Published on November 23, 2009
6,169 , TSUNAMI OF 26/12/2004 Current National Disaster Management System (End of the course project submitted towards the fulfillment of the course) Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Framework From 30/6/08 to 8/8/08 76 – Submitted by Deepa G. Menon, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Kerala Agricultural University, Mannuthy, Thrissur. S
J an , 2001 – “Early Warning System for Natural and India is a country highly vulnerable to natural disasters. Enormous population pressures and urbanization have forced people to live on marginal lands or in cities where they are at greater risk to disasters and the damage they can cause. Whether a flood, a regional drought or a devastating earthquake, millions of Indians are affected each time a disaster occurs. In addition to large-scale displacement and the loss of life, these events result in the loss of property and agricultural crops worth millions of dollars annually. 1) Background Information India is the seventh largest by geographical area and the second most populous country, in the world. With a total land area of 3,287,263 sq.k.m, measuring 3,214 km from north to south and 2,993 km from east to west, it has a land frontier of 15,200 km and a coastline of 7,517 km. The climate comprises of a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalisations difficult, though it is considered to be tropical. India's annual rate of inflation inched closer to the 12% mark in July 2008, and per capita income of Indians reached Rs 32,299 during 2007-08. The index for primary articles showed a decline of 0.1% while that for food articles declined 0.2 % this year. GDP growth forecast for India is 8.1 % for the fiscal year to March 31, 2009, from the current rate of 8.5. Sectoral forecasts for industry and services are at 8 and 9.8 % respectively. Inflation rate is expected to remain high in the next few months, at least till the end of the year. India's population at the
end of 2007-08 has been at 113.8 crore, up from last years’ 112.2 crore. About 214 million people, or 20.8 % of India's population, are poor. The incidence of income poverty in rural and urban areas is estimated to be 21.7 % and 18.7 %, respectively. Around 22.3 % households control 51% of India's total income, their per capita income is Rs 33,170 annually, about nine times that of the lowest income-level segment of 17.9 % households, whose annual per capita income is Rs 3,534. The urban annual income level of Rs 95,827 is around 85 % higher than the rural annual income level of Rs 51,922. Labourers constitute over 62 % of poor households. In contrast, this group accounts for 26 % of non-poor households. While 21.7 % of non-poor households earn salaries, just about 4.4 % of poor households earn their living through salary or wages. Natural disasters cause massive losses of Indian life and property. Among the 35 States/ Union Territories, 25 are disaster prone and the Coast line is exposed to tropical cyclones. Floods, drought, landslides and cyclones occur regularly whereas earthquake risk is extremely high. Other dangers include frequent summer dust storms, causing extensive property damage in North India. Hail is also common in parts of India, causing severe damage to standing crops such as rice and wheat. In the Lower Himalaya, landslides are common, whereas in parts of the Western Ghats low-intensity landslides occur On account of labile rock formations, which are susceptible to slippages. Avalanches occur in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim. Floods are the most common natural disaster in India. The heavy southwest monsoon rains cause the Brahmaputra and other rivers to distend their banks, flooding surrounding areas ,killing thousands and displacing millions. Flash floods and torrential rains, have become increasingly common in central India over the past several decades, coinciding with rising temperatures. Failure of the monsoons result in water shortages, in drought-prone regions such as southern and eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. In the past, droughts have periodically led to major famines, including the Bengal famine of 1770, 1876–1877 ,1899, in which millions died; and that of 1943, in which over five million died. According to earthquake hazard zoning of India, tectonic plates beneath the earth's surface cause yearly earthquakes along the Himalayan belt and in northeast India. They are classified as Zone V, indicating a very high-risk area. Parts of western India, around the Kutch region in Gujarat and Koyna in Maharashtra, are classified as a Zone IV region (high risk). Tropical
