Truth lies and the internet

50 %
50 %
Information about Truth lies and the internet
Social Media

Published on February 25, 2014

Author: socialmediadna

Source: slideshare.net

Description

truth, lies and the internet a report into young people’s digital fluency

truth, lies and the internet a report into young people’s digital fluency Jamie Bartlett Carl Miller September 2011

!"#!$%&'()*&+,-&!$)&(,!)",)!& "#$%&!'#()*&))!! +#(*!,%**&(! -&.)&$/&(!0122! ! !

Truth, Lies and the Internet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n collaboration with the Nominet Trust ;)).IOO@@@849$%4&))(>7)89(:8>AO ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! P>/*%7;&=!/D!C&$97!0122! Q!C&$978!-9$&!(%:;)7!(&7&(<&=8! F;%(=!R*99(! ,#:=#*&4!S9>7&! 2TU!F99*&D!-)(&&)! V94=94!-W2!0FX! F!!1YZ[!Z[Y![Z! R!!101!]TU]!Z012! ;&**9^=&$978698>A! @@@8=&$978698>A! 2

Truth, Lies and the Internet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`/99A7B!)(>7)@9();D! G9>(4#*%7$B!4%6;&!&M.&()%7&!#4=!#66>(#)&!?#6)7!#4=!?%:>(&7!#)!9>(! ?%4:&()%.7!);#4!&<&(!/&?9(&B!);&(&!#(&!&a>#**D!>4.(&6&=&4)&=! #$9>4)7!9?!$%7)#A&7B!;#*?`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a>&46&7!9?!);%7!94!796%&)D!#7!#!@;9*&!#(&! >4A49@48!34&!=#4:&(!%7!);#)!D9>4:!.&9.*&!#(&!$9(&!*%A&*D!)9!/&! 7&=>6&=!/D!&M)(&$%7)!#4=!<%9*&4)!%=&#78!57!@&!;#<&!#(:>&=! 3

Truth, Lies and the Internet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`)(>);7B!#4=! $%7)#A&7B!#4=!/&))&(!4#<%:#)&!);&!$>(A%&(!#4=!:(&D&(!@#)&(7!9?! #(:>$&4)!#4=!9.%4%948!! F;&!#/%*%)D!)9!G>=:&!);&!$&(%)7!9?!=%??&(&4)!.%&6&7!9?!%4?9($#)%94!%7! 49)!4&@b!%)!%7!);&!/#7%7!9?!$>6;!9?!6*#77%6#*!.;%*979.;D8!S9@&<&(B! );&!#(6;%)&6)>(&!#4=!?>46)%94#*%)D!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)!$#A&7!);&!G9/!9?! 7&.#(#)%4:!);&!@;&#)!?(9$!);&!6;#??!&<&4!;#(=&(8!5!7.&6%?%6!/9=D!9?! 7A%**7!#4=!A49@*&=:&!%7!(&a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

Truth, Lies and the Internet 45675689& @"(%/,&$(.&"($%($9,$:%($9$./$+%&'.&%*+,-,&./%1.&,9$#4%ABC`2Y!D&#(!9*=7L! #(&!<&(D!694?%=&4)!>7&(7!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)B!/>)!#(&!49)!.#()%6>*#(*D! 69$.&)&4)8!F;&(&!%7!79$&!&<%=&46&!)9!7;9@!);#)!79$&!D9>4:!.&9.*&! #(&!=%76&(4%4:B!6#(&?>*!%4)&(4&)!>7&(7B!/>)!$>6;!&*7&!);#)!%4=%6#)&7! );#)!);&!7A%**7!9?!=%:%)#*!4#)%<&7!=9!49)!$#)6;!);&%(!9@4!7&*?` (&.9()#:&I!! ! !""#$%&'#()*)+%,#&%+)-./#("#&"+#%00,'#12.13/#"&#+2.# )&4"5$%+)"&#+2.'#%11.//6##(9>4=!94&!%4!?9>(!20`2[!D&#(! 9*=7!$#A&!49!6;&6A7!"#!"$$!@;&4!<%7%)%4:!#!4&@!@&/7%)&B!#4=! *&77!);#4!94&!%4!)&4!#7A!@;9!$#=&!);&!7%)&!#4=!@;D8! ! 7./+2.+)1/#"-.5#89%,)+'6#=&6%7%947!#/9>)!%4?9($#)%94! a>#*%)D!%7!/#7&=!94!7%)&!=&7%:4B!(#);&(!);#4!$9(&!#66>(#)&! 6;&6A7!!!#(9>4=!94&`);%(=!9?!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!/&*%&<&!);#)!%?!#! 7&#(6;!&4:%4&!*%7)7!%4?9($#)%94!);&4!%)!$>7)!/&!)(>);?>*b!#4=! BD%>$(%2$1&%+514&%251#,+$(%&'$%9$(.2,&3%50%($#"/&#%6"&%E"#&%9,#,&% &'$%#,&$#%&'$3%*/,7$%&'$%/557%504?! ! :%13#"4#+.%12)&*6#94*D!94&`);%(=!9?!`2!D&#(!9*=7!;#<&! /&&4!)#>:;)!;9@!)9!G>=:&!);&!(&*%#/%*%)D!9?!94*%4&! %4?9($#)%948!R%?)D`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b!#4=!);&!7)#)&!9?!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!@%);%4!);&! 76;99*8!F9!);%7!&4=B!#!7#$.*&!@%);!#!(&#794#/*&!7.(&#=!9?!)&#6;&(7! K/D!7&4%9(%)DB!7>/G&6)!#4=!6*#77`#:&L!#4=!76;99*7!K/D!:&9:(#.;%6#*! *96#*&B!76;99*`)D.&!#4=!7&6)9(LB!(#);&(!);#4!#!69$.*&)&*D! 5

