Published on March 6, 2014
TURKISH CUISINE BERK BARLAK
INTRODUCTION • ABOUT TURKISH CUISINE • Dairy Products • Soups • Bread • Pastries • Rice and Pasta • Vegetarian Dishes(Vegetable and Egg) • Meze and Salads • Meat Dishes(Kebabs) • Fish • Deserts • Beverages • CONCLUSION
About Turkish Cuisine Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine,which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian,Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines.Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines,including those of western Europe.
About Turkish Cuisine Turkish cuisine varies across the country. The cooking of Istanbul, Bursa, Izmir, and rest of the Aegean region inherits many elements of Ottoman court cuisine, with a lighter use of spices, a preference for rice over bulgur, and a wider use of seafoods. The cuisine of the Black Sea Region uses fish extensively, especially the Black Sea anchovy (hamsi), has been influenced by Balkan and Slavic cuisine, and includes maize dishes. The cuisine of the southeast—Urfa, Gaziantep and Adana—is famous for its kebabs, mezes and dough-based desserts such as baklava, kadayıf and künefe (kanafeh).
About Turkish Cuisine Especially in the western parts of Turkey, where olive trees grow abundantly, olive oil is the major type of oil used for cooking.The cuisines of the Aegean, Marmara and Mediterranean regions are rich in vegetables, herbs, and fish. Central Anatolia has many famous specialties, such as keşkek (kashkak), mantı (especially from Kayseri) and gözleme.
About Turkish Cuisine A specialty's name sometimes includes that of a city or region, either in or outside of Turkey, and may refer to the specific technique or ingredients used in that area. For example, the difference between urfa kebab and adana kebab is the thickness of the skewer and the amount of hot pepper that kebab contains. Urfa kebab is less spicy and thicker than adana kebab.
About Turkish Cuisine
Dairy Products • Yogurt is an important element in Turkish cuisine.In fact, the English word yogurt or yogurt derives from the Turkish word yoğurt. Yogurt can accompany almost all meat dishes (kebabs, köfte), vegetable dishes (especially fried eggplant, courgette, spinach with minced meat etc.), meze and a specialty called mantı (folded triangles of dough containing minced meat). One of the most common Turkish drinks, ayran, is made from yogurt. Also, yogurt is often used in the preparation of cakes, some soups and pastries.
Dairy Products • Beyaz peynir is a salty cheese taking its name from its white color ("white cheese"). It is eaten plain (e.g. as part of the traditional Turkish breakfast), used in salads, and incorporated into cooked foods such as menemen, börek and pide.
Dairy Products • Çökelek is one of two types of unsalted white cheese, made by boiling the whey left over from making beyaz peynir. • Lor is the other type of unsalted white cheese, it is used in traditional desserts made from unsalted cheese like höşmerim. • Tulum is a sheep's cheese preserved in an animal skin bag. • Otlu peynir ("herbed cheese") is produced in many areas, chiefly in East Anatolia.
Soups A Turkish meal usually starts with a thin soup (çorba). Soups are usually named after their main ingredient, the most common types being; mercimek (lentil) çorbası, yogurt, or wheat (often mashed) called tarhana çorbası. Delicacy soups are the ones that are usually not the part of the daily diet, like işkembe soup.İşkembe soup and paça çorbası, although the latter also used to be consumed as a nutritious winter meal. Before the popularisation of the typical Turkish breakfast, soup was the default morning meal for some people.
Soups The most common soups in Turkish cuisine are: • Buğday aşı/Yoğurt Çorbası/Ayran Çorbası (which can be served hot or cold) • Lahana (cabbage soup) • Tavuk (chicken soup, if added almond becomes "Bademli Tavuk") • Düğün (Wedding soup) • Ezogelin • İşkembe(Paunch) • Mercimek (lentil soup) • Şehriye • Tarhana • Domates • Yayla
Bread • • • • Bazlama Mısır Ekmeği(Corn Bread) Lavaş Pide (a broad, round and flat bread made of wheat flour) • Simit (also known as "gevrek", another type of ringshaped bread covered with sesame seeds. Simit is commonly eaten in Turkey, plain or with cheese, butter or marmalade). • Yufka a round and flat bread, made of wheat flour, thinner than pide.