cyclones, bring with them heavy rains, storm surges, and winds. In the North Indian Ocean Basin, the cyclone season runs from April to December, with peak activity between May and November. Each year, an average of eight storms with sustained wind speeds greater than 63 kilometres per hour form; of these, two strengthen into true tropical cyclones, with a speed above 117 km/hr, and on an average, a major cyclone develops every other year. In terms of damage and loss of life, a supercyclone that struck Orissa on 29 October 1999, was the worst in more than a quarter-century. India has one active volcano: the Barren Island volcano which last erupted in May 2005. There is also a dormant volcano called the Narcondum and a mud volcano at Baratang in the Andaman Islands. India is one of the most hazard prone countries in the world, and poor people are at high risk. Earthquakes, cyclones, floods kill thousands, leave millions destitute, and cause large infrastructure and financial losses as well as productivity losses that hinder development. To mitigate these devastations, we must have the capacity to predict potential disasters, prepare high-risk areas, and respond in an effective, coordinated manner. 2) Brief Description of the Selected Disaster Event A tsunami caused by the Indian Ocean earthquake struck the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and India's east coast on 26th of December 2004. According to the Government of India's Report to the Nation in June 2005, 12405 lives were lost, 8009 in Tamil Nadu, 3513 in Andaman and Nicobar Island, 599 in Pondicherry, 177 in Kerala and 107 in Andhra Pradesh. The tragedy affected 27 92 000 people in 1089 villages, including 43 000 people in Pondicherry; 196 000 in Andhra Pradesh; 130 000 in Kerala; 356 000 in ANI and 897 000 in Tamil Nadu. It destroyed over 235 000 homes, damaged 83788 boats and rendered 39035 hectares of cropped area unusable. The social infrastructure — schools, primary health centres, drinking water supply, anganwadis and other community assets in these areas were totally destroyed. Seventy – five % of the fatalities were women and children. About one third of the people affected are from the underprivileged and socially excluded groups. 787 women were widowed and 530 children were orphaned. The estimated total financial losses exceed US$ 1.2 billion. This includes damages to infrastructure, such as roads, bridges, ports and around, 1,54000 houses. In Tamil Nadu, 376 villages were affected, while in Andhra Pradesh, 301 villages suffered the brunt of the Tsunami, 187 in Kerala and 33 in Pondicherry. Following the destruction of whole villages, people had to be placed in temporary shelters. It is still proving to be a challenge to provide basic social
services in maternal and child health, nutrition, education and water and sanitation to these vulnerable people. Those who suffered the brunt of the disaster, lost houses, livelihoods, household goods and assets like boats and nets. Along the affected coast, a considerable degradation of typical coastal ecosystems and coastal aquaculture has taken place since the Tsunami. The sea salt ruined land plots, which caused farmers loss in their crops. One of the least measurable impacts though, is the effect of the catastrophe on the human mind and soul. The disaster took away lives, caused injuries and destroyed family networks, homes, and livelihoods. There are long lasting effects on families torn by death and injuries, for widows, single parents and their children, orphans, children separated from their families, the elderly, and the disabled. The relief and recovery efforts undertaken in India were led by the Government and supported by multi-lateral organizations like the UN, World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. Substantial funding was made available, through the Prime Minister’s National Relief Fund (155.5million US$) and the Rajiv Gandhi Rehabilitation Package (US$ 809.5 million). While the former focused more on the health, education and well being of affected persons, especially children, the latter aimed to support the revival, of the fishery and agriculture sectors, construction of temporary shelters, repair and restoration of infrastructure. Community members, individuals, NGOs and the Indian private sector, responded on an unprecedented scale, with their support ranging from adopting communities to providing psychosocial support and contributions in kind. U.S.-assistance was aimed at reinforcing India’s relief efforts, more than $4.3 million was invested in relief and psychosocial support (47,000 individuals counseled), Cash-for-work programs (over 435,000 days of work); and repairs to fishing boats and engines. An additional $14 million was provided to finance long-term transition and recovery activities. Preliminary estimation of damage/losses between 1 and 15 February 2005 In US$ million Damage Losses Total Effect on livelihoods† Andhra Pradesh 29.7 15.0 44.7 21.2 Kerala 61.7 39.1 100.8 36.3 Tamil Nadu 437.8 377.2 815.0 358.3 Pondicherry 45.3 6.5 51.8 5.9 Total (by sectors) 574.5 448.3 1 022.8 421.7 ‡ Relief 200.7 200.7 † refers to the impacts on agriculture and livestock, fisheries and micro-enterprises ‡ Relief provided by local, state and national governments
Tsunami affected areas
