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Published on November 5, 2007

Author: Goldie

Source: authorstream.com

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THE TURKISH STRAITS ARE UNDER THREAT OF OIL SPILL :  THE TURKISH STRAITS ARE UNDER THREAT OF OIL SPILL Copyright: Turkish Marine Research Foudation (TUDAV) All rights are reserved. No part of this presentaion may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form of by any means without the prior permission from TUDAV. THE TURKISH STRAITS SYSTEM (TSS) , including Istanbul Strait, Marmara Sea and Çanakkale Strait, 325 km. :  THE TURKISH STRAITS SYSTEM (TSS) , including Istanbul Strait, Marmara Sea and Çanakkale Strait, 325 km. Natural threats of the Istanbul Strait Ships change their course 15 times. Surface current from the south up to 6 n.miles. Heavy fog in spring and winter Snow blizzards in winter:  Natural threats of the Istanbul Strait Ships change their course 15 times. Surface current from the south up to 6 n.miles. Heavy fog in spring and winter Snow blizzards in winter Main ecological characteristics of the TSS:  Main ecological characteristics of the TSS Biological barrier Biological corridor Phyto-zooplankton groups, fishes, marine mammals and sea birds migrate between the Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea Acclimatization zone Mediterranean originated species are adjusted to low temperature and low salinity More then 50 species are under the threat .. The Istanbul Strait Its narrowest part is only 740 m.:  The Istanbul Strait Its narrowest part is only 740 m. Stop dangerous cargo and tankers: floating bombs within Istanbul, where more than 10 million people live:  Stop dangerous cargo and tankers: floating bombs within Istanbul, where more than 10 million people live Tankers bigger than 200 m consist 5% of all the ships passing the TSS. Oil transportation reaches 130 million ton in 2003 . Istanbul Strait is historically a rich fishing ground, but little place left for fishing due to tanker transportation...:  Istanbul Strait is historically a rich fishing ground, but little place left for fishing due to tanker transportation... MAIN SHIP ORIGINATED POLLUTION About 50,000 ships passed through the TSS in 2003.:  MAIN SHIP ORIGINATED POLLUTION About 50,000 ships passed through the TSS in 2003. OIL SPILL SHIP ACCIDENTS TRI BUTYL TIN (Antifouling paint) EXOTIC SPECIES LITTER & BILGE WATER AIR POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION  BIODIVERSITY FISHERIES RECREATION Nassia accident (1994) 28 casualities:  Nassia accident (1994) 28 casualities SHIP ACCIDENTS and OIL SPILL:  SHIP ACCIDENTS and OIL SPILL Volganeft-242 accident (1999):  Volganeft-242 accident (1999) Sandy shore spoiled by Volganeft accident:  Sandy shore spoiled by Volganeft accident Cleaning operation after Volganeft accident:  Cleaning operation after Volganeft accident A sea bird and mussels mortality by Volganeft accident :  A sea bird and mussels mortality by Volganeft accident DAMAGE OF OIL SPILLS:  DAMAGE OF OIL SPILLS Comparison of main ship accidents in the TSS:  Comparison of main ship accidents in the TSS List of Red Data Book Species of the Turkish Straits System:  List of Red Data Book Species of the Turkish Straits System OIL CONTAMINATION IN THE BLACK SEA AND TSS:  OIL CONTAMINATION IN THE BLACK SEA AND TSS EXOTIC SPECIES Tanker traffic brings exotic species with ballast waters. Exotic species can threaten the native fauna and flora eg. Rapana venosa (mollusc) Mussels Mnemiopsis leidyi (combjelly) fish eggs and larvae :  EXOTIC SPECIES Tanker traffic brings exotic species with ballast waters. Exotic species can threaten the native fauna and flora eg. Rapana venosa (mollusc) Mussels Mnemiopsis leidyi (combjelly) fish eggs and larvae TBT COMPOUNDS (Antifouling paints)  Shellfish Rapana sp. Littorina sp.  Reproductive failure (Imposex)  Loss of genetic diversity:  TBT COMPOUNDS (Antifouling paints)  Shellfish Rapana sp. Littorina sp.  Reproductive failure (Imposex)  Loss of genetic diversity LITTER from the transit ships:  LITTER from the transit ships Slide23:  Citizens of Istanbul need clean sea and beaches, but recreational areas are decreasing in the TSS. CONCLUSION:  CONCLUSION Oil transportation through the TSS is increasing, which poses a greater threat to the environment and Marine biodiversity . Oil pollution effects not only the TSS but also the Black Sea and Aegean Sea. The TSS should be declared as a Particularly Sensitive Sea Area (IMO) to be protected internationally. International cooperaiton is needed to protect the biological corridor. Istanbul strait is not an oil high way: it is a refreshment place for residents of Istanbul. Istanbul City is under the threat: museums, mosques, civilization of more than 3000 years is under the threat due to heavy ship traffic and oil transportation in the TSS. Historical fishing grounds are under the threat of oil pollution and ship traffic. Let’s protect Istanbul, TSS, Black Sea and Mediterranean Sea for the future generation!! For furthur reading....:  For furthur reading.... Ozturk B. 1995. The Istanbul Strait, a closing biological corridor: 145-154. In: Turkish Straits, new problems, new solutions. Soysal I. Ed., ISIS Ltd, Istanbul. Ozturk B, & Ozturk A.A. 1996. Biology of the Turkish Strait Systems in: Dynamics of Mediterranean Straits and Channels, Briand F. ad. CIESM Science Series No. 2, Bulletin de l’Institut Oceanographique, Monaco, No. Special 17: 205-217. Shimkus K., Ozturk B. & Yesin V.Y. 1993. Oil products, heavy metals and radionuclides in the recent bottom sediments of the Marmara Sea shallow water area: 695-710. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Mediterranean Coastal Environment. MEDCOAST 93, Ozhan, E. Ed. Antalya, Turkey. Yurdun T., Kaleagasioglu F., Guven K.C. & Ozturk B. 1995. Investigations on the pollution of Istanbul Strait (Bosphorus) by M/S Rabunion-18 sunk with live sheep. Turkish Journal of Marine Science, 1: 57-63. Ozturk B, Ozturk AA, & Algan N (2001) Ship originated pollution in the Turkish Straits System. In: Ozturk B & Algan N (eds) Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Problems of Regional Seas, pp 86-93. TUDAV Publication, Istanbul

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