Truth, Lies and the Internet (&.(&7&4)#)%<&!.(9?%*&!9?!#**!)&#6;&(7!#4=!76;99*7B!@#7!(&a>%(&=8!F;&! (&7>*)7!9?!);&!7>(<&D!#(&!);&(&?9(&!49)!.&(?&6)*D!(&.(&7&4)#)%<&!9?!);&! )&#6;%4:!.(9?&77%94!#7!#!@;9*&8!F;&!94*%4&!7>(<&D!$&);9=9*9:D!#4=! .>/*%6#)%94!7)(#)&:D!@&!&$.*9D&=!=%=!49)!#**9@!?9(!#!)9)#**D! (&.(&7&4)#)%<&!7&(%&7!9?!=%7)(%/>)%947!#4=!.(9.9()%947!@%);%4!);&! 7#$.*&!69;9()8!S9@&<&(B!@&!=%=!#..*D!.97)`7)(#)%?%6#)%94!@&%:;)%4:7! K#669(=%4:!)9!7>/G&6)7!)#>:;)B!#7!$&#7>(&=!/D!);&!-6;99*!E9(A?9(6&! +&47>7L!)9!%$.(9<&!(&.(&7&4)#)%<&4&778!H)!%7!@%);!);%7!6#<&#)!%4! $%4=!);#)!@&!.(&7&4)!);&7&!=#)#8!5!?>**!$&);9=9*9:D!%7!#<#%*#/*&!%4! );&!#44&M8!! F;&!?%4=%4:7!%46*>=&I!! ! ;&+.5&.+#+.%12)&*#%&(#,.%5&)&*#)/#49&(%$.&+%,#+"# !"!#$%&'%()**$'+&(#0.5/"&%,#,)-./6#YY!.&(!6&4)!9?! )&#6;&(7!7>(<&D&=!6947%=&(!%4)&(4&)`/#7&=!(&7&#(6;!)9!/&! ,)>5(&.1&%05(%&'$,(%>">,/#4%#2'55/:5(7F##4=![!.&(!6&4)! (&.9()!);#)!);&%(!.>.%*7!;#<&!/(9>:;)!%4?9($#)%94!%4)9!);&! 6*#77(99$!);&D!;#<&!?9>4=!94*%4&8!][!.&(!6&4)!/&*%&<&!);#)! %4)&(4&)`/#7&=!694)&4)!)9!/&!%$.9()#4)!%4!);&!?9($#)%94!#4=! 9./,+.&,51%50%&'$,(%>">,/#4%6$/,$0#?! ! ,-+()-.%'+.-'/*..#-0'+1*"2'2)-#.'!"!#$%&'0#3#2+$' /3),,/6#!.&(!6&4)!9?!)&#6;&(7#7>(<&D&=#);%4A!);#)!=%:%)#*! ?*>&46D!%7!#4!%$.9()#4)!7A%**!?9(!.>.%*7!)9!.977&77B!/>)##6(977! .%(.1-$%50%)$.#"($#8%&$.2'$(#%(.&$%&'$,(%>">,/#4%+,-,&./%0/"$123% 7A%**7!#7!/&*9@!#<&(#:&8!H4!.#()%6>*#(B!);&!#..*%6#)%94!9?!?#6)` 6;&6A7!9(!9);&(!79>(6&!<&(%?%6#)%94!94!);&!94*%4&!%4?9($#)%94! );&D!6947>$&B!);&!#/%*%)D!)9!(&69:4%7&!/%#7!9(!.(9.#:#4=#B! #4=!);&!<#(%&)D!9?!7%)&7!);&D!<%7%)B!#(&!(#)&=!$97)!.99(*D8! ! <)/)&4"5$%+)"&=#05"0%*%&(%=#%&(#1"&/0)5%1'# +2."5)./#%5.#>.)&*#>5"9*2+#)&+"#+2.#1,%//5""$6#Z]!.&(! 6&4)!9?!)&#6;&(7!7>(<&D&=0!(&.9()!;#<%4:!&469>4)&(&=! #(:>$&4)7!@%);%4!*&77947!9(!7>/$%))&=!76;99*@9(A!);#)! 694)#%4!%4#66>(#)&!%4)&(4&)`/#7&=!694)&4)!);&D!(&:#(=!#7! =&*%/&(#)&*D!.#6A#:&=!/D!);&!.(9=>6&(7!)9!/&!$%7*&#=%4:!9(! =&6&%)?>*!K?9(!&M#$.*&B!;9*96#>7)!=&4%#*!.#6A#:&=!#7!(#=%6#*! ;%7)9(%6#*!(&<%7%94%7$L8!2Y!.&(!6&4)!(&.9()!);%7!;#..&47!94!#)! 6

Truth, Lies and the Internet *&#7)!#!$94);*D!/#7%78!P&(;#.7!$9(&!7>(.(%7%4:*DB!ZY!.&(!6&4)! 9?!)&#6;&(7!7>(<&D&=T!(&.9()!;#<%4:!;#=!#(:>$&4)7!%4!6*#77! @%);!.>.%*7!#/9>)!6947.%(#6D!);&9(%&78!,9(&!);#4!94&!%4!?%<&! (&.9()&=!);%7!;#..&4%4:!94!#!$94);*D!/#7%78!!! ! !.%12.5/#>.,).-.#"-.5?2.,$)&*,'#+2%+#()*)+%,#4,9.&1'# &..(/#+"#>.#*)-.&#$"5.#05"$)&.&1.#)&#+2.# 1,%//5""$6#!.&(!6&4)!9?!)&#6;&(7!7>(<&D&=!6947%=&(! =%:%)#*!?*>&46D!)9!/&!#4!%$.9()#4)!7A%**!?9(!D9>4:!.&9.*&!)9! .977&77b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c9<&(4$&4)!7;9>*=! ,12/"+$%+,-,&./%0/"$123%.#%.%*25($%25)>$&$1234%,1%&'$%G.&,51./% +>((%6>*>$!=>(%4:!%)7!6>((&4)!(&<%&@8!C%:%)#*!?*>&46D!%7!#! ?9>4=#)%94#*B!69(&!7A%**!);#)!7;9>*=!>4=&(*%&!)&#6;%4:!#4=!*&#(4%4:! #6(977!#**!7>/G&6)7B!#4=!%7!49)!694?%4&=!)9!#!7%4:*&!7>/G&6)8!57!#! $%4%$>$B!#**!76;99*7!$>7)!)&#6;!.>.%*7!#/9>)!7&#(6;!&4:%4&7B! .(9.#:#4=#!)&6;4%a>&7B!79>(6&!#))(%/>)%94!)&6;4%a>&7B!#4=!);&!(%7A7! 9?!=#)#`7;#(%4:8[!5*);9>:;!);&(&!#(&!79$&!.(9$%7%4:!%4%)%#)%<&7!%4! 79$&!76;99*7B!69<&(#:&!%7!.#)6;D!#4=!)99!$#4D!76;99*7!=9!49)!)&#6;! 7

Truth, Lies and the Internet %)8!c%<&4!);#)!#4!%46(&#7%4:!4>$/&(!9?!76;99*7!@%**!/&!9.&(#)%4:! 9>)7%=&!);&!d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c99:*&!#4=!N#;99e!7;9>*=!6(&#)&!$#)&(%#*7!);#)! 6#4!/&!>7&=!%4!);&!6*#77(99$B!#4=!@;&(&!.977%/*&B!)&#6;%4:! #77%7)#46&8!5!/&7.9A&!@&/!.(&7&46&!7;9>*=!/&!6(&#)&=!)9!.(9<%=&!#4! 9<&(#(6;%4:!694)&M)!?9(!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!)&#6;%4:B!9(:#4%7%4:!);&! *%4A7B!$#)&(%#*7B!*&7794!.*#47!#4=!&M#$.*&7!4&6&77#(D!?9(!6*#77(99$! )&#6;%4:8! ,%7%4?9($#)%94!9?)&4!);(%<&7!/&6#>7&!%)!%7!$9(&!#))(#6)%<&*D! .#6A#:&=!#4=!=%77&$%4#)&=!#7!7;#(#/*&B!796%#*!$&=%#`?(%&4=*D! .(9=>6)78!F&#6;%4:!(&79>(6&7!$>7)!>7&!);&!7#$&!)&6;4%a>&7!)9! )&#6;!#7!D9>4:!.&9.*&!>7&I!N9>F>/&!<%=&97B!@&/%4#(7B!%4)&(#6)%<&! )#7A7!#4=!.9=6#7)78!,9(&9<&(B!%4)&(4&)`/9(4&!$%7%4?9($#)%94!9?)&4! );(%<&7!94!#4)%`&7)#/*%7;$&4)!A>=97B!#7!#!@#D!?9(!D9>4:!.&9.*&!)9! #77&()!%4=&.&4=&46&!9?!$%4=8!5!=%:%)#*!?*>&46D!6#$.#%:4!$>7)!49)! 9<&(*D!%=&4)%?D!@%);!#>);9(%)DB!#4=!7;9>*=!#*79!%46*>=&!$#)&(%#*!);#)! .(9<%=&!);&!9..9()>4%)D!)9!6(%)%a>&!#4=!=%76>77!&7)#/*%7;$&4)!K/&!%)! 9??%6%#*B!:9<&(4$&4)!9(!76;99*L!=&6%7%947!9(!#6)%9478!! E%5.&+/#&..(#+"#+%3.#%#$"5.#%1+)-.#5",.#)&#$%&%*)&*#%&(# 3"#0#43'2)-#.'()#$0.-4&%'*4$#4-'(*4%"5!2#*46'+40' .&1"95%*.#15)+)1%,#+2)&3)&*D#5!=&6#=&!#:9B!$97)!6;%*=(&4!?%(7)! &469>4)&(&=!)&6;49*9:D!#)!76;99*!!!49@!%)!%7!%4!);&!;9$&8]!F;%7!%7!#! =(#$#)%6!6;#4:&B!/&6#>7&!%4)&(4&)!>7&!#)!;9$&!%7!(&*#)%<&*D! >47>.&(<%7&=!?9(!D9>4:!.&9.*&I!9<&(!;#*?!9?!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!7#D!);&D! *)5#&/3%"#$%&'$%,1&$(1$&%./51$48%.1+%HB%>$(%2$1&%50%>.($1&#%50%&',#%.-$% :(9>.!7#D!);#)!);&%(!6;%*=!;#7!#66&77!)9!);&!%4)&(4&)!%4!);&%(! 8

