Tudorsand waroftheroses

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Published on February 27, 2014

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ENGLAND The Renaissance War of the Roses Rise of the Tudors Henry VIII and his Heirs

THE RENAISSANCE 1485 - 1660 Crash Course American History #22

RENAISSANCE  French word meaning: rebirth  Renewed interest in classical learning – the writings of ancient Greece and Rome  Renewal of the human spirit – a renewal of curiosity and creativity  Began in Italy  Optimistic view of humanity

IS IT REALLY A RENAISSANCE?  Didn’t know that they were living in the renaissance  Historical periods are historians’ inventions, useful labels for complex phenomena  Occurred gradually  Was an intellectual movement, therefore did not affect most on their day to day

RELIGION HUMANISM  Intellectual movement  Found no conflicts between the Church and ancient Roman moralists  Sought to harmonize the bible and the classics  Use the classics to strengthen Christianity The Roman Catholic Church  Predominant religion  Very rich and powerful, even in politics  Popes were patrons of artists, architects, and scholars Pope Julius II comissioned Michelangelo for the Sistine Chapel  Very corrupt: - simony – buying and selling of clerical offices

FAMOUS HUMANIST Sir Thomas More  Most famous work Utopia  Was knighted  Became a chief minister and advisor to King Henry VIII (not his smartest life choice)

THE REFORMATION  A need to reform the corruption in the church  Reformers rejected the authority of the pope and the Italian churchmen  Strong patriotism and national identity made the English people resent the financial burdens imposed by the Vatican and the foreign power of the pope.  Martin Luther founded a Christianity based on a personal understanding of the bible - published The Ninety-Five Theses on the church door in 1517

WARS OF THE ROSES 1455-1485 House of Lancaster vs. House of York

Wars of the Roses  30 years of non stop fighting  Shortly after peace with France, two families began war over English throne  Lancasters (red rose) vs. Yorks (white rose) HH Wars of the Roses

(Yorkist Line) HH Wars of the Roses (Lancastrian Line)

END OF THE WARS  Battle of Bosworth (1485)  Henry Tudor (Lancastrian) defeats Richard III killed  Crowned Henry VII  Marries the Elizabeth of York unite the two houses and to legitimize his claim as king Richard III Henry Tudor New symbol – double rose Elizabeth of York

RESULTS OF THE WAR OF THE ROSES:  Broke feudal power of the nobles  End of the Middle Ages  Power shift: Many nobles slain during the wars; their estates confiscated by the Crown  Lawlessness  Desire for strong gov. brings peace and prosperity  Reestablished royal power  Created the beginning of modern England  Beginning of the Tudor dynasty

THE TUDORS 1485 - 1603

HENRY VII THE FIRST TUDOR KING

HENRY VII  Anyone who opposed him at Bosworth was executed  BUT…was considered a good king  Sought prosperity for England.  In love with his wife and had 5 children

ARTHUR  Henry VII’s eldest son  Political marriage to Catherine of Aragon at age 15  She was Intelligent, well educated, good parents, extremely wealthy, and very well connected  Arthur dies in 1502 Died in 1502

WHAT TO DO WITH CATHERINE? Henry VII needs Catherine’s fortune to protect against the French

HENRY VII’S SOLUTION  His other son will marry Catherine  Marriage takes 7 years to negotiate  Pope displeased  Henry VII wants a better alliance for his son  When young Henry becomes king, marries Catherine

HENRY VIII  Humanist  Catholic, but saw need for reform  Sympathetic to Protestants He didn’t begin as an evil tyrant

TROUBLE IN PARADISE  Catherine fails to produce a male heir  Six failed pregnancies  They do have a child: a girl.

I GOT 99 PROBLEMS Henry wants to divorce Catherine and marry his mistress (one of his many) Anne Boleyn The Roman Catholic Church and the pope will not grant him a divorce

THE HOMEWRECKER  Anne Boleyn  Minor nobility  Family desperate to raise status  Sister had already been Henry’s mistress

ADVICE  Henry’s longtime advisors and friends said – “Accept God’s will.”  Cardinal Wolsey – Catholic Church  Thomas More -Humanist

MORE ADVICE  Thomas Cranmer  Turn Protestant, divorce Catherine.  Outlaw Catholics, confiscate wealth that the churches, monasteries, and convents have in England  Reward: Henry makes him an archbishop in new church

HENRY VIII AND THE NEW CHURCH 1534 Act of Supremacy = “only supreme head of the Church of England” is the king. Sold confiscated church land to the nobles in exchange for their loyalty. 1534 Act of Succession = Legitimizes children of Henry and Anne.

