Tribal Level of Integraton

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Information about Tribal Level of Integraton

Published on October 12, 2008

Author: PaulVMcDowell

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Describe the characteristics of tribal societies.

Tribal Level of Integration Horticulturalists

Tribal Level of Integration: Features Food producers: horticulture or pastoralism (herding) Larger populations Two or more extended kin groups Cross-cutting sodalities Balanced reciprocity Headmen without power or office

Food producers: horticulture or pastoralism (herding)

Larger populations

Two or more extended kin groups

Cross-cutting sodalities

Balanced reciprocity

Headmen without power or office

Food-Producing Societies First indications: Neolithic ca 10 kya In the Fertile Crescent (upper left), Near East Characteristics: Domestication of plants (emmer wheat, lower), animals, or both Human control over food production Quantities of food greater than foragers Settled communities (except herders) Increases in population Complex social structures.

First indications: Neolithic ca 10 kya

In the Fertile Crescent (upper left), Near East

Characteristics:

Domestication of plants (emmer wheat, lower), animals, or both

Human control over food production

Quantities of food greater than foragers

Settled communities (except herders)

Increases in population

Complex social structures.

Horticulture Definition: Cultivation of crops Carried out with hand tools Such as digging sticks or hoes Neither plows or irrigation systems are used Best known type of cultivation involves use of slash-and-burn or swidden cultivation

Definition:

Cultivation of crops

Carried out with hand tools

Such as digging sticks or hoes

Neither plows or irrigation systems are used

Best known type of cultivation involves use of slash-and-burn or swidden cultivation

Basics of Slash-and-Burn Cultivation A site is cleared of brush and trees Trees are felled, brush stacked Once dried, the brush and trees are set afire (top photo). Planting begins Usually, crops are interplanted Once soil is exhausted, site is abandoned (bottom photo) Cultivators clear a new site

A site is cleared of brush and trees

Trees are felled, brush stacked

Once dried, the brush and trees are set afire (top photo).

Planting begins

Usually, crops are interplanted

Once soil is exhausted, site is abandoned (bottom photo)

Cultivators clear a new site

Slash-and-Burn Cultivation: Adaptive Significance Most slash-and-burn cultivation is practiced in the tropics Tropical climate is extremely hard on soils Intense heat Heavy rainfall Chemical reaction from heat and rain Slash-and-burn is best adapted to this climate--which the following will show

Most slash-and-burn cultivation is practiced in the tropics

Tropical climate is extremely hard on soils

Intense heat

Heavy rainfall

Chemical reaction from heat and rain

Slash-and-burn is best adapted to this climate--which the following will show

Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Intense Heat Plant and animal matter decompose to form humus or topsoil Humus formation virtually stops if soil reaches 77 degrees Fahrenheit Decomposition of humus exceed formation Humic materials break down to gases: ammonia, nitrogen, carbon dioxide Gases escape into the atmosphere

Plant and animal matter decompose to form humus or topsoil

Humus formation virtually stops if soil reaches 77 degrees Fahrenheit

Decomposition of humus exceed formation

Humic materials break down to gases: ammonia, nitrogen, carbon dioxide

Gases escape into the atmosphere

Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Rainfall Rainfall acts on the soil in two ways Erosion: Rainfall carries away soil particles Particles themselves scour surface Abrasion carries off even more soil Leaching Warm water dissolves water-soluble nutrients Nutrients seep into subsoil

Rainfall acts on the soil in two ways

Erosion:

Rainfall carries away soil particles

Particles themselves scour surface

Abrasion carries off even more soil

Leaching

Warm water dissolves water-soluble nutrients

Nutrients seep into subsoil

Constants of Tropical Rainforest: Laterization Laterite: the oxides of minerals Such as iron oxide at top layer (photo) Combined heat and moisture creates oxides Process is irreversible Removes phosphorus, an essential nutrient Cannot absorb other nutrients

Laterite: the oxides of minerals

Such as iron oxide at top layer (photo)

