internet discussion group

A series of postings on a particular issue is called a thread

The server that stores a newsgroup is called a news server

Each news server site employs a news administrator

Most feeds occur over the Internet using the Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)

Email-Based Communication on the Internet Newsreaders were programs designed for the sole purpose of communicating with news server computers New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Newsreaders were programs designed for the sole purpose of communicating with news server computers

Searching Google Groups for Newsgroup Articles Open the Google Groups home page in your Web browser Type a search expression in the search text box, and then click the Search Groups button to run the search Follow the hyperlinks to the newsgroup articles provided Examine and evaluate the newsgroup articles to determine whether you should revise your search expression New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Open the Google Groups home page in your Web browser

Type a search expression in the search text box, and then click the Search Groups button to run the search

Follow the hyperlinks to the newsgroup articles provided

Examine and evaluate the newsgroup articles to determine whether you should revise your search expression

Getting Information from Newsfeeds A newsfeed uses pull technology to deliver changing content to users The format used to syndicate published content from one site to another is called RSS ( Really Simple Syndication ) Another format is Atom To subscribe to a newsfeed, you need to install a program called an aggregator on your computer or mobile device Most current Web browsers and e-mail programs have built-in aggregators New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

A newsfeed uses pull technology to deliver changing content to users

The format used to syndicate published content from one site to another is called RSS ( Really Simple Syndication )

Another format is Atom

To subscribe to a newsfeed, you need to install a program called an aggregator on your computer or mobile device

Most current Web browsers and e-mail programs have built-in aggregators

Getting Information from Newsfeeds New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Podcasting Podcasting lets a user subscribe to an audio or video feed, and then listen to it or watch it at the user’s convenience on a compatible device A podcast is a subscription audio or video broadcast that is created and stored in a digital format on the Internet The aggregator used for feeds is sometimes called podcatching software New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Podcasting lets a user subscribe to an audio or video feed, and then listen to it or watch it at the user’s convenience on a compatible device

A podcast is a subscription audio or video broadcast that is created and stored in a digital format on the Internet

The aggregator used for feeds is sometimes called podcatching software

Podcasting New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Mashups A software program uses an Application Programming Interface (API) as a means of communication with an operating system or some other program Web services describe the process of organizations communicating through a network to share data, without any required knowledge of each other’s systems In a mashup , a developer combines the services from two different sites using the APIs from one or both sites to create a completely new site that uses features from one or both sites New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

A software program uses an Application Programming Interface (API) as a means of communication with an operating system or some other program

Web services describe the process of organizations communicating through a network to share data, without any required knowledge of each other’s systems

In a mashup , a developer combines the services from two different sites using the APIs from one or both sites to create a completely new site that uses features from one or both sites

Mashups New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Social Bookmarking Sites Social bookmarking is similar to saving a bookmark in your browser, but it refers to the process of saving bookmarks to a public Web site that you can access from any computer connected to the Internet To create your social bookmarks, you create tags , which are one-word descriptions of the bookmarked content New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Social bookmarking is similar to saving a bookmark in your browser, but it refers to the process of saving bookmarks to a public Web site that you can access from any computer connected to the Internet

To create your social bookmarks, you create tags , which are one-word descriptions of the bookmarked content

Social Bookmarking Sites New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Chat Chat : general term for real-time communication that occurs over the Internet Originally, the term chat described the act of users exchanging typed messages, or a text chat Voice Chat: where participants speak to each other in real time, much like they would be using a telephone Video Chat: where participants can see and speak to each other New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Chat : general term for real-time communication that occurs over the Internet

Originally, the term chat described the act of users exchanging typed messages, or a text chat

Voice Chat: where participants speak to each other in real time, much like they would be using a telephone

Video Chat: where participants can see and speak to each other

Chat Private Chat: occurs between individuals who know each other and are invited to participate in the chat Public Chat: occurs in a public area, sometimes called a chat room , in which people come and go Chats can be continuous, with participants entering and leaving ongoing discussions or they can be planned for a specific time and to last for a specific duration New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Private Chat: occurs between individuals who know each other and are invited to participate in the chat