3) National Disaster Management System The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister of India, is the Apex Body for Disaster Management in India. The Ministry of Home Affairs and Finance Ministries also have linage towards the NDMA. The setting up of the NDMA and the creation of an enabling environment for institutional mechanisms at the State and District levels is mandated by the Disaster Management Act, 2005. NDMA as the apex body is mandated to lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for Disaster Management. Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities and different Ministries for the purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disaster or the mitigation, Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plan for disaster management; Recommend provision of funds and other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the mitigation, or preparedness and capacity building for dealing with the disaster. To carry out the mandated functions, NDMA has evolved a lean and professional organization, which is IT-enabled, and knowledge based. The Central Relief Commissioner (CRC) in the Ministry of Home Affairs is the nodal officer to coordinate relief operations. He is the head of the Crisis Management Group and nodal officers nominated by different ministries and Resident Commissioners of States aid him. Cabinet Secretary is the head of National Crisis Management Committee. There is a Control Room in MHA, which is in operation round the clock. Additionally, there is Contingency Action Plan dealing with contingencies arising out of natural disasters and which is periodically reviewed and updated. The concept of the organization is based on a disaster divisions-cum-secretariat system. Each member of the Authority heads disaster-specific divisions for specific disaster and functional domains. Each member has also been given the responsibility of specified states and U.Ts for close interaction and coordination. The NDMA Secretariat, headed by a Secretary is responsible to provide secretarial support and continuity. It is proposed to have two Disaster Management Wings under the Secretariat. They are: - DM I wing dealing with mitigation, preparedness, plans, reconstruction, community awareness and dealing with financial/administrative aspects. DM II wing is proposed to be composed of the National Disaster Management Operations Centre with the state-of-the-art multi-redundant communication systems, to carry out the tasks of capacity development, training and knowledge management.
The NDMA has adopted a mission-mode approach involving a number of initiatives with the help of various institutions operating at national, state and local levels. The central ministries, states and other stakeholders have been involved in the participatory and consultative process of evolving policies and guidelines. The organization of these tasks reflects the nature of federal or intergovernmental relations within the country. For example, mitigation measures such as land-use regulation and building code compliance can be enforced by a national Urban Planning department, by municipal governments, or by private firms. Emergency operations can be entrusted to the military, or to a Sustainable Development ministry. State Relief Manuals are also available at state levels. There is Calamity Relief Fund in each state. In case of state level disasters, Chief Secretary, may seek additional fund under National Calamity Contingency Fund. A functional and operational infrastructure has been built which is appropriate for disaster management involving uncertainties coupled with desired plans of action. Enactments such as the Disaster Management Act 2005 could only be empowered to lay down the policies, plans and guidelines to ensure timely and effective response to disasters. Reconstruction assistance can be disbursed solely to the central government, or to local governments as well immediately following the Tsunami , the Govt. of Kerala came up with the idea of a multi-skill task force for disaster preparedness in each District. The team was constituted with (The Disaster Management Act has mandated the constitution of a Specialist Response Force to a threatening disaster situation or a disaster. ) a multi-disciplinary, multi- skilled, high-tech force for all types of disasters . All the teams were trained for all natural disasters each including engineers, technicians, veterinarians, electricians, dog squads and medical/paramedics. VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS & MINISTRIES RESPONSIBLE FOR VARIOUS DISASTERS Earthquakes and Tsunami MHA/Ministry of Earth Sciences/IMD Floods MHA/Ministry of Water Resources/CWC Cyclones MHA/Ministry of Earth Sciences/IMD Drought Ministry of Agriculture Biological Disasters Ministry of Health and Family Welfare A “top-down” approach commonly assumes that for a national disaster system to succeed, governments must be active participants in its creation and implementation. Formal channels of ‘command and control’ exist, implying that decision-making lies with the central administration.
