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Mapping domain thesauri to the CRM to assist the semantic interoperability of data archives :  Mapping domain thesauri to the CRM to assist the semantic interoperability of data archives Doug Tudhope Hypermedia Research Unit University of Glamorgan CIDOC CRM SIG Workshop, Imperial College, 2006 Presentation:  Presentation FACET Project with Science Museum Thesaurus-based query expansion with NMSI Collections database Semantic expansion Web Demonstrator Extend to heterogeneous datasets and terminology systems DELOS pilot project demonstrator English Heritage upper ontology based on CRM Mapping English Heritage thesaurus and database to CRM Current work FACET - Faceted Access to Cultural hEritage Terminology :  FACET - Faceted Access to Cultural hEritage Terminology Aims: Integration of thesaurus into the interface Semantic expansion taking advantage of facet structure http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/~FACET/ FACET Collaborators:  FACET Collaborators Research Council Funding: EPSRC 3 years National Museum of Science and Industry (NMSI): National Railway Museum and Science Museum Collections Database J. Paul Getty Trust Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) Museum Documentation Association (MDA) Railway Thesaurus Canadian Heritage Information Network (CHIN) Advisors NRM Collection examples of free text object descriptor fields:  NRM Collection examples of free text object descriptor fields Chair, London Midland & Scottish Railway, straight wooden back initials carved on back, green leatherette seat. Chair, Railway Clearing House, Curved back with blue leather inset & blue leather seat. R. C.H. carved on back Chair, M.S. & L.R., Straight back, blue leather seat with M.S. & L.R. carved across back Armchair, Pullman, green plush, fringed from Pullman section. Carver chair, Oak with oval brocade seat. Prince of Wales crest on back from Royal Saloon of 1876 Armchair, Upholstered in blue maquette with curved, buttoned back & scroll arms. Wooden legs Occasional table, Oak with drawer, ornately carved. From Royal Saloon of 1876 Set of 4 chairs, High-backed carver chairs upholstered in floral maquette Clock, made by Jno Walker, 250 Regent Street. Metal face/Roman numerals. Carved wooden square case. 20"x18"x10" Indexed Example from NRM Collection:  Indexed Example from NRM Collection ID 1975-7309 Description Armchair, Upholstered in blue moquette with curved, buttoned back & scroll arms. Wooden legs Item name(s) armchairs (AAT Hierarchy: Furnishings) Part Aspect Term (AAT Hierarchy) overall physical upholstering Processes & techniques overall material moquette Materials overall colour blue Color legs material wood Materials back shape curved Physical attributes back physical buttoning Processes & techniques arms shape scrolled arms Components Types of Knowledge Organisation System (KOS) adapted from Zeng & Salaba: FRBR Workshop, OCLC 2005:  Types of Knowledge Organisation System (KOS) adapted from Zeng & Salaba: FRBR Workshop, OCLC 2005 Term Lists: Synonym Rings Authority Files Glossaries/Dictionaries Gazetteers Natural language Controlled language Weakly-structured Strongly-structured Classification & Categorization: Subject Headings Classification schemes Taxonomies Categorization schemes Relationship Groups: Ontologies Semantic networks Thesauri Pick lists Semantic Expansion:  Semantic Expansion Expanding over thesaurus semantic relationships allows the system to play an active role Ranking of matching results by semantic closeness Query Expansion (automatic/interactive) Augmented Browsing tools Underpinning technologies: Measures of distance over the semantic index space Multi-concept Matching Function Slide9:  Faceted Knowledge Organisation Systems Faceted classifications based on primary division into fundamental, high-level categories (facets) Compound descriptors (multi-concept headings) are synthesised by combination of terms from limited number of fundamental facets In constructing AAT, adjectival noun phrases very common: e.g. painted oak furniture “Rather than enumerate the nearly infinite number of object and subject descriptions needed by thesaurus users, the AAT decided to pursue the building blocks of these descriptors in the form of a faceted vocabulary” (Guide to Indexing and Cataloging with the Art & Architecture Thesaurus) Slide10:  Matching Problem “The major problem lies in developing a system whereby