Truth, Lies and the Internet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

Truth, Lies and the Internet /$+.!)"&@&A&(,!"B-#/!(B,&& ! ,:C&?:;D6<E<8F&& R&#(!#/9>)!69((>.)%4:!D9>4:B!%4496&4)!$%4=7!#*@#D7!#669$.#4%&7! 4&@!)&6;49*9:D8!-96(#)&7!%4!J/.&54#%%&"'()*+!?#$9>7*D!@#(4&=! .-.,1#&%*/$&&$(#48%6$2."#$%'$%&'5"-'&%,&%:5"/+%>(5)5&$%05(-$&0"/1$##?% J$5>/$8%'$%>($+,2&$+8%:5"/+%6$25)$%*&'$%'$.($(#%50%).13%&',1-#%.1+% :,//%'.9$%/$.(1$+%15&',1-4?!E;&4!);&!.(%4)&=!/99A!7)#()&=!(9**%4:! 9??!"9;#44&7!c>)&4/$(-4#%>($##8%).13%#"#>$2&$+%,&%:5"/+%6$% *2510"#,1-%.1+%'.()0"/48%59$(:'$/),1-%35"1-%>$5>/$%:,&'%+.&.?21! d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`?(&&B!&<&4!.7D6;9*9:%6#**D!>4%)&=!);#4!&<&(! /&?9(&B!<&(D!?&@!9?!>7!69>*=B!9(!@9>*=!@#4)!)9B!%$#:%4&!#!@9(*=! &4)%(&*D!9??*%4&822!! '>)B!*%A&!);&!.(%4)&=!/99AB!);&(&!%7!#*79!#!*9>=&4%4:!6;9(>7!9?!<9%6&7! (#%7%4:!);&!#*#($!#/9"&%.%*+.(7$(4%#,+$%50%&'$%,4)&(4&)8!,97)!9?!);&7&! 6946&(47!(&*#)&!)9!D9>4:!.&9.*&B!7>6;!#7!);&!@%=&!#<#%*#/%*%)D!9?! .9(49:(#.;DB!6D/&(`/>**D%4:B!%4)&(4&)!.(%<#6DB!#4=!94*%4&!7)#*A&(7! #4=!:(99$&(78!-9$&!@(%)&(7!;#<&!.9%4)&=!)9!.977%/*&!*94:`)&($! =&)(%$&4)#*!'$./&'%$00$2&#%50%51/,1$%#&,)"/.&,518%#"2'%.#%*&$2'15` #&($##48%*+.&.%.#>'3=,.&,5148%*,105().&,51%0.&,-"$%#31+(5)$48% *25-1,&,9$%59$(/5.+48%.1+%*&,)$%0.),1$4?20!d%6A!+#((B!?9(!&M#$.*&B! @9((%&7!);#)!);&!%4)&(4&)!;#7!$#=&!9>(!);%4A%4:!7;#**9@&(!#4=!*&77! (&?*&6&,9$8%:',/$%K"#.1%L($$10,$/+%#"--$#&#%&'.&%&'$%6(.,14#% 10

Truth, Lies and the Internet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`>.! (&.9()!/D!P(9?&779(!'D(948!5!/(9#=!.9*%)%6#*!6947&47>7!;#7!&$&(:&=! %4!(&6&4)!D&#(7!);#)!);&!:9<&(4$&4)B!.#(&4)7B!#4=!%4=>7)(D!#**!4&&=! )9!.*#D!#!(9*&!)9!&47>(&!6;%*=(&4!#(&!7#?&!94*%4&8!! (6G<H=>?5<6&<I:HE<>7J&& F;&(&!%7!#49);&(!#7.&6)!9?!);&!=%:%)#*!#:&!);#)!%7!*&77!(&$#(A&=!>.94B! />)!G>7)!#7!7%:4%?%6#4)I!;9@!);&!%4)&(4&)!%7!6;#4:%4:!);&!@#D!.&9.*&! ?9($!/&*%&?7!#4=!$#A&!=&6%7%9478! H4!011B!)9!6&*&/(#)&!);&!Z1);!#44%<&(7#(D!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)B!);&! C&?&47&!5=<#46&=!f&7&#(6;!P(9G&6)7!5:&46D!KC5fP5L!(&*&#7&=!)&4! (&=!@&#);&(!/#**9947!#6(977!4%4&!5$&(%6#4!7)#)&78!H)!9??&(&=! gZ1B111!)9!@;%6;&<&(!)&#$!69>*=!*96#)&!);&$!#**!?%(7)82U!5?)&(!G>7)! 4%4&!;9>(7!#!)&#$!?(9$!,HF!;#=!7699.&=!);&!.(%h&B!/D!&7)#/*%7;%4:! #4!94*%4&!.*#)?9($!?9(!<%(#*!69**#/9(#)%94B!.(9$%7%4:!6#7;!?9(!&#6;! .&(794!)9!:%<&!);&$!#!69((&6)!/#**994!*96#)%94B!#4=!7$#**&(! %46&4)%<&7!?9(!);97&!@;9!;99A&=!);&7&!.&9.*&!%4)9!);&%(!4&)@9(A8! F;&D!>7&=!R#6&/99A!#4=!F@%))&(!)9!7.(&#=!);&!.(9$%7&!9?!(&@#(=! ?#(!#4=!@%=&8!57!%)!%4)&4=&=B!);&!69$.&)%)%94!7;9@&=!);&!.9@&(!9?! 94*%4&!69**#/9(#)%94!@;&4!%)!69$&7!)9!79*<%4:!=%??%6>*)!.(9/*&$7! a>%6A*D8!R(9$!69$.*&M!<%7>#*!(&69:4%)%94!#*:9(%);$7!)(#@*%4:! $%**%947!9?!%$#:&7B!)9!796%#*!$&=%#!6#$.#%:47!:&4&(#)%4:!&49>:;! *'3>$4%5(%*6"VV4%&5%,10/"$12$%&$1#%50%&'5"#.1+#8%.//!);&!694)&4=&(7! ?96>7&=!94!94*%4&!7)(#)&:%&78!H)!@#7!);&!94*D!@#D!)9!/&!%4!);&! (>44%4:8! 11

Truth, Lies and the Internet F;&!.97)`$9()&$!(&<&#*&=!#4!%4)&(&7)%4:!*&77948!F;&!*&#=%4:!)&#$7! #:(&&=!);&!$#%4!=%??%6>*)D!@#7!49)!:&))%4:!;9*=!9?!:99=!%4?9($#)%94! !!%)!@#7!;9@!)9!A49@!@;#)!%4?9($#)%94!)9!)(>7)8!F;&!,HF!)&#$! (&6&%<&=!$9(&!);#4!011!7>/$%77%947!9?!/#**994!7%:;)%4:7B!94*D!T1! 9(!Z1!9?!@;%6;!)>(4&=!9>)!)9!/&!#66>(#)&82]!-9$&!@&(&!:&4>%4&! $%7)#A&7!K9==*DB!#!*#(:&!(&=!494`C5fP5!/#**994!;#..&4&=!)9!/&! ;#4:%4:!9<&(!f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`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a>#*%)D!9?!);%7!%4?9($#)%94!6#4!/&!?#(!?(9$!.&(?&6)8! 12