A “bottom-up” approach argues that focusing natural disaster policy on existing government systems sometimes enhances narrow power structures and draws away from local concerns and initiatives. Although such an approach to risk management is not guaranteed to be comprehensive, it applies directly to identifiable needs and seems to provide more effective results both in mitigation and preparedness. It also increases the role of local administrations. DISTRICT DISASTER MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY A Disaster Management Committee has been set up at the district level headed by the District Collector or District Magistrate shall be Chairperson and officials from the Health, Agriculture, Irrigation, Veterinary Department, Department of Water and Sanitation, Police, Fire Services etc. Representatives from National and International NGO’S Rotract and Lions club / self help groups, Local Red Cross play an active role in risk reduction programs in the region. The Disaster Management Committee, which is, basically the decision-making body takes the help of Disaster Management Teams, which are the action group and are trained on the latest technologies. The main functions of the District Management Committee are: a) helping the administration for preparing of the District Management Plan.; b) coordinating training for the members of the Disaster Management Teams at the district level; c) carry out mock drills. The following Government / semi government organizations also play a vital role in relief and rescue work -: Government Hospitals / Primary health centers, / Medical colleges , Railway stations , Airports authority for evacuation of causality / transporting relief materials , Fire station / brigade , Bus stands for evacuation of causality / transporting relief materials , Nearest Armed Forces / paramilitary units / and their hospitals (Command / base hospital) , Sports authority where their huge sports complexes / stadium etc can be used as Disaster management medical wards/ establishing relief camps etc , Govt. and private school and colleges, as their complexes can be used for relief camps. In India Private disaster insurance exists, but there is little reliance on the private market for financing relief. If a disaster overwhelms the capacity of the state government to respond, the central government will provide financial and other assistance. If such a major disaster occurs, the central government commits itself to pre-fixed reimbursement sums for loss of life, limb, and partial and total loss of housing and productive assets.
The National Natural Disaster Knowledge Network has been designed to facilitate an interactive, simultaneous dialogue with all the players dealing with natural disasters. Indian NGOs, such as the Disaster Mitigation Institute, are also working with the government, as well as the Grameen Bank, in designing tools to address disaster loss and poverty. In addition, India appears to have a great deal of innovation from the private sector. Micro-insurance mechanisms are being designed to reach the poorest groups, build institutional capacity, and form the capital necessary for disaster management targeted toward the poor. The collaborative program on Disaster Risk Management taken up with UNDP support covers 169 multi-hazard prone districts in the country and envisages assisting the States to draw up plans for district/block/village levels to build up effective resilience to disasters. Grass-root level participation in the disaster management actions is envisaged. A national Communication Plan has been drawn up harnessing the modern systems of communication for information flow, dissemination of warnings etc. A web-based inventory of specialist resources required for disaster management support has been operationalised. The National Institute for Disaster Management is entrusted with developing training capsules, disaster management codes, human resource development, awareness creation program and education. The overall stress is to make the disaster management program in the country more effective with appropriate technology inputs and grass-root level participation. Activities, taken by authorities and/or community to minimize the effects of the disaster: Risk Identification in addition to investing in early warning systems, resources should be spent on understanding and seeking to counter the driving process behind the current devastation, Development of integrated coastal management plans and coastal vulnerability maps, Systematic inventory of disasters and losses, Hazard monitoring and forecasting, Hazard evaluation and mapping, Vulnerability and risk assessment, Public information and community participation, Risk management training and education The team has also supported awareness campaigns on coastal regulatory zone issues and provided significant input in the formulation of the demarcation of the high-tide line. Risk Reduction/Mitigation - In Kerala, three seismic zone III (moderate risk) cities with populations of over half a million are undertaking earthquake vulnerability reduction activities. Several academic and research institutions are working on coastal environmental management and development issues. Other the measures include: carefully planning land-use based on local
assessments of risks and vulnerabilities, adopting changes in how tourist infrastructures are sited, implementing environmental protection measures and appropriate building standards. In order to strengthen the community capacities in disaster risk reduction. Structural Mitigation Measures such as seawalls and coral reefs, tsunami break waters, increasing the river dike height, shelters, identification of evacuation routes, retrofitting of vulnerable structures etc. Non Structural Mitigation Measures such as education, public awareness, risk communication, strict implementation of Coastal Regulations Act etc are under taken. Risk Transfer Insurance covers many losses but is often unavailable to the poor due to high transaction cost and the subsequent high premiums. Insurance regulatory reforms by the Indian Government and the prioritization of risk reduction by the UN ISDR, the ProVention Consortium, and DFID have contributed to the viability and advancement of micro insurance for the poor. Micro finance activities are important elements in future disaster risk reduction, as it prepares the local communities for the next disaster by allowing the poor to make transformation from “everyday survival” to “planning for the Future”. Early Warning and Forecasting While developing regional mechanisms it is also cost effective to focus on the local level to help communities take simple disaster mitigation measures and then put into place a very elementary early warning system consisting of basic communication chains that could ensure that information reached the people. Projects included survival skills, the establishment of rescue teams, mock drills, and general disaster awareness training. Emergency Response Recovery and Reconstruction culture and micro-enterprise. Includes immediate assistance that helps local populations help themselves: encouraging local participation (NGOs) in the planning of recovery efforts, using local materials for reconstruction, engaging the locals in the reconstruction effort, and providing equipment, training and micro- credit for kick-starting local industries, farming, fishing and small businesses. A cash-for-work program led by World Vision India to construct 2,500 temporary shelters, under a nearly $900,000 grant, while providing families the opportunity to earn money to meet other household needs.