Combined heat and moisture creates oxides

Process is irreversible

Removes phosphorus, an essential nutrient

Cannot absorb other nutrients

A Long-Term Constant: Age of Soil This process has been going for centuries Soil is mostly clay and sand Plant and animal life is limited in protein Most plants reproduce by vegetative means Seeds involve large amounts of protein Animals are small Gregarious (herding) animals are rare

This process has been going for centuries

Soil is mostly clay and sand

Plant and animal life is limited in protein

Most plants reproduce by vegetative means

Seeds involve large amounts of protein

Animals are small

Gregarious (herding) animals are rare

Adaptation of Tropical Rainforests: Overview Protective canopy of leaves and epiphytic plants Rate of growth Juxtaposition of different types of trees

Protective canopy of leaves and epiphytic plants

Rate of growth

Juxtaposition of different types of trees

Protective Canopy Mature forests contain trees with thick foliage at their tops (left) The canopy comprises: Thick network of leafy branches, and Epiphytic plants that derive nutrients from rain and air Protective functions of the canopy: Provide protective shade from sun, allowing humus to accumulate Lessen action and amount of rainfall

Mature forests contain trees with thick foliage at their tops (left)

The canopy comprises:

Thick network of leafy branches, and

Epiphytic plants that derive nutrients from rain and air

Protective functions of the canopy:

Provide protective shade from sun, allowing humus to accumulate

Lessen action and amount of rainfall

Rate of Growth Rate of growth is spectacular Enables rapid use of nutrients before they disappear through erosion or leaching Litter fall of animal remains and dead vegetation Is four times of woodland in New York state Rainfall also captures nutrients from air 75% of potassium in soil, 40% of magnesium, and 25% of phosphorus come from rainwater

Rate of growth is spectacular

Enables rapid use of nutrients before they disappear through erosion or leaching

Litter fall of animal remains and dead vegetation

Is four times of woodland in New York state

Rainfall also captures nutrients from air

75% of potassium in soil, 40% of magnesium, and 25% of phosphorus come from rainwater

Species Juxtaposition Different tree species have different nutrient requirements Some require more phosphorus than others Other require more potassium Nutrient left by one tree is taken by others Dispersal of same species is protection against pests and diseases

Different tree species have different nutrient requirements

Some require more phosphorus than others

Other require more potassium

Nutrient left by one tree is taken by others

Dispersal of same species is protection against pests and diseases

Clean Clearing of Tropical Rainforest Clean clearing (left) would: Compact the soil due to heavy rainfall Erosion via runoff would increase Minimize or eliminate formation of humus Leach the soil Convert the soil into laterite Overall: reduce its fertility

Clean clearing (left) would:

Compact the soil due to heavy rainfall

Erosion via runoff would increase

Minimize or eliminate formation of humus

Leach the soil

Convert the soil into laterite

Overall: reduce its fertility

Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Technique Review of distinctive features Cutting and burning vegetation prior to planting Shifting to new site after 2 or 3 crops Mundurucú practices Site selection: sloping, well-drained area Clearing Removal of shrubs and small trees Felling of trees by keystone method

Review of distinctive features

Cutting and burning vegetation prior to planting

Shifting to new site after 2 or 3 crops

Mundurucú practices

Site selection: sloping, well-drained area

Clearing

Removal of shrubs and small trees

Felling of trees by keystone method

Slash-and-Burn Cultivation Technique: Burning Mundurucú practices (con’t) Burning Vegetation allowed to dry: 2 months Fire set on day of slight breeze to fan flames

Mundurucú practices (con’t)

Burning

Vegetation allowed to dry: 2 months

Fire set on day of slight breeze to fan flames

Slash and Burn Techniques Planting Begins at first rains: no cultivation Hole made with digging stick Cuttings or seeds inserted and covered Manioc (a tuber) and sweet potatoes are planted in the center Other crops planted at edges

Planting

Begins at first rains: no cultivation

Hole made with digging stick

Cuttings or seeds inserted and covered

Manioc (a tuber) and sweet potatoes are planted in the center

Other crops planted at edges

Slash-and-Burn Cultivation: Weeding and Harvest Weeding Done twice during growing season Harvest Planting is staggered; so is harvesting Harvesting done as need arises Entire crop is not removed at one time Manioc replanted immediately after harvest to ensure permanent supply