Truth, Lies and the Internet 5*);9>:;!);&(&!#(&!$9(&!&`/99A7B!)(>7)@9();D!G9>(4#*%7$B!4%6;&! &M.&()%7&!#4=!#66>(#)&!?#6)7!#4=!?%:>(&7!);#4!&<&(!/&?9(&B!);%7!%7! #669$.#4%&=!/D!&a>#**D!>4.(&6&=&4)&=!#$9>4)7!9?!$%7)#A&7B! $%7)(>);7B!.(9.#:#4=#B!$%7%4?9($#)%94B!#4=!9);&(!:&4&(#*! 4947&47&8!54!&7)%$#)&=!Y!.&(!6&4)!9?!);&!21]!)(%**%94!&$#%*7!7&4)!%4! 0121!@&(&!7.#$`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a>%(&B!>4=&(7)#4=!#4=! <#*%=#)&!A49@*&=:&8!-%$.*D!.>)B!@;&);&(!9??*%4&!9(!94*%4&B!@&!4&&=! )9!=%7)%4:>%7;!:99=!?(9$!/#=!%4?9($#)%94!#4=!);#)!(&a>%(&7!);&! #..*%6#)%94!9?!/9);!.&(794#*!)&6;4%a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`(&<%&@&=!#6#=&$%6!G9>(4#*B!);&!&=%)&=! 13

Truth, Lies and the Internet 76;99*!)&M)`/99AB!);&!7.&6%#*%7)!#4);9*9:DB!#**!#6)!#7! :#)&A&&.&(7B!&M.&()*D!.97%4:!K#)!*&#7)!%4!);&9(DL!6&()#%4!)&7)7! 9?!<&(#6%)D!#4=!#>);&4)%6%)D!);#)!4&&=&=!)9!/&!.#77&=!/&?9(&! );&!694)&4)!%7!.&($%))&=!%4)9!);&!.>/*%6!7.;&(&8!,#4D!9?!);&7&! ;&*.?>*!$&=%#)9(7!#(&!#/7&4)!94*%4&8!3?!69>(7&B!);&(&!#(&! 79$&!<&(D!&??&6)%<&!%4)&(4&)`/#7&=!?%*)&(78!34&!?#$9>7!)&7)! 694=>6)&=!/D!-"#*)'!$#:#h%4&!69$.#(&=!@;&);&(!E%A%.&=%#! @#7!$9(&!#66>(#)&!);#4!W46D6*9.&=%#!'(%)#44%6#8!F;&!9*=! $#7)&(!7#@!9??!);&!6;#**&4:&(!!!/>)!49)!/D!$>6;80]!5*);9>:;! &'$($%.($%15()#8%#"2'%.#%<,7,>$+,.4#%$+,&,1-%>(52$+"($#8%&'$3% #(&!$9(&!%4?9($#*!#4=!94!$#4D!7%)&7B!494`&M%7)&4)8!H4!$#4D! .*#6&7B!);&!%4)&(4&)!%7!#!*#(:&*D!*#@*&77!#4=!#494D$9>7!#(&4#! );#)!%7!&#7D!)9!&4)&(B!@;&(&!);&(&!%7!*%))*&!/#6A*#7;!?9(! 7.(&#=%4:!$%7%4?9($#)%94!K#*);9>:;!);%7!$#D!/&!6;#4:%4:L80Y! F;&!>7>#*!@#D!9?!#6a>%(%4:!*&:%)%$#6D!!!7*%6A!@&/7%)&!=&7%:4! !!%7!&#7%*D!%4!);&!(&#6;&7!9?!$97)!>7&(78!!!! ! 7&"&'$)+'#%&(#+2.#0.()*5..#05">,.$## d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`?9(`#**8! ! ! 14

Truth, Lies and the Internet ! !2.#*.&.5%+)"&%,#()-)(.! P#(&4)7!#(&!)D.%6#**D!);&!$#%4!:>#(=%#47!9?!%4?9($#)%94B!)9!#! :(&#)&(!9(!*&77&(!&M)&4)!&47>(%4:!);#)!);&!$#)&(%#*!6;%*=(&4! 6947>$&!%7!#:&`#..(9.(%#)&B!69$.(&;&47%/*&B!#4=!#66>(#)&8! E%);!);&!%4)&(4&)B!);%7!7>.&(<%7%94!%7!9?)&4!#/7&4)8!ZY!.&(! 6&4)!9?!.#(&4)7!);%4A!);&%(!6;%*=!A49@7!$9(&!);#4!);&$!#/9>)! );&!%4)&(4&)B!(%7%4:!)9!]1!.&(!6&4)!9?!.#(&4)7!9?!20`2[!D&#(` 9*=78T2!34*D!2U!.&(!6&4)!9?!.#(&4)7!6947%=&(!);&$7&*<&7! #=<#46&=!%4)&(4&)!>7&(7B!69$.#(&=!)9!T0!.&(!6&4)!9?! 6;%*=(&48T0!H4!011[B!#$94:!.#(&4)7B!94*D!94&!%4!);(&&!A4&@! ;9@!)9!7&)!>.!#4!&$#%*!#669>4)B!?&@&(!);#4!#!?%?);!A4&@!;9@! )9!7&)!>.!#!?%*)&(B!2!.&(!6&4)!(&$9<&!#!<%(>7B!20!.&(!6&4)! =9@4*9#=!$>7%6!#4=!02!.&(!6&4)!?%M!#!.(9/*&$8TT!5669(=%4:!)9! #!(&6&4)!.9**!694=>6)&=!/D!F#*AF#*AB!6;%*=(&4!#(&!7.&4=%4:! 94!#<&(#:&!9<&(!)@9!;9>(7!#!=#D!94!);&!%4)&(4&)!#4=!.#(&4)7! .+),&&$+%&'.&%.(5"1+%'./0%50%&'$,(%2',/+($14#%&,)$%51/,1$%,#% >47>.&(<%7&=8TZ!5!4>$/&(!9?!69$$&4)#)9(7!7&&!#!a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f%:;)7!,9<&$&4)!%4!:&4&(#*B!#4=!%7!Ka>%&)*DL!;97)&=!/D!);&! E;%)&!7>.(&$#6%7)!:(9>.!-)9($R(94)8!F;&!H47)%)>)&!R9(! S%7)9(%6#*!f&<%&@!K;)).IOO%;(89(:O[%2/.,)#%&5%6$%.%*151` .#()%7#4B!494`%=&9*9:%6#*!#4=!494`#$2&.(,.14%05(%($9,#,51,#&% ;%7)9(%6#*!(&7&#(6;8!F;&!<&(D!.#()%7#4B!%=&9*9:%6#*!#4=! 7&6)#(%#4!.7&>=9`;%7)9(%6#*!694)&4)!.(9$9)&7!S9*96#>7)! =&4%#*8! ! 15