Pastries • Börek is the general name for salty pastries made with yufka (a thicker version of phyllo dough), which consists of thin layers of dough. Su böreği, made with boiled yufka/phyllo layers, cheese and parsley, is the most frequently eaten. Çiğ börek (also known as Tatar böreği) is fried and stuffed with minced meat. Kol böreği is another well-known type of börek that takes its name from its shape, as do fincan (coffee cup), muska (talisman), Gül böreği (rose) or Sigara böreği (cigarette). Other traditional Turkish böreks include Talaş böreği (phyllo dough filled with vegetables and diced meat), Puf böreği. Laz böreği is a sweet type of börek, widespread in the Black Sea region.
Pastries • Poğaça is the label name for dough based salty pastries. Likewise çörek is another label name used for both sweet and salty pastries. • Gözleme is a food typical in rural areas, made of lavash bread or phyllo dough folded around a variety of fillings such as spinach, cheese and parsley, minced meat or potatoes and cooked on a large griddle (traditionally sač). • Katmer is another traditional rolled out dough. It can be salty or sweet according to the filling.
Pastries • Lahmacun (meaning dough with meat in Arabic) is a thin flatbread covered with a layer of spiced minced meat, tomato, pepper, onion or garlic. • Pide, which can be made with minced meat (together with onion, chopped tomatoes, parsley and spices), kashar cheese, spinach, white cheese, pieces of meat, braised meat (kavurma), sucuk, pastırma or/and eggs put on rolled-out dough, is one of the most common traditional stone-baked Turkish specialities. • Açma is a soft bread found in most parts of Turkey. It is similar to simit in shape, is covered in a glaze, and is usually eaten as a part of breakfast or as a snack.
Rice and Pasta
Rice and Pasta • Sade pilav is ordinary rice, which can accompany almost all dishes. • Domatesli pilav/tomato pilaf • Etli pilav:rice containing meat pieces • Nohutlu pilav:rice cooked with chickpeas • İç pilav:rice with liver slices, currants, peanuts, chestnut, cinnamon and a variety of herbs • Patlıcanlı pilav:rice with eggplant • Hamsili pilav:spiced rice covered with anchovies, cooked in oven. A speciality from the Black Sea Region.
Rice and Pasta • Özbek pilavı:rice with lamb,onion,tomato,carrot • Acem pilavı:rice with lamb,cooked in meat broth with pistachios,cinnamon. • Bulgur pilavı:a cereal food generally made of durum wheat. • Perde pilavı:rice with chicken, onion and peanuts enveloped in a thin layer of dough, topped with almonds • Frik pilavı:rice made of burnt wheat. A speciality from Antioch/Antakya.
Rice and Pasta • Mantı:Turkish pasta that consists of folded triangles of dough filled with minced meat, often with minced onions and parsley. It is typically served hot topped with garlic yogurt and melted butter or warmed olive oil, and a range of spices such as oregano, dried mint, ground sumac, and red pepper powder. The combination of meatfilled dough with yogurt differentiates it from other dumplings such as tortellini, ravioli, and Chinese wonton. Mantı is usually eaten as a main dish. Minced chicken and quail meats are also used to prepare mantı in some regions of Turkey.
Rice and Pasta • Erişte:home made pasta is called erişte in Turkey. It can be combined with vegetables but it can also be used in soups and rice. • Keşkek:a meat and wheat (or barley) stew • Kuskus:the Turkish version of couscous, which can be served with any meat dish or stew
Vegetable Dishes • Dolma is the name used for stuffed vegetables. Like the vegetables cooked with olive oil as described above dolma with olive oil does not contain meat. Many vegetables are stuffed, most typically green peppers (biber dolması), eggplants, tomatoes, courgettes, or Zucchini in the U.S. (kabak dolması), vine leaves (yaprak dolması).
Vegetable Dishes • Mercimek köfte, although being named köfte, does not contain any meat. Instead, red lentil is used as the major ingredient together with spring onion, tomato paste etc. • Imam bayildi is a version of karnıyarık with no minced meat inside. It can be served as a meze as well. • Mücver is prepared with grated squash/courgette or potatoes, egg, onion, dill and/or cheese and flour. It can be either fried or cooked in the oven.
Vegetable Dishes • Turşu is pickle made with brine, usually with the addition of garlic. It is often enjoyed as an appetizer. It is made with a large variety of vegetables, from cucumber to courgette. In the towns on the Aegean coast, the water of turşu is consumed as a drink. It comes from the Persian "Torshi", which refers to pickled "Torsh" (sour) vegetables.