Weeding

Done twice during growing season

Harvest

Planting is staggered; so is harvesting

Harvesting done as need arises

Entire crop is not removed at one time

Manioc replanted immediately after harvest to ensure permanent supply

Slash-and-Burn Cultivation as Imitation of Rainforest Crops are intermixed, each with different nutrient requirements Reduces competition for same nutrient Dispersal of same plants retard disease, pests Staggering planting and harvest minimizes soil exposure Burning slash returns nutrients to soil

Crops are intermixed, each with different nutrient requirements

Reduces competition for same nutrient

Dispersal of same plants retard disease, pests

Staggering planting and harvest minimizes soil exposure

Burning slash returns nutrients to soil

Slash and Burn Cultivation as Imperfect Imitation of Rainforest Decomposition of stumps and branches Attract pests away from crops Supply added nutrients Weeding of mixed value Minimizes competition for nutrients Reduces shade and protection from erosion Imitation not the real thing Yield declines by 3rd year—time to move

Decomposition of stumps and branches

Attract pests away from crops

Supply added nutrients

Weeding of mixed value

Minimizes competition for nutrients

Reduces shade and protection from erosion

Imitation not the real thing

Yield declines by 3rd year—time to move

Tribal Societies: Economic Systems The economic systems of tribal societies include: Property, which includes corporate kin groups Exchange relations, involving reciprocity Political organizations, again usually kin based The economic and political system of a tribe are usually integrated into one system. Carl Polanyi called a tribal economy an “instituted process”—the economy is embedded in the society in which it occurs

The economic systems of tribal societies include:

Property, which includes corporate kin groups

Exchange relations, involving reciprocity

Political organizations, again usually kin based

The economic and political system of a tribe are usually integrated into one system.

Carl Polanyi called a tribal economy an “instituted process”—the economy is embedded in the society in which it occurs

Property: Communalism and Joint Communalism: ownership by community Property is freely accessible to all Or it involves a sharing arrangement--meat among !Kung or Inuit Mesoamerica: communal ownership, private use rights (usufruct)

Communalism: ownership by community

Property is freely accessible to all

Or it involves a sharing arrangement--meat among !Kung or Inuit

Mesoamerica: communal ownership, private use rights (usufruct)

Joint property All share in rights and obligations Property held by members of a corporate lineage or clan Example: cattle ownership among some East Africans Analysis: Corporate Lineages and Clans—Some background is necessary

All share in rights and obligations

Property held by members of a corporate lineage or clan

Example: cattle ownership among some East Africans

Analysis: Corporate Lineages and Clans—Some background is necessary

Lineages and Clans Most groups are organized into patrilineal or matrilineal groups Patrilineal groups: A continuous line of males related by blood Matrilineal groups: A continuous line of females related by blood Lineages: A group of kin related by patrilineal or matrilineal ties who can trace their ancestry Clan: A group of kin who assume their ties patrilineally or matrilineally to an ancestor, but to whom they cannot trace their descent.

Most groups are organized into patrilineal or matrilineal groups

Patrilineal groups: A continuous line of males related by blood

Matrilineal groups: A continuous line of females related by blood

Lineages: A group of kin related by patrilineal or matrilineal ties who can trace their ancestry

Clan: A group of kin who assume their ties patrilineally or matrilineally to an ancestor, but to whom they cannot trace their descent.

Descent Groups (Corporate Groups) Are organized with the following characteristics Their members control an estate : land, cattle, fishing areas, hunting territory The estate may be owned by group or It may be owned by the families that make up the lineage or clan

Are organized with the following characteristics

Their members control an estate : land, cattle, fishing areas, hunting territory

The estate may be owned by group or

It may be owned by the families that make up the lineage or clan

Descent Groups: Rights and Obligations The estate entails rights and obligations Examples: Rights to cattle for bridewealth Obligation to provide cattle for bridewealth Obligation to defend herds (or add to them) Fulani: If one group loses its herd due to disease Others contribute to replenishment of that herd

The estate entails rights and obligations

Examples:

Rights to cattle for bridewealth

Obligation to provide cattle for bridewealth

Obligation to defend herds (or add to them)