4) Strengths and weaknesses of the Disaster Management System The creation of a successful organizational structure and the assignment of specific management tasks is dependant on an understanding of the tasks associated with disaster risk management. Ex ante and ex post activities demand distinct technical and administrative approaches. An effective management system is needed for both phases of the risk management cycle. Institution setup in India exists for Disaster Management with all the octopus tentacles and little or no coordination between then till the time comes in the aftermath of a disaster. On one hand the Disaster management organization clearly states that the apex persons being the Prime Minister and further draws down to the Ministry of Agriculture being the focal point the New Delhi level. The Ministry of Home Affairs has another linage towards the NDMA. Too many centers at the New Delhi level leaves one in a state of confusion as to which is the reactive body for what kind of disasters. A national disaster risk management system comprises of the formal and informal interaction between institutions, financial mechanisms, regulations and policies. Yet these two approaches to risk management need not be mutually exclusive. Strengths: As per the Disaster Management Act, 2005 already there is a mechanism for Disaster Management at Centre, State and District Levels. It’s true that a paradigm shift in our approach i.e , a mitigation based approach has been in action after Latur and Bhuj Earth Quakes, Super cyclone and Tsunami. While earlier it was merely a relief centric approach. Now, activities towards this end are on throughout the year to some extent. Early warning system has been strengthened. People’s awareness is increasing through seminars orientation programs, advertisements both in print & e-media, and through NGO’s activities. From the beginning, State Governments and District authorities played a crucial role in coordinating the relief and recovery work and are doing so impressively. Their work is helped by a number of NGO coordination and resource centers established at the state (such as the Tamil Nadu Tsunami Resource Centre) and at the district (such as the Nagapattinam Coordination and after brief descriptions of the recovery programs of the United Nations, the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank. While there is awareness in India that better disaster response mechanisms are necessary, the overall trend has indicated that numerous challenges remain to be overcome. Weaknesses: In India, the primary responsibility for responding to disasters lies at the state level. The GOI does not yet have a national emergency plan for disaster management. Many Indian states have limited resources and lack their own disaster management plans. There is the lack of co-
ordination among these various departments/agencies. So many gaps are there the context of communication, organizational coordination, fund sharing, awareness generation etc. Lack of research and absence of effective policies are still widening the gaps. Trained work force able to act promptly on call in relief and rescue is still a fictitious existence even in sophisticated cities highly prone to disasters. Fire Brigades are not well equipped to meet emergencies. What needs to be kept for an emergency is used up, for one reasons or other and never replenished for the d- day. Worse, the bureaucracy and corruption and the attitude that it will never happen in my lifetime makes the system lethargic to the entire issue of proactive conditions to Disaster Management, which can mitigate the sufferings in the event of a disaster. What is again unpredictable how fast the relief reaches the needy and how to ensure that what has been lost is made good to a large extent. Although India tries to respond to disasters of small or moderate size with relatively little or no international assistance, the overall trends suggest that current GOI response mechanisms are less than optimal for responding to large-scale disasters and that foreign assistance is often required. Deaths and economic losses have increased. The reasons for this are varied including increasing population pressures in urban areas; poor or ignored zoning laws and policies; lack of proper risk management (insurance) etc. The level of preparedness of the center as well as the states in India is extremely uneven and in general requires considerable strengthening. While the states and local communities need better response and mitigation mechanisms, they are dependent on the center for assistance. However, the magnitudes of the two recent disasters in Orissa and Gujarat have increased the GOI's interest in working with international partners like USAID to facilitate the delivery of aid, strengthen systems to reduce recovery costs and mitigate the effects of future disasters. Interest is high in the GOI for addressing major weaknesses such as: poor planning and coordination; lack of relevant technology for forecasting; inadequate human capacity and skills for response; inadequate attention to good zoning and building; and ineffective warning systems. Other pitfalls include Delayed response of government officers, Absence of early warning systems; Lack of resources to undertake measures like mass evacuation; Non-existent and non-familiarization with standard operating procedures to be followed in providing relief; Failure to keep essential stores like sand bags, medicines, and life saving equipment in ready stock; and Inadequate coordination with the Army and other service organizations, as well as donors depending on the scale of the disasters. Lack of intra and inter institutional convergence and coordination
