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Published on January 17, 2008

Author: Siro

Source: authorstream.com

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Moral responsibility in changing the mind and bioethics education:  Moral responsibility in changing the mind and bioethics education Fumi Maekawa and Darryl R.J. Macer Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba Science City, 305-8572, Japan Questions in Bioethics Education:  Questions in Bioethics Education Do we know if bioethics education actually helps people resolve bioethics dilemmas? Does knowing more sides of an issue help us resolve the practical dilemmas when we face them? Analysis from “Life and Culture”:  Analysis from “Life and Culture” Open mainly to first year undergraduate students Students majoring in different fields including: Biology Humanities Physics Geology Social engineering International relations Physical education Agriculture Analysis Method:  Analysis Method Short survey on bioethics and prenatal testing before and after lectures Class attendance sheet (keywords, comments) Extended report on prenatal testing Attendance of students :  Attendance of students Analysis of Survey:  Analysis of Survey Conducted on the 28 students who have handed in both the pre and post lecture surveys Response in either Japanese or English, though only 3 or 4 students answered the survey in English Results of the pre and post lecture surveys :  Results of the pre and post lecture surveys Focused on how the attitude changed before and after the lectures Keywords and ideas were investigated to see whether any new ideas appeared or greater diversity developed What comes to mind when you think about bioethics? :  What comes to mind when you think about bioethics? Cloning 32% Genetic modification 21% Brain death and organ transplantation 14% Don’t know 7% No answer 4% Science makes an important contribution to the quality of life :  Science makes an important contribution to the quality of life Strongly agree 48% → 48% Agree 52% → 44% Neither 0% → 7% Within the 10 changes of attitude, 6 became more negative and 4 became more positive. Overall, the change was to a negative attitude. Most problems can be solved by applying more and better technology:  Most problems can be solved by applying more and better technology Strongly agree 7% → 7% Agree 26% → 26% Neither 52% → 44% Disagree 15% → 15% Strongly disagree 0% → 7% 12 changes of attitude, 5 became slightly negative, and 3 became pretty negative Overall, the change was to a negative attitude Genetically modified plants and animals will help agriculture become less dependent on chemical pesticides :  Genetically modified plants and animals will help agriculture become less dependent on chemical pesticides Strongly agree 19% → 19% Agree 52% → 44% Neither 22% → 26% Disagree 4% → 0% Strongly disagree 4% → 4% 14 attitude changes, and 7 became slightly positive. Overall, the change was to a positive attitude A woman can abort a 4month old fetus :  A woman can abort a 4month old fetus Strongly agreed 11% → 4% Agreed 22% → 26% Neither 41% → 37% Disagree 26% → 26% Strongly disagree 0% → 7% 13 attitude changes, 7 were slightly negative, and the overall change was to a negative shift A woman can abort a 4 month old fetus that has congenital abnormalities :  A woman can abort a 4 month old fetus that has congenital abnormalities Strongly agree 11% → 4% Agreed 15% → 22% Neither 48% → 37% Disagree 22% → 37% Strongly disagreed 4% → 0% 12 changes, 5 were both for slightly positive and slightly negative A married couple can use a surrogate mother and IVF if they cannot get pregnant themselves :  A married couple can use a surrogate mother and IVF if they cannot get pregnant themselves Strongly agreed 26% → 19% Agreed 48% → 56% Neither 22% → 26% Disagreed 4% → 0% 10 changes, 5 were slightly positive and 4 were slightly negative Animals have rights that people should not violate :  Animals have rights that people should not violate Strongly agreed 44% → 37% Agreed 41% → 44% Neither 7% → 19% Disagreed 7% → 0% 7 changes, 4 shifted slightly positive. In the post-lecture survey, nobody disagreed nor strongly disagreed Overall do you think science and technology do more harm than good, more good than harm, or about the same of each :  Overall do you think science and technology do more harm than good, more good than harm, or about the same of each More harm 7% → 7% More good 48% → 26% About the same 41% → 56% Don’t know 4% → 11% Some genetic diseases can be predicted in the fetus during the early stages of pregnancy. Do you think such tests should be available under government-funded Medicare? Why? :  Some genetic diseases can be predicted in the fetus during the early stages of pregnancy. Do you think such tests should be available under government-funded Medicare? Why? Yes 41% → 41% No 26% → 33% Don’t know 33% → 26% The majority of Japanese accept prenatal diagnosis should be under national health insurance Some genetic diseases can be predicted in the fetus during the early stages of pregnancy. Do you think such tests should be available under government-funded health insurance? Why? Yes No Don’t know (Surveys by Macer et al.):  The majority of Japanese accept prenatal diagnosis should be under national health insurance Some genetic diseases can be predicted in the fetus during the early stages of pregnancy. Do you think such tests should be available under government-funded health insurance? Why? Yes No Don’t know (Surveys by Macer et al.) Would you want such a test during your/your spouse’s pregnancy? :  Would you want such a test during your/your spouse’s pregnancy? Yes 26% → 26% No 30% → 22% Don’t know 44% → 52% At present 41% of Japanese say they would use prenatal diagnosis themselves. Would you want such a test during (your/your spouse's) pregnancy? Why? Yes No Don’t know (Surveys by Macer et al.):  At present 41% of Japanese say they would use prenatal diagnosis themselves. Would you want such a test during (your/your spouse's) pregnancy? Why? Yes No Don’t know (Surveys by Macer et al.) Analysis of comment slips :  Analysis of comment slips As the lecture advanced, the keywords that the students wrote became more diverse On this first lecture’s comment slip were that of those highlighted in the handout or printed in bold Summary 1:  Summary 1 Most of the students continued to support the usefulness of technology When directly asked, “more good” shifted to “about the same” More diversity seen in abortion and reproductive technology issues Summary 2:  Summary 2 For the prenatal diagnosis issue, the percentage of students who agreed with government funding and those who would use such tests remained the same. Some of uncertain portion in the government funding of prenatal diagnosis changed their ideas to No, where as more had uncertainty when asked about their own decision. Bioethical maturity:  Bioethical maturity Bioethically mature means a person, or a society that can balance the benefits and risks of alternative options, and make well-considered decisions, and talk about it.

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