individual parts of subject headings containing multiple AAT terms are broken apart, individually exploded hierarchically, and then reintegrated to answer a query with relevance” (Toni Petersen, AAT Director) Query: mahogany, dark yellow, brocading, Edwardian, armchair Descriptor: oak, light yellow, crests, ovals, brocade, Victorian, Carver chair Potentially extra / missing / partially and non-matching terms Slide11:  System Architecture FACET standalone system :  FACET standalone system http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/~facet/webdemo/ dstudhope@glam.ac.uk FACET Web Demonstrator:  FACET Web Demonstrator Illustrates thesaurus based expansion and faceted search Intended as an exploration of FACET research outcomes via dynamically generated Web components rather than a complete final interface Based on custom API for thesaurus programmatic access Browser-based interface (ASP application), using a combination of server-side scripting and compiled components http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/~FACET/webdemo/ http://jodi.tamu.edu/Articles/v04/i04/Binding/ FACET Web Demonstator:  FACET Web Demonstator Semantic Query Expansion:  Semantic Query Expansion Some lessons learned:  Some lessons learned Results show potential of faceted KOS for Query expansion with semantically ranked results Realtime implementation multi-concept matching function Semantic expansion as a browsing tool Potential combine with statistical and linguistic techniques How to generalise?  need for Common KOS representations and APIs Semantic mapping between different databases and KOS Semantic InteroperabIlity:  Semantic InteroperabIlity NMSI’s different museums and collections held in a single collections database Easy to express connections between thesaurus hierarchies and DB fields What if search across different DBs and KOS? Eg English Heritage (EH) a single organisation but wide range unconnected DBs and vocabularies Mapping domain thesauri to the CRM to assist the semantic interoperability of data archives:  Mapping domain thesauri to the CRM to assist the semantic interoperability of data archives DELOS NoE mini-project on Ontology-driven interoperability for Cluster on Knowledge Extraction & Semantic Interoperability Proof of concept demonstrator for exploring retrieval potential of mapping domain KOS to upper ontology (CIDOC CRM) In collaboration particularly with FORTH, University of Lund and English Heritage (Keith and Sarah May) Investigate integration of datasets - for assisting archaeological search and information extraction Background:  Background Current EH situation one of fragmented datasets and applications, with different terminology systems Interpretation may not consist of same terms as context Searchers from different scientific perspectives may not use same terminology Need for integrative metadata framework EH have designed an upper ontology based on CRM standard Work to date focused on modelling Databases not meaningfully connected:  Databases not meaningfully connected Even simply expressed queries currently difficult to answer, due to lack of tools for cross database searching "Specialists could only talk to [field] archaeologists and not talk to each other". (from discussion with a palaeoenvironmental archaeologist) Wider questions arising from science analysis by finds specialists often referred back to field archaeologist since databases documenting different scientific aspects not meaningfully connected DELOS pilot project datasets:  DELOS pilot project datasets English Heritage (and EH Data Services Unit) supplying various databases and controlled vocabularies. Starting with connecting to EH-CRM the new Environmental Archaeology Thesaurus and (part of) the Environmental Archaeology Bibliography Environmental Archaeology Thesaurus Scope Notes Extract (i):  Environmental Archaeology Thesaurus Scope Notes Extract (i) Altered by Animals SN: Modification or damage by an animal RT Worked (use where modification is by humans in ASPECT) Anoxic SN: Material preserved by exclusion of oxygen usually due to saturation with water which inhibits decay by micro-organisms Non Preferred Term: Waterlogged Burnt SN: Use for material that has been burnt Calcined SN: Material burnt at a high temperature (above 700 degrees centigrade) leaving only the mineral component. Non-preferred term: cremated BT: Burnt RT Cremation Charred SN: Material that has been burnt and at least in part