5) Recommendations for Improvement Pre-disaster activities should include: risk assessment; physical mitigation, education and the creation of economic incentives for mitigation; privatization, use of insurance and financial risk transfer instruments; contingency planning and the creation of early warning and response networks. Post-disaster activities should include damage assessment and emergency response; rehabilitation, macroeconomic and budget management, revitalization for affected sectors, and the incorporation of mitigation components in reconstruction. Improvement may be considered in following manner: 1. To restructure the National Policy on disaster management reflecting the holistic approach involving prevention, mitigation and preparedness in pre-disaster phase with appropriate additional funding, along with the so far existent policy of the post-disaster relief and rehabilitation under crisis management. 2. Creation of awareness for disaster reduction is urgently needed amongst policy makers, decision makers, administrators, professionals (architects, engineers and others at various levels) financial institutions (banks, insurance, house financing institutions) ,NGOs voluntary organizations and local community as well 3. Appropriate amendments in the legislative and regulatory instruments (state laws, master plans, development area plan rules, building regulations and bye-laws of local bodies) along with strengthening of the enforcement mechanisms at different levels delineating responsibilities and powers of each entity. Viz. State and Central Government during natural disasters and emergencies. 4. Capacity building at local and regional levels for undertaking rapid-assessment surveys and investigations of the nature and extent of damage in post disaster situations. Conducting micro-zonation surveys of large urban areas falling in the disaster prone regions and preparing appropriate mitigation plans. 5. To ensure use of disaster resistant construction techniques in all housing and other buildings to be undertaken under the Central and State schemes. Making mandatory, the use of disaster resistant codes and guidelines in all sectors of the society by law and through incentives and disincentives.
6. To create a suitable institutional mechanism at national/state level to advise and help the existing disaster relief set up in formulation and updating of short and long-range action plans. 7. To create detailed database on hazard occurrences, damage caused to buildings and infrastructure and the economic losses suffered and ensure its accessibility to interested researchers for effective analysis of costs of disasters and benefits of mitigative actions. 8. To devise appropriate policy instrument and funding support for urgent disaster preparedness and prevention actions in high risk areas including upgrading the resistance of existing housing and related structures and systems. To include R&D work in disaster preparedness, mitigation and prevention as a thrust area so that adequate funds are earmarked. 9. A network of information centers should be set up at strategic locations within the affected area-proper coordination is needed between the NGOs, government agencies and media. A permanent national command center is needed with at adequate communication links to all state capitals. Manned on a 24-hour basis by professionals, this would cater to all instant integrated response. 10. Establishment of a quick reaction team composed of professionals, military and civilians as well as the establishment of a modern well-equipped Search and Rescue unit in all state capitals with trained staff and latest devices. Train disaster volunteers and management to create community-level disaster preparedness plans. 11. Prompt media reporting to generate pressure on the government to respond rapidly and efficiently. 12. Standard system and procedures required for dealing with humanitarian and relief assistance from NGOs as well as a modern unified legislation needed for disaster management, to be followed by most NGOs and Community Based Organizations. 13. There is an urgent need to create Disaster Management Commission on the same line as that of planning commission with statutory provisions and annual funds to identify and regulate the various disaster prone areas and to formulate guidelines to meet their requirements. 14. Strengthen early-warning systems that track the potential for floods, cyclones and other weather-related disasters and communicate this information so people can take precaution.