DESTROYING ENEMIES Desperation drove him to these decisions, but he was conflicted about them and so became paranoid.  Beheaded, imprisoned, an d intimidated those who opposed him  Sir Thomas More: Beheaded  Archbishop Wolsey: gave his home, wealth to Henry, still arrested, died before execution

WHAT ABOUT CATHERINE?  “Divorced”, house arrest  Daughter Mary declared illegitimate for refusing to become Protestant  She couldn’t be a princess which means she can’t ever be queen

WHAT ABOUT ANNE?  Does not produce a male heir, either. Miscarries 2 sons  Daughter (Elizabeth)  Fiery nature wore thin  Convicted of treason, beheaded

#3 JANE SEYMOUR  The obedient one  Married within a week of Anne’s death  Protestant  October 1537 -- a son.  She died in childbirth

PRINCE EDWARD  Sickly  Henry worried he was being punished for his actions  Attempts relationship with Mary and Elizabeth  Mary must renounce her mother and her church

#4 ANNE OF CLEVES  Cranmer helps find her  Protestant German Princess from a family known for producing a lot of children.  False advertising – she doesn’t look anything like her portrait

#4 ANNE OF CLEVES Married January 9, 1540 Divorced July 9, 1540 Stayed “friend” of King Henry Outlived Henry

HENRY’S DILEMMA  Considered returning to Catholicism  Edward – still sickly  Mary – now was favored (she’s Catholic)  Elizabeth (Protestant)out of favor

WIFE #5: KATHERINE HOWARD     29 years younger Barely educated Catholic Cousin to Anne Boleyn

WIFE #5: KATHERINE HOWARD Married 1540 Accused of adultery Beheaded 1542 She was only 19

WIFE #6: CATHERINE PARR  Outlived Henry  Henry favoring Catholics  Alarmed many Protestants  Married to Protestant widow in 1543 until his death in 1548.  Helped improve relationship to Elizabeth

Catherine of Aragon m. 1509-1533 DIVORCED Anne Boleyn m. 1533-1536 EXECUTED Jane Seymour m. 1536-1537 DIED Anne of Cleves m. 1540 Jan - July DIVORCED Kathryn Howard m. 1540 -1542 EXECUTED Katherine Parr m. 1543 -1547 SURVIVED HH Henry’s Six Wives

HENRY ON HIS DEATHBED

HENRY’S MESS Country tired of religious see-sawing Next king: Edward Protestant Next in Line: Mary Catholic After her: Elizabeth Protestant

KING EDWARD VII  Never a strong king  Ascended to the throne at age 10  Was controlled by advisors until he came of age; but died first  Strongly Protestant  Penalties for being Catholic  Died childless in 1553

(“BLOODY”) MARY I (R. 1553-1558)  Bitter  Goal: return England to Catholicism  Outlawed Protestants and burned people at the stake for being “heretics”  300 executions  Married cousin  Involved England in Spanish causes  No children

MARY I  Revenge on Thomas Cranmer  Blamed him for Henry leaving Catholicism and divorcing her mother  Tortured, burned as heretic

THE FEELINGS OF THE PEOPLE Conflicted Catholics = Pope has supremacy Protestants = believe in King over Pope Act of Supremacy says king is the true head of the Church, but Mary is Catholic Married to Spanish King Protestantism is official religion, but many privately practicing Catholicism Fighting the Catholics draining the people and treasury

MARY’S PROBLEM Mary was childless Only heir was Elizabeth Bitter personal feelings Mary and Elizabeth prior to Mary’s death Elizabeth becomes queen (1558-1603)

ELIZABETH I (CORONATION, AGE 20) “I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and of a king of England.”

ACCOMPLISHMENTS Developed a compromise to please the Roman Catholic and the Protestant churches; probably saved England from religious wars

AFTER DEFEAT OF THE SPANISH ARMADA (AGE 55) Speech to the troops at Tilbury (pg 366)

ACCOMPLISHMENTS Developed a compromise to please the Roman Catholic and the Protestant churches; probably saved England from religious wars

ACCOMPLISHMENTS She funded voyages of discovery to the Americas; expeditions prepared England for an age of colonization and expansion Under her reign, the arts flourished; miniature painting was at a high point and the theater thrived

ELIZABETH I The Virgin Queen  “I am married to England” The Cult of Love  Poems and literature about her or dedicated to her The Golden Age  The time of her rule was economically prosperous and domestically peaceful

TWO MINUTE TUDOR REVIEW

ELIZABETHAN BEAUTY THE IDEAL WOMAN  Pale skin created by the use of ceruse (a mixture of white lead and vinegar), some women willing to be bled to achieve perfect paleness  Hair/Wigs: fair hair (blond or red), some used urine for blond, henna for red, or eschewed dying all together for wigs  Eyes/lips/cheeks: kohl used to darken eyelashes (kind of like mascara). Blush (rouge) was a must; achieved by using mercuric sulfide (also used on the lips)

ELIZABETHAN BEAUTY THE IDEAL WOMAN  Juxtaposition of Elizabeth and the Virgin Mary – nobility and Christian imagery The colors are symbolic  Red: Christ’s blood  White: Christ’s flesh, purity  Gold: God’s glory, The Golden Age

SONNET P E T R A RC H A N  Francesco Petrarca, Italian  Two parts (14 lines total): Octave: eight lines Sestet: six lines  Volta: the transition between the two parts SHAKESPEREAN  Four parts (14 lines total): four quatrains: four lines one couplet: two lines  The Turn: a shift in focus or thought (usually around line 9)

MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS Chief Rival of Elizabeth Catholic heroine Exiled from Scotland, “guest” of Elizabeth for 18 years Died a martyr

MARY AND HER SON, JAMES

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