reduced to carbon as a result of burning in a reducing atmosphere below 500 degrees C. Non-preferred term: Carbonised BT: Burnt Silicified SN Use for material that has been burnt at high temperatures in a good air supply such that only silica component remains BT: Burnt …… Mineral Replaced SN: Replacement of organic material by minerals, including calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate Non Preferred Term: Mineralised, Fossilised Mineral Preserved SN: Preservation of material by the toxic effect of corrosion products in the immediate vicinity, or within, the material Non Preferred Term: Mineralised Plant damage SN: Material that has been penetrated or disrupted by the roots or rhizomes of plants. Environmental Archaeology Thesaurus Scope Notes Extract (ii):  Environmental Archaeology Thesaurus Scope Notes Extract (ii) Arthropods SN: Use for remains of arthropods in general, including woodlice, spiders, insects etc. Please note crustaceans have been included under this category. BT: Invertebrates NT: Cladocerans, Crustaceans (Decapods), Insects, Mites, Ostracods Cladocerans SN: Group of fresh water crustaceans which include the water fleas (Daphnia ssp.) the egg cases (ephippia) of which are found in archaeological deposits (EH Guidelines for Environmental Archaeology) BT: ArthropodsEAT-Draft scope notesv6.doc Crustaceans (Decapods) SN: Use for the remains of shrimps, prawns, crabs and lobsters BT: Arthropods Insects SN: Use for the remains of any part of an insect (MDA Object Thesaurus) Non-preferred term: Beetles, Coleoptera Mites SN: Related to spiders. Use for ticks and true mites. Mites are widely present in archaeological deposits but are rarely studied in detail as they are difficult to identify (Kenward, forthcoming) BT: Arthropods Ostracods SN: Small crustaceans ranging in size from 0.2mm to 30mm and possessing a bivalve carapace or ‘shell’. They live in salt-water, brackish and freshwater and are used to help to reconstruct aquatic conditions e.g. pollution, degree of salinity BT: Arthropods EH extension to CRM:  EH extension to CRM Currently in pdf file Need to represent in machine readable format Example of CRM - Thesaurus connection (by EH collaborators):  Example of CRM - Thesaurus connection (by EH collaborators) FlotationSampleResidueType – EH_E0067 CRM entity E55: Type Classification of flot and/or residue contents Mapping: Use Arch Science Thesaurus Terms: Object type, Material type, Modification state, Aspect Example CRM - Thesaurus connection 2:  Example CRM - Thesaurus connection 2 ContextSampleType – EHE0053 CRM entity E55: Type Derived from the Environmental guidelines list Samples taken will be of a particular type depending upon the technique that will be used to analyse them. For Specialist Scientific Sampling it would be appropriate to use Archaeological Science Thesaurus terms for “Investigative Techniques”, but for samples taken by non-specialists the investigative technique may not be know at the point of sampling. Current Work - Proof of concept demonstrator :  Current Work - Proof of concept demonstrator Express EH-CRM in machine-readable form Add connections for databases and thesauri to EH-CRM Demonstrator – first steps Express user information need in terms of EH-CRM Identify database and thesaurus entities (if any) from extended EH-CRM Drive search from this information Next steps:  Next steps Involve other EH databases and vocabularies Connect very different datasets, for example species taxonomies via via plant names Extend to associated grey literature (and FRBR indexed documents) Contact Information:  Contact Information Doug Tudhope School of Computing University of Glamorgan Pontypridd CF37 1DL Wales, UK dstudhope@glam.ac.uk http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/dstudhope References:  References Binding C., Tudhope D. 2004. KOS at your Service: Programmatic Access to Knowledge Organisation Systems. JoDI 4(4), http://jodi.tamu.edu/Articles/v04/i04/Binding/ CIDOC CRM http://cidoc.ics.forth.gr/ DELOS Network of Excellence http://www.delos.info/ DELOS Knowledge Extraction & Semantic Interoperability http://delos-wp5.ukoln.ac.uk/ FACET Case Study, DigiCult Thematic Issue 6: Resource Discovery Technologies for the Heritage Sector,http://www.digicult.info/pages/Themiss.php [pdf] FACET Web demonstrator http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/~FACET/webdemo/

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