Egg Dishes • Menemen consists of scrambled eggs cooked with tomato, green pepper, and onion. • Çılbır is another traditional Turkish food made with poached eggs, yogurt and oil. • Kaygana can be described as something of a cross between the pancake and the omelet in Ottoman cuisine. It used to be served with cheese, honey, crushed nuts, or eggplant. However, it is almost forgotten in the big cities of Turkey.
Meze and Salads
Meze and Salads • Acılı ezme – hot spicy freshly mashed tomato with onion and green herbs • Acuka (also known as muhammara) – a spread having both Circassian and Syrian origins, prepared with from Aleppo pepper paste, ground walnuts, tomato paste, bread crumbs, garlic, and spices • Patlıcan salatası – eggplant salad • Barbunya pilaki – borlotti beans cooked with garlic, tomato paste, carrot and olive oil
Meze and Salads • Cacık – cucumber with yogurt, dried mint and olive oil • Çiğ köfte – raw mea patties, similar to steak tartare, prepared with ground beef (sometimes lamb) and fine-ground bulgur; a vegetarian version using tomato paste is known as etsiz çiğ köfte (literally "meatless raw meatballs") • Çoban salatası – a mixed salad of tomato, cucumber, onion, green peppers, and parsley
Meze and Salads • Deniz börülcesi (Salicornia europaea, also called common glasswort or marsh samphire) • Fava – broad/horse bean puree • Gavurdağı salad • Haydari • Humus (from the Arabic for "chickpea") – a spread prepared from sesame tahini, chickpeas, garlic, olive oil, and lemon juice. • İçli köfte (also known as oruk) – served either as a meze or a main dish; especially in the east of Turkey, when it is cooked through boiling in a pot, içli köfte is served as a main dish
Meze and Salads • Kalamar (calamari) – fried or grilled, served with tarator sauce • Karides (shrimp) – served as a salad, grilled, or stewed with vegetables in a güveç (a casserole) • Kısır (also known as 'sarma içi') – a very popular meze or side dish prepared with fine-ground bulgur, tomato paste, parsley, onion, garlic, sour pomegranate juice and a lot of spices
Meze and Salads • Piyaz – white bean or potato salad with onion and vinegar • Şakşuka or in another version köpoğlu – fried and chopped eggplants and peppers served with garlic yogurt or tomato sauce • Semizotu (summer purslane) salad – served with yogurt
Meat Dishes • Kavurma ("kavurma", which means roasting/parching in Turkish, is generally used for roasted lamb. Çoban kavurma is a variety of it, prepared with diced lamb with tomatoes, onions, mushrooms, peppers and herbs. Kavurma is one of the favorite dishes of Ramadan.) • Alinazik kebab, a home-style Turkish kebab variety which is a specialty of the Gaziantep province of Turkey.
Meat Dishes • Hünkar Beğendi (meaning that the sovereign/sultan liked it, sultan's delight, the dish consists of the puree of grilled eggplant with cashar cheese topped with cubed lamb meat) • Türlü (a stew of vegetables and meat cooked in güveç-casserole) • Külbastı • Tandır (without adding any water, the meat is cooked very slowly with a special technique)
Meat Dishes • İncik (lamb on the bone cooked in the oven) • Karnıyarık (split-belly eggplant) (eggplants are cut off and fried. Then they are filled with minced meat, onion, garlic and tomato paste and cooked in the oven) • Kokoreç (the intestines of sheep) with spices is a traditional low-price fast food in Turkey.
Meat Dishes • Köfte (meatball) is another meat dish in Turkey. The word köfte is sometimes preceded by the name of a town, which refers to the technique for cooking it or the ingredients or spices specifically used in that region, for example; İnegöl köftesi, Sultanahmet köftesi, İzmir köfte, Akçaabat köfte, Bursa köfte, Filibe köfte, Tire köfte, Islama köfte (mainly in Sakarya province) etc. Its main ingredients are minced meat, parsley, bread-egg (not necessarily, usually homemade köfte contains egg yolk and some crumbled bread) and a range of spices: cumin, oregano, mint powder, red or black pepper powder with onion or garlic. Kadınbudu köfte is another traditional speciality; minced meat is mixed with cooked rice and fried. Içli köfte can be described as a shell of "bulgur" filled with onion, minced meat and nuts. Çiğ köfte is a meze from south-eastern Turkey meaning raw meatballs, prepared with "bulgur" and raw minced meat. Terbiyeli Sulu Köfte is another meatball speciality cooked with flour, tomato paste and water in which lemon and egg sauce is added.