Public Chat: occurs in a public area, sometimes called a chat room , in which people come and go

Chats can be continuous, with participants entering and leaving ongoing discussions or they can be planned for a specific time and to last for a specific duration

Chat Most chat tools allow users to save a transcript of the chat session for future reference Practice of reading messages and not contributing to the discussion is called lurking Text chat requires participants to type quickly, therefore, chat participants often omit capitalization and do not worry about proper spelling and grammar New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Most chat tools allow users to save a transcript of the chat session for future reference

Practice of reading messages and not contributing to the discussion is called lurking

Text chat requires participants to type quickly, therefore, chat participants often omit capitalization and do not worry about proper spelling and grammar

Commonly Used Chat Acronyms New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Chat Flaming: when a participant insults or ridicules another participant Spamming: when someone or an organization sends unsolicited and irrelevant messages to a chat room Although many chat rooms don’t enforce the rules of netiquette, as you use the Internet to communicate, you should exercise common courtesy and respect as you would when speaking in person with other people New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Flaming: when a participant insults or ridicules another participant

Spamming: when someone or an organization sends unsolicited and irrelevant messages to a chat room

Although many chat rooms don’t enforce the rules of netiquette, as you use the Internet to communicate, you should exercise common courtesy and respect as you would when speaking in person with other people

Internet Relay Chat Early UNIX computers included a program called Talk that allowed users to exchange short text messages In 1988, Jarkko Oikarinen wrote a communications program that extended the capabilities of the Talk program to multi-user. It was called Internet Relay Chat ( IRC ) IRC uses a client-server network model: IRC servers are connected through the internet to form an IRC network Individual chat participants use IRC clients that connect to the servers in the network New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Early UNIX computers included a program called Talk that allowed users to exchange short text messages

In 1988, Jarkko Oikarinen wrote a communications program that extended the capabilities of the Talk program to multi-user. It was called Internet Relay Chat ( IRC )

IRC uses a client-server network model: IRC servers are connected through the internet to form an IRC network

Individual chat participants use IRC clients that connect to the servers in the network

Internet Relay Chat The original network was EFNet , which is still one of the largest IRC networks today Other major IRC networks include IRCNet, Undernet, DALnet, and NewNet Servers in each of these IRC networks are connected to each other as part of the Internet, but IRC traffic is segregated by network New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

The original network was EFNet , which is still one of the largest IRC networks today

Other major IRC networks include IRCNet, Undernet, DALnet, and NewNet

Servers in each of these IRC networks are connected to each other as part of the Internet, but IRC traffic is segregated by network

Independent IRC Networks on the Internet New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Internet Relay Chat IRC networks organize their chats by topic Each topic area is called a channel , and participants who connect to an IRC network join specific channels in which they conduct their chats Each channel has a name, or a channel heading , that uses the pound sign (#) to indicate the chat’s topic When a participant creates a new channel, he becomes responsible for managing the channel and is called the channel operator The channel operator can change the channel’s topic and heading at any time New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

IRC networks organize their chats by topic

Each topic area is called a channel , and participants who connect to an IRC network join specific channels in which they conduct their chats

Each channel has a name, or a channel heading , that uses the pound sign (#) to indicate the chat’s topic

When a participant creates a new channel, he becomes responsible for managing the channel and is called the channel operator

The channel operator can change the channel’s topic and heading at any time

Independent IRC Networks on the Internet New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Instant Messaging Software Instant messaging software lets two users chat in real time over the Internet Instant messages usually occur between people who know each other, and are especially popular with friends and families separated by geographic distances The software has built-in tools that let you identify your friends and associates and alert you when they are online New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Instant messaging software lets two users chat in real time over the Internet

Instant messages usually occur between people who know each other, and are especially popular with friends and families separated by geographic distances

The software has built-in tools that let you identify your friends and associates and alert you when they are online

Instant Messaging Software Instant messaging is different from email in two important ways: When you send an e-mail message to a user, you do not have a way to determine if that user is online at the time you send your message When you send an instant message, the instant messaging software identifies whether the intended recipient is online before you send the message

