tubasics

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Information about tubasics
Education

Published on January 22, 2008

Author: Valeria

Source: authorstream.com

Basics of Turfgrass Weed Management:  Basics of Turfgrass Weed Management Tim R. Murphy Crop and Soil Sciences The University of Georgia What is a Weed?:  What is a Weed? A plant out of place A plant whose virtues have yet to be discovered A flower in disguise Is this plant a weed???:  Is this plant a weed??? Common ragweed decreases crop yields, allergen Poison ivy skin rashes, fruit consumed by birds Tall fescue desirable turf and forage grass a weed in warm-season turfgrasses Slide4:  Human beings decide which plant is a WEED!!!! Why are weeds an annual problem?:  Why are weeds an annual problem? Seed and vegetative structure dormancy Prolific seed producers Spread of seed Weed seed survival insured by::  Weed seed survival insured by: Hard seed coat (testa) Deep burial After ripening mechanisms Germination inhibitors Slide8:  Weeds are prolific seed producers. Seed/Plant Broadleaf plantain 36,000 Lambsquarters >30,000 Crabgrass 53,000 Texas Panicum 23,000 Annual Bluegrass 2,000 Slide9:  Weeds - Nutsedge Spring 43,560 1 ft. Acre X 3,000,000 Plants 4,000,000 Tubers Fall Acre Introduced weeds:  Introduced weeds Johnsongrass Common lespedeza Crabgrass Broadleaf plantain Water-hyacinth Factors affecting seed germination:  Factors affecting seed germination Oxygen Light Scarification Temperature Water Why control weeds?:  Why control weeds? Control vs. Eradication:  Control vs. Eradication Control -Process of limiting a weed infestation to a level that is economically or aesthetically beneficial. Eradication -Elimination of all plants and plant parts of weed species from an area. Weeds:  Weeds Compete with desirable plants for sunlight, moisture and nutrients May exert allelopathic effects Reduce yields or quality of harvested product Slide15:  Why do we control weeds in turfgrasses? Turfgrass Weeds:  Turfgrass Weeds Reduce quality - leaf width, shape, color differences Reduce density - outcompete turfgrasses, can lead to erosion Decrease aesthetic value or utility of the turfgrass. - difficult to mow, disrupt uniformity of playing surfaces, safety considerations, attract insects Develop A Plan:  Develop A Plan Goals Methods Economics Alternatives Benefits The Goal:  The Goal Establish and maintain a high quality, nearly weed-free turfgrass. Integrated Weed Management:  Integrated Weed Management Methods Preventive Cultural Biological – not available in turfgrasses Mechanical Herbicides Preventive Methods:  Preventive Methods State and Federal laws Weed-free seed, sod, sprigs Weed-free topsoil, topdressing Clean equipment Field borders Cultural Methods:  Cultural Methods Adapted turfgrasses Fertility Cultivation Water management Insect and disease control Southeast U. S. Turfgrasses:  Southeast U. S. Turfgrasses Soil Fertility Effects on Weeds:  Soil Fertility Effects on Weeds Low N - legumes, mosses, speedwell High P - annual bluegrass High N - common chickweed, ryegrass, annual bluegrass Low soil pH - red sorrel, broomsedge Weeds Favored by High Soil Moisture:  Weeds Favored by High Soil Moisture Sedges - purple nutsedge, green kyllinga Rushes Annual bluegrass Mosses, algae Alligatorweed Pennywort Weeds Favored by Low Soil Moisture:  Weeds Favored by Low Soil Moisture Prostrate spurge Poorjoe Common lespedeza Prostrate knotweed Weeds Favored in Compacted Soils:  Weeds Favored in Compacted Soils Annual bluegrass Goosegrass Prostrate knotweed Common lespedeza Path rush Weeds may indicate a nematode problem:  Weeds may indicate a nematode problem spurges Florida pusley prostrate knotweed Mechanical Methods:  Mechanical Methods Mowing Hand removal Why does mowing control tall-growing weeds?:  Why does mowing control tall-growing weeds? Reduces apical dominance of main stem Basal buds initiate growth Continued clipping depletes root carbohydrates Prevents weed seed formation Why does mowing not control low-growing weeds?:  Why does mowing not control low-growing weeds? Primary growing point is located beneath the mower blade. Slide39:  Kentucky Bluegrass Herbicides:  Herbicides Herbicide – a chemical used to control, suppress or kill plants. Preemergence – applied before weed seeds germinate Postemergence – applied to emerged weeds Herbicides:  Herbicides Turf species vary in tolerance Weed species vary in susceptibility Turfgrass species and weed identification is critical to herbicide selection!!!! Maintain Healthy Turfgrass:  Maintain Healthy Turfgrass Manage the roots to have good shoots Soil testing is a must! Utilize cultural practices (fertility, irrigation, mowing height, etc.) to improve stress tolerance Keep mower blades sharp ! Use the best species and cultivars for your location Identify the Weed Problem:  Identify the Weed Problem READ textbooks and periodicals Keep a diagnostic tool kit - hand lens, etc. Know the life cycle of the pest (What temp. does a specific weed seed germinate?) Is the weed the cause or effect of the problem? Confirm your diagnosis Weed Thresholds - ??:  Weed Thresholds - ?? Site - putting green, lawn, etc. People - expectations Weed - population dynamics Budget - dollars Scouting Sites:  Scouting Sites Use zig-zag pattern Make random stops Scouting Sites:  Scouting Sites Identify weeds and life cycle Record observations by area - ornamental beds - turfgrass areas * front lawn * back lawn Scouting Sites:  Scouting Sites Record density by species Low - 1 to 10% Medium - 11 to 20% High - > 20% When to Scout?:  When to Scout? Mid-winter months - winter weeds Late-April to July - summer weeds Late summer - assess summer program Late spring - assess winter program Developing a Weed Management Program:  Developing a Weed Management Program Prevent weed introduction Properly maintain turfgrasses Identify weeds and learn life cycle Initiate control practices Preventive Cultural Mechanical Herbicides

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