Meat Dishes • Sujuk (sucuk) is a form of raw sausage (made with beef meat and a range of spices, especially garlic, slightly similar to Spanish chorizo) commonly eaten with breakfast. Instead of classical sausages (sosis), sujuk is the most used ingredient for snacks and fast-food style toasts and sandwiches in Turkey. • Pastırma is another famous beef delicacy (see pastrami). Both pastırma and sujuk can be put in kuru fasulye (dry beans) to enrich the aroma. Both can be served as a meze as well. Sucuk or pastırma with scrambled eggs, served in a small pan called sahan, is eaten at breakfast in Turkey.
Kebabs • Adana kebap– kebab with hand-minced (zırh) meat mixed with chili on a flat wide metal skewer (shish); associated with Adana region although very popular all over Turkey. • Beyti kebab – Ground lamb or beef, seasoned and grilled on a skewer, often served wrapped in lavash and topped with tomato sauce and yogurt, traced back to the famous kebab house Beyti in İstanbul and particularly popular in Turkey's larger cities.
Kebabs • Cağ kebab, 'spoke kebab' – Cubes of lamb roasted first on a cağ (a horizontal rotating spit) and then on a skewer, a specialty of Erzurum region with recently rising popularity. • Çökertme kebabı – Sirloin veal kebap stuffed with yogurt and potatoes. • Çöp şiş, "small skewer kebab" – a specialty of Selçuk and Germencik near Ephesus, pounded boneless meat with tomatoes and garlic marinated with black pepper, thyme and oil on wooden skewers.
Kebabs • Döner kebab • İskender kebap – döner kebap served with yogurt, tomato sauce and butter, originated in Bursa. The kebab was invented by İskender Efendi in 1867. He was inspired from Cağ kebab and turned it from horizontal to vertical. • Kuzu şiş – Shish prepared with marinated milkfed lamb meat.
Kebabs • Orman kebabı, 'forest kebab' – Lamb meat on the bone and cut in large pieces mixed with carrots, potatoes and peas. • Patlıcan kebabı, 'aubergine kebab' – Special kebap meat marinated in spices and served with eggplant (aubergine), hot pide bread and a yogurt sauce • Şiş tavuk or Tavuk şiş – Yogurt-marinated chicken grilled on a stick
Kebabs • Tandır kebabı, 'tandoor kebab' – Lamb pieces (sometimes a whole lamb) baked in an oven called a tandır, which requires a special way of cooking for hours. Served with bread and raw onions. • Tas kebabı, 'bowl kebab' – Stewed kebab in a bowl, beginning with the cooking of the vegetables in butter employing a method called yaga vurmak, ("butter infusion"), before the meat itself is cooked in the same grease. • Urfa kebabı – from Urfa, similar to Adana kebab, but not spicy
Fish • Turkey is surrounded by seas which contain a large variety of fish. Fish are grilled, fried or cooked slowly by the buğulama (poaching) method. Buğulama is fish with lemon and parsley, covered while cooking so that it will be cooked with steam. The term pilâki is also used for fish cooked with various vegetables, including onion in the oven. In the Black Sea region, fish are usually fried with thick corn flour. Fish are also eaten cold; as smoked (isleme) or dried (çiroz), canned, salted or pickled (lâkerda). Fish is also cooked in salt or in dough in Turkey. Pazıda Levrek is a seafood speciality which consists of sea bass cooked in chard leaves. In fish restaurants, it is possible to find other fancy fish varieties like balık dolma (stuffed fish), balık iskender (inspired by Iskender kebab), fishballs or fish en papillote. Fish soup prepared with vegetables, onion and flour is common in coastal towns and cities. In Istanbul's Eminönü and other coastal districts, grilled fish served in bread with tomatoes, herbs and onion is a popular fast food. In the inner parts of Turkey, trout alabalık is common as it is the main type of freshwater fish. Popular seafood mezes include stuffed mussels, fried mussel and fried kalamar (squid) with tarator sauce.
Fish • Popular sea fishes in Turkey include: anchovy hamsi, sardine sardalya, bonito palamut, gilthead bream çupra or çipura, red mullet barbun(ya), sea bass levrek, whiting mezgit (allied to the cod fish) or bakalyaro, swordfish kılıç, turbot kalkan, red pandora mercan, tırança, istavrit and white grouper lagos.
Desserts • One of the world-renowned desserts of Turkish cuisine is baklava. Baklava is made either with pistachio or walnut. Turkish cuisine has a range of baklava-like desserts which include şöbiyet, bülbül yuvası, saray sarması, sütlü nuriye, and sarı burma. • Kadaif ('Kadayıf') is a common Turkish dessert that employs shredded yufka. There are different types of kadaif: tel (wire) or Burma (wring) kadayıf, both of which can be prepared with either walnut or pistachio.