Instant messaging is different from email in two important ways:

When you send an e-mail message to a user, you do not have a way to determine if that user is online at the time you send your message

When you send an instant message, the instant messaging software identifies whether the intended recipient is online before you send the message

Instant Messaging Software ICQ Pronounced “I seek you” One of the most popular instant messaging software programs Created in 1996 AIM ( AOL Instant Messenger ) Available to anyone, even those without an AOL account MSN Messenger / Windows Messenger / Windows Live Messenger Yahoo! Messenger New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

ICQ

Pronounced “I seek you”

One of the most popular instant messaging software programs

Created in 1996

AIM ( AOL Instant Messenger )

Available to anyone, even those without an AOL account

MSN Messenger / Windows Messenger / Windows Live Messenger

Yahoo! Messenger

Instant Messaging Software You must use the same instant messaging software to chat with other users Some instant messaging software programs have options for logging on to your chat account using a Web page so you can use the software when you are away from your primary computer All instant messaging software programs have some features that work on wireless devices, such as cell phones All instant messaging software is free and requires an Internet connection, preferably a broadband connection New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

You must use the same instant messaging software to chat with other users

Some instant messaging software programs have options for logging on to your chat account using a Web page so you can use the software when you are away from your primary computer

All instant messaging software programs have some features that work on wireless devices, such as cell phones

All instant messaging software is free and requires an Internet connection, preferably a broadband connection

Instant Messaging Software New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Web-Based Chat Sites Web-based chat sites offer the same features as text-based chat and instant messaging but are often easier to use and do not require users to download and install any software In Web-based chat, some users lurk and others have multiple conversations going at the same time The chat room identifies users as they speak with their user names Conversations are often open-ended and rarely follow the prescribed topic New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Web-based chat sites offer the same features as text-based chat and instant messaging but are often easier to use and do not require users to download and install any software

In Web-based chat, some users lurk and others have multiple conversations going at the same time

The chat room identifies users as they speak with their user names

Conversations are often open-ended and rarely follow the prescribed topic

Web-Based Chat Sites Most Web-based chat sites prohibit spam messages, the use of automated programs, profane and vulgar language, threats to individuals, and flaming Most sites require you to register before using their chat rooms Although Web sites that provide chat rooms have rules of appropriate conduct, you might encounter conversations taking place that are offensive to you New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Most Web-based chat sites prohibit spam messages, the use of automated programs, profane and vulgar language, threats to individuals, and flaming

Most sites require you to register before using their chat rooms

Although Web sites that provide chat rooms have rules of appropriate conduct, you might encounter conversations taking place that are offensive to you

Using Social Networks to Share Information Web 2.0 creates users who actively participate in writing the content that they are viewing; hence the term user-generated content Web 2.0 applications vary but they all rely in some way on the interactions of communities of people and their data Web 2.0 includes social networking communities, mashups, video and photo sharing sites, blogs, newsfeeds, and podcasts New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Web 2.0 creates users who actively participate in writing the content that they are viewing; hence the term user-generated content

Web 2.0 applications vary but they all rely in some way on the interactions of communities of people and their data

Web 2.0 includes social networking communities, mashups, video and photo sharing sites, blogs, newsfeeds, and podcasts

Online Social Networks Virtual communities that exist for the sole purpose of being a community More commonly called an online social network Useful tools for persons who want to make new local friends, establish acquaintances before moving to a new location, or obtain advice of various kinds Rely on advertising to generate revenue Some of the sites charge, or plan in the near future to charge, a monthly membership fee Other sites plan to charge for specific site features New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Virtual communities that exist for the sole purpose of being a community

More commonly called an online social network

Useful tools for persons who want to make new local friends, establish acquaintances before moving to a new location, or obtain advice of various kinds

Rely on advertising to generate revenue

Some of the sites charge, or plan in the near future to charge, a monthly membership fee

Other sites plan to charge for specific site features

Online Social Networks New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Online Business Networks Focus on business networking Users log on to seek jobs, find potential business partners, recruit workers, and engage in other business development activities Users are looking for specific solutions to their problems Online business networks tend to use categories that reflect specific interests and try to make it easy for business persons to find exactly the connections they need, quickly and efficiently New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Focus on business networking