Technology support required for disaster management fall in the category of observations, data collection, networking, communication, warning dissemination, service delivery mechanisms, GIS databases, expert analysis systems, information resources etc. Emerging technologies such as remote sensing, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), Data Collection Platforms (DCPs), hand-held GPS, Geographical Information System (GIS), Geospatial models, Cyclone warning and Dissemination System (CWDS), etc. have potential to provide valuable support to decision making. 15. The Indian private banking and insurance sectors can be sensitized to the special needs of vulnerable groups affected by disasters; Micro finance support for affected small-scale enterprises or the informal sector. REFERENCES 1. Http://Ndmindia.Nic.In/Manageplan/Nationalpoli.Html 2. Http://Www.Sristi.Org/English/Dmis/Dma.Html 3. Http://Www.Ndmindia.Nic.In 4. Organization Of Disaster Response In India At Central And State Government Levels 5. By 6. S.K. Swami , Director (NDM),Department Of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry Of Agriculture, Government Of India. 7. Note On Disaster Management Plan By Justice R C Chopra 8. Http://Www.Ema.Gov.Au/Fs-About.Html 9. Http://Www.Adpc.Ait.Ac.Th/General/Adpc.Html 10. Http://Www.Who.Int/Eha 11. Tsunami-India – Two Years After- A Joint Report Of The United Nations, The World Bank And The Asian Development Bank 12. Disaster Reduction Unit - Undp-Bcpr - 11-13, Chemin Des Anémones - Ch-1219 Châtelaine, Geneva, Switzerland -Http://Www.Undp.Org/Bcpr/Disred 13. Manual For Estimating The Socioeconomic Effects Of Natural Disasters Part One: Methodological And Conceptual Aspects.
14. Proceedings Of Workshop On Development Of National Statistcal System On Disasters In India -27th April 2007 15. Proceedings Of The Workshop On Coastal Area Planning And Management In Asian Tsunami-Affected Countries_Files APPENDIX- A
Disaster Warning Network - for the 21st Century NATURAL DISASTERS MANMADE DISASTERS CHEMICAL/BIOLOGICAL ACCIDENTS, TRUCK/ TORNADOES, LIGHTNING STORMS, FLOODS, TRAIN SPILLS, TERRORIST ACTIONS, PRISON FIRES, EARTHQUAKES, TSUNAMIS, ETC. BREAKS, ELECTRIC BLACKOUTS, ETC. DISASTER WARNING NETWORK - CORE INFRASTRUCTURE DATA AGGREGATION ANALYSIS EARLY WARNING DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS & CUSTOMERS Pager Networks Local Loops Satellites Wireless Carriers Wireless Portals Data Networks ACCESS TO SYSTEM USERS Transport Factories Offices & Autos Individuals Schools Hospitals Homes AUDIBLE DEVICES AUTOMATED DEVICES TO CREATE HUMAN RESPONSES TO CREAT AUTO DEVICE RESPONSES Mobile Phones - Pagers - PDA's Fuel Controls - Traffic Controls - Electircal Grids Televisions - Radios - Smoke Alarms Data Networks - Emergency Lighting Laptops, PC's - etc Control Transportation Systems - etc RESULTS RESULTS LIVES SAVED PROPERTY & LIVES SAVED People have time to take actions to Automated actions create reductions avoid or escape from effects of in property and human losses during disasters and reduce the chances of disasters death or injury APPENDIX- B
NATURAL HARARD MAP OF INDIA ANNEXURE- C
ANNEXURE- D WHO MODEL OF COUNTRY-LEVEL EMERGENCY PLANNING EMBED Word.Picture.8