Desserts • Among milk-based desserts, the most popular ones are muhallebi, su muhallebisi, sütlaç (rice pudding), keşkül, kazandibi (meaning the bottom of "kazan" because of its burnt surface), and tavuk göğsü (a sweet, gelatinous, milk pudding dessert quite similar to kazandibi, to which very thinly peeled chicken breast is added to give a chewy texture). A speciality from the Mediterranean region is haytalı, which consists of pieces of starch pudding and ice cream (or crushed ice) put in rose water sweetened with syrup.
Desserts • Helva (halva): un helvası (flour helva is usually cooked after someone has died), irmik helvası (cooked with semolina and pine nuts), yaz helvası (made from walnut or almond), tahin helvası (crushed sesame seeds), kos helva, pişmaniye (floss halva). • Lokum (Turkish delight), which was eaten for digestion after meals and called "rahat hulkum" in the Ottoman era, is another well-known sweet/candy with a range of varieties.
Desserts • Güllaç is a dessert typically served at Ramadan, which consists of very thin large dough layers put in the milk and rose water, served with pomegranate seeds and walnut. A story is told that in the kitchens of the Palace, those extra thin dough layers were prepared with "prayers", as it was believed that if one did not pray while opening phyllo dough, it would never be possible to obtain such thin layers. • Aşure can be described as a sweet soup containing boiled beans, wheat and dried fruits. Sometimes cinnamon and rose water is added when being served. According to legend, it was first cooked on Noah's Ark and contained seven different ingredients in one dish. All the Anatolian peoples have cooked and are still cooking aşure especially during the month of Muharrem.
Desserts • Another jelly like Turkish sweet is macun. Mesir macunu of Manisa/İzmir (which was also called "nevruziye" as this macun was distributed on the first day of spring in the Ottoman Palace) contains 41 different spices. It is still believed that "mesir macunu" is good for health and has healing effects. • Tavuk göğsü is a Turkish style milky pudding with chicken breast.
Alcoholic Beverages • Raki is a Turkish unsweetened, anise-flavored hard alcoholic drink that is popular in Turkey and in the Balkan countries as an apéritif. It is often served with seafood or Turkish meze. It is similar to several other alcoholic beverages available around the Mediterranean, Albanian regions, the Middle East e.g., pastis, ouzo, sambuca, arak, and aguardiente. It is considered as the National alcoholic beverage of Turkey.
Alcoholic Beverages • There are a few local brands of lager such as Bomonti, Marmara34 and Efes Pilsen and a large variety of international beers that are produced in Turkey such as Skol, Beck's, Miller, Foster's, Carlsberg and Tuborg. • There are a variety of local wines produced by Turkish brands such as Kavaklıdere, Doluca, Corvus, Kayra, Pamukkale and Diren which are getting more popular with the change of climatic conditions that affect the production of wine.
Non-alcoholic Beverages • At breakfast and all day long Turkish people drink black tea. Tea is made with two teapots in Turkey. Strong bitter tea made in the upper pot is diluted by adding boiling water from the lower. • Turkish coffee is a method of preparing coffee. Roasted and then finely ground coffee beans are boiled in a pot (cezve), usually with sugar, and served in a cup where the grounds are allowed to settle. This method of serving coffee is found in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and the Balkans.
Non-alcoholic Beverages • Ayran (salty yogurt drink) is the most common cold beverage, which may accompany almost all dishes in Turkey, except those with fish and seafood. • Şalgam suyu (mild or hot turnip juice) is another important non-alcoholic beverage which is usually combined with kebabs or served together with rakı.
Non-alcoholic Beverages • Boza is a traditional winter drink, which is also known as millet wine (served cold with cinnamon and sometimes with leblebi). • Sahlep is another favorite in winter (served hot with cinnamon). Sahlep is extracted from the roots of wild orchids and may be used in Turkish ice cream as well. This was a popular drink in western Europe before coffee was brought from Africa and came to be known.
Conclusion Turkish cuisine is the most important part of our culture.For this reason,I presented Turkish cuisine and I talked about Turkish foods and drinks.Turkish cuisine has many dishes and beverages such as kebabs,mantı,lahmacun,ayran,turkish coffee etc. This foods and drinks have very important place in Turkish cuisine and our culture.