Users log on to seek jobs, find potential business partners, recruit workers, and engage in other business development activities

Users are looking for specific solutions to their problems

Online business networks tend to use categories that reflect specific interests and try to make it easy for business persons to find exactly the connections they need, quickly and efficiently

Online Political Networks Used in the 2004 US elections to rally supporters, raise funds, and get their messages out to voters Provide a place for people interested in a candidate or an issue to communicate with each other Allow people to discuss issues, plan strategies, and arrange in-person meetings called meetups New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Used in the 2004 US elections to rally supporters, raise funds, and get their messages out to voters

Provide a place for people interested in a candidate or an issue to communicate with each other

Allow people to discuss issues, plan strategies, and arrange in-person meetings called meetups

Online Social Networks for Sharing Videos YouTube was launched in 2005, and Google bought the site for $165 billion in 2007 More than 100 million videos are viewed each day Several technologies made YouTube successful: Advances in digital recording devices Web 2.0 Major networks are dropping their objections to copyrighted material being shown on YouTube Other companies are adding video sharing services New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

YouTube was launched in 2005, and Google bought the site for $165 billion in 2007

More than 100 million videos are viewed each day

Several technologies made YouTube successful:

Advances in digital recording devices

Web 2.0

Major networks are dropping their objections to copyrighted material being shown on YouTube

Other companies are adding video sharing services

Blogs Blogs have been around for awhile Although blogs are a very popular and easy way to disseminate information, it is important to keep in mind that blogs are not subject to the same ethical guidelines of professional reporters Blogs are an important way of gathering public opinion Blogs also make effective use of tagging to categorize information posted by the blogger so it is easy to return to it later Because anyone can write a blog, there are millions of them on the Internet New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Blogs have been around for awhile

Although blogs are a very popular and easy way to disseminate information, it is important to keep in mind that blogs are not subject to the same ethical guidelines of professional reporters

Blogs are an important way of gathering public opinion

Blogs also make effective use of tagging to categorize information posted by the blogger so it is easy to return to it later

Because anyone can write a blog, there are millions of them on the Internet

Blogs New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Protecting Your Privacy and Identity on Social Networks Online social networks can be powerful tools for keeping in touch with friends and family, communicating with business acquaintances, or making the world seem a little smaller by finding people who share your hobbies and interests When creating a profile, consider the following: Many people may share your same name Some sites have restricted areas for underage users Cyberbullying is a problem with some children and adults You might be putting yourself at risk for identity theft New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Online social networks can be powerful tools for keeping in touch with friends and family, communicating with business acquaintances, or making the world seem a little smaller by finding people who share your hobbies and interests

When creating a profile, consider the following:

Many people may share your same name

Some sites have restricted areas for underage users

Cyberbullying is a problem with some children and adults

You might be putting yourself at risk for identity theft

Protecting Your Reputation The information you post on a social network is public—and it is often archived even after you delete it Many employers check MySpace, Facebook, and other online social networks for information that you have posted about yourself Another issue related to privacy is the use of your online profile by people in positions of authority Photos on Web site documenting unauthorized activities New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

The information you post on a social network is public—and it is often archived even after you delete it

Many employers check MySpace, Facebook, and other online social networks for information that you have posted about yourself

Another issue related to privacy is the use of your online profile by people in positions of authority

Photos on Web site documenting unauthorized activities

Summary Push and pull communication methods How to find and use newsgroups, mailing lists, newsfeeds, podcasts, and social bookmarks Use a mashup and learn about the technology Chat, instant message, online social networks, blocks, and video sharing sites Privacy issues involved when using different Internet communications New Perspectives on The Internet, Seventh Edition

Push and pull communication methods

How to find and use newsgroups, mailing lists, newsfeeds, podcasts, and social bookmarks

Use a mashup and learn about the technology

Chat, instant message, online social networks, blocks, and video sharing sites

Privacy issues involved when using different Internet communications

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