Truth, Lies and the Internet ! !2.#9/.#"4#)$%*.5'! E%);!N9>F>/&B!i%$&9B!R*%6A(!#4=!9);&(!796%#*!$&=%#!7%)&7! ;97)%4:!<%7>#*!694)&4)B!%$#:&!$#4%.>*#)%94!)&6;4%a>&7!#(&! %46(&#7%4:*D!#**9@%4:!$%7%4?9($#)%94!)9!/&!.9@&(?>**D!#4=! #))(#6)%<&*D!.#6A#:&=8!F;&!6947.%(#6%7)!?%*$!0//+'!1&"23'4! :',2'%2/.,)#%&'.&%YBB%:.#%.%*0./#$%0/.-4%.&&.27%>$(>$&(.&$+%63% &*&$&4)7!9?!);&!X-!%4)&**%:&46&B!/&6#$&!#4!%4)&(4&)! 7&47#)%94B!#))(#6)%4:!$%**%947!9?!<%&@78!F;&!*%)#4D!9?!&((9(7B! $%7#))(%/>)%947B!<#:>&!%47%4>#)%947B!7>/)*&!$%7a>9)&7!#4=! 9>)(%:;)!?#*7&;99=7!@&(&!$#7A&=!/D!#!699*!79>4=)(#6A!/D!C"! -A99*DB!#)$97.;&(%6!4#((#)%94!#4=!$&7$&(%7%4:!<%=&9! $+,&,1-?%I'$%0,/)4#%9.(,5"#%/,6$(&,$#%:,&'%&'$%&("&'%'.9$%15:% /&&4!6#(&?>**D!6#)#*9:>&=B!D&)!%)!%7!49!#66%=&4)!);#)!);%7! =&6&.)%<&B!%?!7A%*?>**D!.#6A#:&=B!<%=&9!/&6#$&!);&!?%(7)! %4)&(4&)!/*96A/>7)&(8TU!,9(&!.(97#%6#**DB!%4&M.&47%<&!D&)! ;>:&*D!&??&6)%<&!#4=!79.;%7)%6#)&=!%$#:&`&=%)%4:!79?)@#(&!!! )9!6(9.B!&4;#46&B!9(!9>)(%:;)!#*)&(!%$#:&7!!!&M%7)78! -9$&)%$&7!&<&4!4&@7.#.&(7!6#4!/&!?99*&=8!H4!">4&!0122B!);&! d&@7!9?!);&!E9(*=!.#%=!j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h&4!G9>(4#*%7)7!=9!);&!7#$&B! *%4&!/D!*%4&B!?9(!.9.>*#(!#4=!694)(9<&(7%#*!/99A7B!#4=!?%*$78! H4=&&=B!79$&B!7>6;!#7!W*%7&!d%6A&(794B!#(:>&!);#)!;9*96#>7)! =&4%#*!;#7!/&&4!@&#A&4&=!%4!);&!)(#47?&(!?(9$!/99A7!)9!);&! @&/8TY!N&)!#7!%4)&(&7)!:(9>.7!#4=!69$$>4%)%&7!9?!?&**9@! )(#<&**&(7!;#<&!69#*&76&=B!$>6;!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)!;#7!49@! ?9($&=!%7*#4=7!9?!7&:(&:#)&=!9.%4%94!(#);&(!);#4!?*9@7!9?! =%77&4)%4:!#(:>$&4)!#4=!&4:#:&$&4)8!E%);%4!);&7&!9?)&4! 16

Truth, Lies and the Internet ?#%(*D!6*97&=!69$$>4%)%&7B!);&!)@9`@#D!?*9@!9?!%4?9($#)%94! +5$#14&%'.>>$1?%T5-).&,2%:$6#,&$%.+),1,#&(.&5(#%.1+%05(")% $9=&(#)9(7!9?)&4!694)(9*!694)&4)!@%);!#4!%(94!:(%.8! F&6;49*9:%7)7!*%A&!W);#4!k>6A&($#4!#(&!49)%6%4:!);#)! %4)&(4&)!>7&!%7!49)!&'$%*0($$%.1+%5>$1%$=2'.1-$%50% ,105().&,514%05(%:',2'%,#%:.#%5(,-,1.//3%2512$,9$+?T!H4)&(4&)! >7&!%7!'#*A#4%7&=!!!%)!#6)>#**D!6947%7)7!9?!.(&))D!7%$%*#(!)D.&7! 9?!.&9.*&B!)#*A%4:!);&!7#$&!*#4:>#:&B!94!);&!7#$&!A%4=7!9?! )9.%68!f&6&4)!(&7&#(6;!94!F@%))&(B!?9(!&M#$.*&B!?9>4=!);#)! *&($1+,1-4%&5>,2#%:$($%$,&'$(%59$(:'$/),1-/3%<',&$%5(% 5?(%6#4!5$&(%6#4!!!#4=!(#(&*D!/9);8Z1!5!(&6&4)!7)>=D! #77&77&=!);&!7)(#)&:%&7!.&9.*&!>7&!?9(!6;997%4:!4&@7B!#4=! ?9>4=!);#)!);&(&!6&()#%4*D!%7!$9(&!4%6;&!)#(:&)%4:!9?!4&@78! F;&D!?%4=!)'.&%*94&!6*&#(!$#44&(!%4!@;%6;!);&!%4)&(4&)! #..&#(7!)9!=%??&(!?(9$!9);&(!$#77!$&=%#!%7!);&!=&:(&&!9?! 4%6;&!)#(:&)%4:!9?!.9*%)%6#*!%4?9($#)%94`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

Truth, Lies and the Internet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`7#?&)DB! 6(&#)%<%)DB!)&6;4%6#*!7A%**7B!#4=!6>*)>(#*!>4=&(7)#4=%4:8ZZ!! 34&!%$.9()#4)!&*&$&4)!9?!=%:%)#*!*%)&(#6D!%7!@;#)!@&!;#<&!)&($&=! (535#"$!9$*'287I!);&!#/%*%)D!)9!?%4=!#4=!6(%)%6#**D!&<#*>#)&!94*%4&! %4?9($#)%948Z[!F;%7!(&a>%(&7!#!69$/%4#)%94!9?!4&@!#4=!9*=! )&6;4%a>&7I!#!$%M!9?!);&!6*#77%6!)(9.&7!9?!#4D!=%76&(4%4:!;%7)9(%#4!9(! G9>(4#*%7)!@%);!79$&!<&(D!7.&6%?%6!A49@*&=:&!#/9>)!;9@!);&!%4)&(4&)! ?>46)%9478! 18

Truth, Lies and the Internet /$+.!)"&M&!&!$)&*!+!)&B4&-(N(!+'&4'#),/3& <$%'.9$%"#$+%&'$%>'(.#$%*+,-,&./%0/"$1234%&5%+$#2(,6$%&'.&% 69$/%4#)%94!9?!6(%)%6#*!);%4A%4:B!&<#*>#)%<&!7A%**7!#4=!7.&6%?%6! A49@*&=:&!#/9>)!94*%4&!?>46)%947!);#)!#(&!(&a>%(&=!)9!/&!#/*&!)9! $&&)!;#h#(=7!.#()%6>*#(!)9!);&!94*%4&!(&#*$8!C%:%)#*!?*>&46D!(&?&(7!)9! );&!7A%**7!4&6&77#(D!?9(!);&!%4=%<%=>#*!)9!>7&!);&!%4)&(4&)!)9!7&#(6;B! (&)(%&<&B!694)&M)>#*%7&B!#4#*D7&B!<%7>#*%7&!#4=!7D4);&7%7&! %4?9($#)%94!&??&6)%<&*D8!H)!;#7!);(&&!69$.94&4)7I! ! -'#:+"6652'++B!#!.(#6)%6#*!>4=&(7)#4=%4:!9?!);&!@#D!);&! %4)&(4&)!@9(A7B!?9(!%47)#46&!!!);&!/#7%67!9?!;9@!7&#(6;! &4:%4&7!(&)>(4!(&7>*)7B!;9@!>7&(`:&4&(#)&=!?&&=/#6A! ?>46)%947B!;9@!@&/`7%)&7!#(&!=&7%:4&=!#4=!/>%*)B!;9@!%=&4)%)D! 6#4!/&!&7)#/*%7;&=!#4=!?#A&=B!;9@!%$#:&7!#4=!<%=&97!6#4!/&! #*)&(&=8! ! 1)5#58"$!'6"$*"#56'!#'8&25;*'+B!);&!A49@*&=:&!#4=!>7&!9?! /#7%6!6;&6A7B!)&6;4%a>&7!#4=!.(%46%.*&7!);#)!6#4!/&!#..*%&=!)9! #77&77!);&!)(>7)@9();%4&77!#4=!#66>(#6D!9?!%4?9($#)%948! F;&7&!#(&!/9);!:&4&(#*!6(%)%6#*!);%4A%4:!7A%**7!K7>6;!#7! @;&);&(!>7&(7!?#6)`6;&6AB!)(%#4:>*#)&!79>(6&7B!>4=&(7)#4=!);&! =%??&(&46&!/&)@&&4!a>#*%)D!9?!&<%=&46&B!7&#(6;!?9(! .(9<&4#46&B!9(!=%7)%4:>%7;!/&)@&&4!=%??&(&4)!a>#*%)%&7!9?! %4?9($#)%94L!#4=!7.&6%?%6!94*%4&!7A%**7!7>6;!#7!;9@!?%*)&(! >(5-(.))$#%:5(78%'5:%&5%).7$%9,+$5#%.1+%<,7,>$+,.4#% .(96&77!9?!.&&(`&=%)%4:8! ! <56')+5#7B!&'$%$=&$1&%&5%:',2'%"#$(#4%51/,1$%251#")>&,51%,#% /(9#=B!<#(%&=!#4=!=%<&(7&8!C9!>7&(7!#66&77!#4=!6947>$&! =%??&(&4)!#4=!69$.&)%4:!.%&6&7!9?!%4?9($#)%94l!5(&!);&D! #@#(&!9?!);&!69:4%)%<&!/%#7&7!);#)!@&!#(&!&M.97&=!)9l!+#4! >7&(7!%=&4)%?D!);&!"!=)5/)5!%=&9*9:%6#*!/#7%7!9?!#!.#()%6>*#(! 69$$&4)!9(!9.%4%94!.%&6&B!#4=!.*#6&!%)!@%);%4!);&!@%=&(! ?#/(%6!9?!#!=&/#)&l!5(&!);&D!#@#(&!9?B!#4=!=9!);&D!>7&B!);&! @&/7%)&7!);#)!;#<&!:(9@4!>.!7.&6%?%6#**D!)9!69>4)&(!);&!>(/#4! *&:&4=7B!;9#M&7!#4=!76#$7!);#)!);&!%4)&(4&)!;#7!#**9@&=!)9! /*99$lZU!! 19

Truth, Lies and the Internet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`4&>)(#*! .(96&77&7!)9!?%4=!D9>!%4?9($#)%94B!);&!#/%*%)D!)9!(&69:4%7&!#>);&4)%6! @&/7%)&7!?(9$!?#A&=!94&7B!;9@!.%6)>(&7!#4=!<%=&9!?99)#:&!6#4!/&! $#4%.>*#)&=B!;9@!);&!.(9<&4#46&!9?!>7&(`:&4&(#)&=!694)&4)!6#4!/&! )(#6&=8!! -&#(6;!&4:%4&7!#(&!9?!.#()%6>*#(!%$.9()#46&B!/&6#>7&!9?!);&!6&4)(#*! (9*&!);&D!.*#D!%4!.(%9(%)%7%4:!);&!%4?9($#)%94!);#)!.&9.*&!<%&@8! -&#(6;!&4:%4&7!(#4A!(&7>*)7!%4!=%??&(&4)!@#D7B!#4=!%)!%7!%$.9()#4)!)9! >4=&(7)#4=!#)!*&#7)!);&!(>=%$&4)7!9?!;9@!);&D!@9(A8!R%(7)B!7&#(6;! 7A%**7!#(&!%$.9()#4)I!7>/)*&!=%??&(&46&7!%4!);&!7&$#4)%6!6947)(>6)%94! 9?!7&#(6;!a>&(%&7B!%46*>=%4:!);&!9(=&(%4:!9?!'99*&#4!9.&(#)9(7B!);&! >7&!9?!7D494D$7B!#4)94D$7!#4=!#//(&<%#)&7!6#4!(&)>(4!;>:&*D! +,00$($1&%($#"/&#?%K$251+8%,&4#%,#%,)>5(&.1&%&5%715:%&'$%1.&"($%50%&'$% (&)>(47!)9!);&7&!7&#(6;&78!F;&!$&6;#4%7$7!9?!7&#(6;!&4:%4&7!6#4!/&! !!#4=!9?)&4!#(&!/D!Pf!#:&46%&7!!!$#4%.>*#)&=!)9!%4?*#)&!);&! (&*&<#46&!9?!@&/7%)&7B!#!*%))*&!*%A&!#4!#=<&()%7&(!;%G#6A%4:!);&!C&@&D! C&6%$#*!-D7)&$8!F;&(&!%7!#*79!#!69$$&(6%#*!&*&$&4)!)9!@&/.#:&! (.17,1-8%.1+%#$.(2'%$1-,1$#%50&$1%500$(%*#>51#5($+%/,17#4%&5%:$6#,&$#% );#)!.#D!)9!/&!&*&<#)&=8!C%??&(&4)!7&#(6;!&4:%4&7!#..*D!=%??&(&4)! $&6;#4%7$7!)9!7&#(6;!=%??&(&4)!%4=&M&7!#4=!);&(&?9(&B!9?!69>(7&B! (&)>(4!=%??&(&4)!(&7>*)78Z]!d9!7&#(6;!&4:%4&!.(9=>6&7!#!4&>)(#*B! =&?%4%)%<&B!9(!(&.(&7&4)#)%<&!(&?*&6)%94!9?!@;#)!%7!94!);&!%4)&(4&)8!! 20

Truth, Lies and the Internet H)!%7!49)!6*&#(!);#)!);%7!25)>/$=,&3%,#%($0/$2&$+%,1%>$5>/$4#% >4=&(7)#4=%4:!9?!7&#(6;!&4:%4&78!ZZ!.&(!6&4)!9?!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!@;9! >7&!7&#(6;!&4:%4&7!$#A&!79$&!)D.&!9?!6(%)%6#*!G>=:$&4)!#/9>)! 7&#(6;!&4:%4&!(&7>*)7B!);%4A%4:!);#)!79$&!9?!);&!7%)&7!(&)>(4&=!@%**! /&!)(>);?>*!@;%*&!9);&(7!$#D!49)!/&8!S9@&<&(B!T2!.&(!6&4)!/&*%&<&! );#)!%?!#!7&#(6;!&4:%4&!*%7)7!%4?9($#)%94!);&4!%)!$>7)!/&!)(>);?>*!#4=! BD%>$(%2$1&%+514&%251#,+$(%&'$%9$(.2,&3%50%($#"/&#%6"&%E"#&%9,#,&%&'$% #,&$#%*&'$3%/,7$%&'$%/557%504?%I'$#$%>(5>5(&,51#%'.9$%15&%2'.1-$+% 7%46&!011B!7>::&7)%4:!);#)!4&#(*D!;#*?!9?!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!@;9!>7&! 7&#(6;!&4:%4&!@&/7%)&7!#(&!49)!6(%)%6#**D!#@#(&!9?!);&!.(9<&4#46&!9?! ,&#%251&$1&?]ZY!5!)&#6;&(!%4)&(<%&@&=!/D!C&$97!?9(!);%7!(&7&#(6;! 69$$&4)&=!);#)I! >#!."+!2/#58'"?$'!#&"#!#&'7!@#&'!8&5$()'2A!./*$(!"$."7+!3/!9/)!.&"#'6')! 8"B'!*=!95)+#!/2!#&'!@+'")8&!'2352'A!&5#!$5+#4!"2(!#"C'!#&"#!"+!"!#/#"$!9"8#,!! KH+F!+9`9(=%4#)9(B!W4?%&*=L! ! /H5?5;>E&:I>EL>?5I:&?:;D65OL:9&& 577&77%4:!94*%4&!%4?9($#)%94!?9(!#66>(#6D!9(!)(>7)@9();%4&77! =&.&4=7!94!/9);!6*#77%6!)&6;4%a>&7!9?!?#6)`6;&6A%4:!#4=!4&@B! 79$&)%$&7!a>%)&!7.&6%?%6B!7A%**7!);#)!#..*D!);&7&!)&6;4%a>&7!)9!);&! %4)&(4&)8! H4!011B!%4)&(4&)!>7&(7!(#)&=!);&!(&*%#/%*%)D!#4=!#66>(#6D!9?!);&! %4)&(4&)!T8U!9>)!9?![8!F;%7!69$.#(&7!)9!#!T8[!?9(!)&*&<%7%94B!#!T8[!?9(! (#=%9!#4=!#!08!?9(!4&@7.#.&(7B!$#A%4:!);&!%4)&(4&)!);&!$97)! )(>7)&=!$&=%>$8Z!P(9<%=&(7!9?!%4)&(4&)!7&(<%6&7!#(&!$9(&!)(>7)&=! );#)!);&!.&9.*&!(>44%4:!:9<&(4$&4)B!(>44%4:!4&@7.#.&(7!9(! (>44%4:!$#G9(!69(.9(#)%9478[1! C%:%)#*!4#)%<&7!#(&!&7.&6%#**D!<>*4&(#/*&!)9!9<&(`&7)%$#)%4:!);&%(! 6(%)%6#*!#/%*%)%&7!K#4=!);&(&?9(&!:&)!=>.&=L!/&6#>7&!&M.&(%&46&!#4=! >7&!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)!7&&$7!)9!/&!);&!.(%$#(D!?#6)9(!%4!7;#.%4:!)(>7)!%4! );&!%4)&(4&)8[2!R9(!=%:%)#*!4#)%<&7B!);97&!@;9!;#<&!:(9@4!>.!@%);!);&! =%:%)#*!@9(*=B!)(>7)!%7!;%:;8!c&4&(#**DB!%4)&(4&)!>7&(7!)(>7)!%4!);&%(! 9@4!&<#*>#)%<&!7A%**7I!Y!.&(!6&4)!?&*)!?#%(*D!9(!<&(D!694?%=&4)!%4! );&%(!>7#:&8!! 21

Truth, Lies and the Internet '>)!);%7!694?%=&46&!$%:;)!/&!$%7.*#6&=8!34*D!TT!.&(!6&4)!9?!`2! D&#(!9*=7!;#<&!/&&4!)#>:;)!;9@!)9!G>=:&!);&!(&*%#/%*%)D!9?!94*%4&! %4?9($#)%948[0!H4!011[B!T1!.&(!6&4)!9?!`2!D&#(!9*=!.>.%*7!(&.9()! ;#<%4:!(&6&%<&=!49!*&77947!#)!#**!94!>7%4:!);&!%4)&(4&)8[T!! ,#4D!D9>4:!.&9.*&!=9!49)!A49@!;9@!&#7%*D!);&D!6#4!/&! $#4%.>*#)&=B!#4=!=9!*%))*&!)9!&47>(&!);#)!);&D!#(&!49)8!34&!(&6&4)! 7>(<&D!#7A&=!@;#)!6;&6A7!6;%*=(&4!#:&=!20`2[!@;9!>7&!);&!%4)&(4&)! #)!;9$&!#..*D!/&?9(&!<%7%)%4:!#!4&@!@&/7%)&8!5(9>4=!#!a>#()&(!7#%=! );&D!$#=&!49!6;&6A7!#)!#**8!34*D!Y!.&(!6&4)!9?!20`2[!D&#(!9*=!6;&6A! @;9!6(&#)&=!);&!7%)&!#4=!@;Db!94*D!2]!.&(!6&4)!69$.#(&!%4?9($#)%94! #6(977!7%)&7b!#4=!0U!.&(!6&4)!#7A!79$&94&!&*7&!%?!);&D!;#<&!/&&4!)9! );&!@&/7%)&8[Z! I'$%*2'$27#4%&'.&%.($%).+$%2.1%6$%#">$(0,2,./^%#"2'%.#%:'$&'$(%&'$% @&/7%)&!*99A7!#4=!?&&*7!*&:%)%$#)&8!f&7&#(6;!;#7!(&<&#*&=! %4?9($#)%94!a>#*%)D!=9&7!49)!#..&#(!)9!/&!9?!7%:4%?%6#46&!)9!$#4D! =%:%)#*!4#)%<&7B!#4=!);#)!=&6%7%947!#/9>)!%4?9($#)%94!a>#*%)D!%7! /#7&=!94!7%)&!=&7%:4B!(#);&(!);#4!$9(&!#66>(#)&!6;&6A78[[!! F(>7)!%4!);&!%4)&(4&)!%7!49)!#/79*>)&!#4=!>4(&7&(<&=!9?!69>(7&8!5! 011[!7)>=D!7;9@&=!);#)!TY!.&(!6&4)!9?!.>.%*7!#:&=!`2!)(>7)!$97)! 9?!);&!%4?9($#)%94!9?!);&!%4)&(4&)B!Z!.&(!6&4)!)(>7)!79$&!9?!%)B!#4=! 94*D!21!.&(!6&4)!#(&!7A&.)%6#*!#/9>)!$>6;!9?!);&!%4?9($#)%94! 94*%4&8[U!34&!7)>=D!7;9@&=!);#)!@;%*7)!.&9.*&!(#)&=!);&%(! 694?%=&46&!%4!);&!(&*%#/%*%)D!9?!94*%4&!%4?9($#)%94!#7!U!9>)!9?!21B! 94*D!T!.&(!6&4)!9?!(&7.94=&4)7!&M.(&77&=!)9)#*!694?%=&46&B! 7>::&7)%4:!(&69:4%)%94!9?!79$&!9?!);&!.977%/*&!/%#7&7!#4=! %4#66>(#6%&78[]! +;%*=(&4!#(&!#*79!#/*&!)9!(>=%$&4)#(%*D!=%76&(4!a>#*%)D!9?! %4?9($#)%948!R9(!&M#$.*&B!%4!);&!Y`22!#4=!20`2[!#:&!:(9>.7B! 6;%*=(&4!#(&!$9(&!*%A&*D!)9!/&*%&<&!);#)!=96>$&4)#(D!9(!4&@7! .(9:(#$$&7!#(&!#!/&))&(!(&?*&6)%94!9?!(&#*!*%?&!);#4!(&#*%)D!Fi! .(9:(#$$&7!7>6;!#7!'%:!'(9);&(8[Y!-9$&);%4:!7%$%*#(!966>(7! 94*%4&B!)998!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!#(&!$9(&!*%A&*D!)9!/&*%&<&!);#)!$97)!9?! );&!%4?9($#)%94!#<#%*#/*&!94!4&@7!7%)&7!%7!)(>&!KY]!.&(!6&4)L!#4=! 7%)&7!>7&=!?9(!;9$&@9(A!KYY!.&(!6&4)LB!);#4!/*9:7!9(!>7&(!:&4&(#)&=! 7%)&7!KZY!.&(!6&4)L8!F;&(&!#(&!49!=%??&(&46&7!%4!/&*%&?!/D!:&4=&(!9(!/D! 22

Truth, Lies and the Internet 796%9`&6949$%6!:(9>.!#4=!);&(&!;#7!/&&4!49!6;#4:&!%4!#))%)>=&7! #$94:!20`2[!D&#(!9*=7!7%46&!0118[! f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`#5"(2$%($.+,1-?%<$%*65"12$48%9,#,&,1-%51/3%51&!)9!);(&&!.#:&7! ?(9$!);&!);9>7#4=7!);#)!#(&!#<#%*#/*&B!.(9.&**&=!#*94:!/D!.9@&(?>*! #$.(2'%$1-,1$#?%<$%./#5%*#7,&&$(48%9,$:,1-%)5($%&'.1%($.+,1-?%_1% #()%6*&!%7!94!#<&(#:&!<%&@&=!?9(!#(9>4=!?%<&!$%4>)&7B!#4=!7>$$#(%&7! #(&!(&#=!$>6;!$9(&!);#4!);&!?>**!694)&4)8!F;&!>7&(!$9<&7! ;9(%h94)#**D!#6(977!);&!%4)&(4&)B!@%);!?(&a>&4)!#4=!*%:;)!694)#6)7! (#);&(!);#4!.(9:(&77%<&*D!=&&.&(!(&7&#(6;!9?!#!7%4:*&!79>(6&8U0!F;%7! ,#%*.##52,.&,9$4%(.&'$(%&'.1%*/,1$.(4%&',17,1-?UT!!! )I57:6;:P&75I:H95?F&>67&I>H5:?F&& H)!%7!#4!&77&4)%#*!#4=!>4=&(*D%4:!)&4&)!9?!);&!.;%*979.;D!9?!76%&46&! );#)!)9!&7)#/*%7;!#!(>*&B!@&!$>7)!)(D!)9!.(9<&!%)!?#*7&8!F;%7!%7!_#(*! J5>>$(4#%0.)5"#%*0./#,0,.6,/,&34%&$#&?UZ!X5:$9$(8%>$5>/$%+514&%./:.3#% @9(A!*%A&!);#)8!H4!?#6)B!@&!)&4=!)9!=9!);&!.(&6%7&!9..97%)&8U[! d>$&(9>7!7)>=%&7!;#<&!7;9@4!);#)!@&!7&#(6;!?9(!&<%=&46&!)9!.(9<&! 9>(!);&9(%&7B!#4=!@#4)!)9!/&*%&<&!@&!;#<&!?9>4=!%)b!);#)!@&!#(&!$9(&! #@#(&!9?!?*#@7!%4!7)>=%&7!);#)!.(&7&4)!&<%=&46&!);#)!6;#**&4:&!9>(! /&*%&?7!);#4!);97&!);#)!694?%($!);&$b!#4=!);#)!@&!#(&!%4?*>&46&=! &49($9>7*D!/D!@;#)!.&9.*&!#(9>4=!>7!#(&!7#D%4:!#4=!=9%4:8UU!H4! 7;9()B!@;&4!%)!69$&7!)9!#77&77%4:!%4?9($#)%94!#4=!#((%<%4:!#)! =&6%7%947B!;>$#4!/&%4:7!#(&!<&(D!(#(&*D!&4)%(&*D!*9:%6#*B!=&=>6)%<&! #4=!(#)%94#*8! 23

Truth, Lies and the Internet I'$%'").1%>($+,/$2&,51%05(%*'5)5>',/34%!!);&!.(%46%.*&!);#)! 7%$%*#(%)D!/(&&=7!6944&6)%94!!!%4!796%#*!4&)@9(A7!:&4&(#**D!%7!@&**! &<%=&46&=8U]!-96%#*!$&=%#!$#D!&M#6&(/#)&!);&!.(9/*&$8!!34&!9?!);&! @#D7!%4!@;%6;!.&9.*&!$#4#:&!);&%(!%4)&(4&)!6947>$.)%94!%7!);(9>:;! &'$%*#52,./%:$64%!!#!7&*&6)%94!9?!?%*)&(%4:B!:(#=%4:!#4=!9(=&(%4:!7%)&78! F;&(&!#(&!$#4D!4&@!.(9:(#$$&7!#4=!?%*)&(7!);#)!;&*.!.&9.*&!)9! =%7)%4:>%7;!/&)@&&4!%4?9($#)%94!9?!<#(D%4:!a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` ).+$%*0,/&$(%6"66/$#48%5(%.%*"1,`"$%"1,9$(#$%50%,105().&,51%05(%$.2'% 50%"#4?U! '&%4:!7>((9>4=&=!/D!:#)&`A&&.&(7!.(&`&$.)%4:!9>(!=&6%7%947!#/9>)! );&!A%4=7!9?!%4?9($#)%94!@&!@#4)!)9!7&&!!!@;#)!P#(%7&(!6#**7! *,19,#,6/$%."&5`>(5>.-.1+.4%!!;#7!7&(%9>7!6947&a>&46&78!F;&! .977%/%*%)D!9?!7&(&4=%.%)D!!!9?!?9()>%)9>7*D!7)>$/*%4:!#6(977! #5)$&',1-%51$%+,+14&%$=>$2&%!!=&6(&#7&78!c99:*&!%7!=&<&*9.%4:!#! -&(&4=%.%)D!-&#(6;!W4:%4&B!#*);9>:;!);%7!7&&$7!)9!6947)%)>)&! c99:*&!A49@%4:!&49>:;!#/9>)!9>(!.(&?&(&46&7!)9!A49@!#/9>)! );%4:7!);#)!@&!=9!49)!A49@!/>)!@9>*=!*%A&!)98]1!,9(&!7&(%9>7*DB!#4=! )#A&a

Add a comment

Related presentations

Papantla

Papantla

November 11, 2014

monografia de papantla

Small deck used during Use Case roundtable at JiveWorld 2014. On each on the 14 ta...

This 30 minute presentation was given at the 2014 Rochester Young Professionals En...

Related pages

Truth, Lies and Trust on the Internet eBook: Monica T ...

Truth, Lies and Trust on the Internet eBook: Monica T. Whitty, Adam Joinson: Amazon.de: Kindle-Shop
Read more

Truth, Lies, and the Internet - The Atlantic

A commenter on the tech site Slashdot picked up the thread: "What do we do when the Internet mob is wrong?" the poster asked: After all, if one of the ...
Read more

Truth, lies and the internet - Demos

Truth, lies and the internet . The internet is the greatest source of information for people living in the UK today. But the amount of material available ...
Read more

Truth, Lies and Trust on the Internet eBook von Monica T ...

Lesen Sie Truth, Lies and Trust on the Internet von Monica T. Whitty mit Kobo. The Internet is often presented as an unsafe or untrustworthy space: where ...
Read more

Truth, Lies, and Trust on the Internet: Amazon.de: Dr ...

Truth, Lies and Trust on the Internet und über 1,5 Millionen weitere Bücher verfügbar für Amazon Kindle. Erfahren Sie mehr
Read more

Truth, Lies and Trust on the Internet ebook | weltbild.de

eBook Shop: Truth, Lies and Trust on the Internet als Download. Jetzt eBook sicher bei Weltbild runterladen & bequem mit Ihrem Tablet oder eBook Reader lesen.
Read more

truth, lies and the internet a report into young people’s ...

truth, lies and the internet a report into young people’s digital fluency Jamie Bartlett Carl Miller September 2011 ...
Read more

Where the Truth Lies (2005) - IMDb

Title: Where the Truth Lies (2005) 6.5 /10. Want to share IMDb's rating on your own site? Use the HTML below. You must be a registered ...
Read more

Truth, lies, and the Internet - CNET

Truth, lies, and the Internet. The Kurt Vonnegut speech hoax epitomized the ability of fabrication, fiction, and hyperbole to propagate and ...
Read more

Truth & Lies (TV Movie 2015) - IMDb

Title: Truth & Lies (TV Movie 2015) 5 /10. Want to share IMDb's rating on your own site? Use the HTML below. You must be a ...
Read more