Fulani:

If one group loses its herd due to disease

Others contribute to replenishment of that herd

Descent Groups: Perpetuity The lineage or clan is sociocentric It outlasts the life span of individuals They are not unlike modern corporations These corporations also outlive their directors, managers, and employees

The lineage or clan is sociocentric

It outlasts the life span of individuals

They are not unlike modern corporations

These corporations also outlive their directors, managers, and employees

Legal Persons Under commercial law, corporations are defined as legal persons, with all privileges and liabilities thereto. These are similar to descent groups Kwakiutl: Say that a noble one clan has been murdered by commoner of another Rules of revenge demands te death of the noble of commoner’s clan—not just anybody, least all the commoner who committed the murder Responsibility for the murder is thereby collective In New Guinea, a murder likewise requires retaliation—that is enforced by the spirits

Under commercial law, corporations are defined as legal persons, with all privileges and liabilities thereto.

These are similar to descent groups

Kwakiutl: Say that a noble one clan has been murdered by commoner of another

Rules of revenge demands te death of the noble of commoner’s clan—not just anybody, least all the commoner who committed the murder

Responsibility for the murder is thereby collective

In New Guinea, a murder likewise requires retaliation—that is enforced by the spirits

Distribution Once a product has been made, it has to be distributed somehow In tribal societies, the primary means of doing so is by reciprocity This is gift exchange, which involves repayment of a gift later in time Marcel Mauss provided a framework for understanding the exchange.

Once a product has been made, it has to be distributed somehow

In tribal societies, the primary means of doing so is by reciprocity

This is gift exchange, which involves repayment of a gift later in time

Marcel Mauss provided a framework for understanding the exchange.

Imperatives of Exchange: Background Marcel Mauss: Presented his theory in The Gift This work compared gift giving in several cultures. In his preface, he writes, “When two groups of men meet, they may (1) move away (and never see each other again) or (2) in case of mistrust they may resort to arms (fight) or (3) else they may come to terms” Coming to terms, he called “total prestations” or Incurring an obligation that has the force of law in the absence of (codified ) law

Marcel Mauss: Presented his theory in The Gift

This work compared gift giving in several cultures.

In his preface, he writes, “When two groups of men meet, they may

(1) move away (and never see each other again) or

(2) in case of mistrust they may resort to arms (fight) or

(3) else they may come to terms”

Coming to terms, he called “total prestations” or

Incurring an obligation that

has the force of law

in the absence of (codified ) law

Obligations of the Gift Obligation to give, receive, and repay. First, the obligation to give serves: to extend social ties to another person or groups Obligation to receive entails Acceptance of the relationship Refusal is to reject the offered relationship Such a refusal often lead to war Obligation to repay complete the relationship Failure to repay renders one a beggar to the person or group who made the gift

Obligation to give, receive, and repay.

First, the obligation to give serves:

to extend social ties to another person or groups

Obligation to receive entails

Acceptance of the relationship

Refusal is to reject the offered relationship

Such a refusal often lead to war

Obligation to repay complete the relationship

Failure to repay renders one a beggar to the person or group who made the gift

Types of Reciprocity: Generalized The obligations underlie the principles of reciprocity Reciprocity: Direct exchange of goods and services Generalized reciprocity: altruistic transactions in which gifts are freely given without calculating value or repayment due Example: meat distribution among !Kung (upper left) Example: family pooling of resources, even birthday presents (lower left) This usually occurs among close kin

The obligations underlie the principles of reciprocity

Reciprocity: Direct exchange of goods and services

Generalized reciprocity: altruistic transactions in which

gifts are freely given without calculating value or repayment due

Example: meat distribution among !Kung (upper left)

Example: family pooling of resources, even birthday presents (lower left)

This usually occurs among close kin

Types of Reciprocity: Balanced Balanced reciprocity: Direct exchange Value of gift is calculated Time of repayment is specified Selling surplus food (upper left) Kula ring, Trobriand Islands One trader gives partner a white armband (see map, lower left) He thereby expects a red necklace of equal value in return Promissory gifts are made until the return gift is made Balanced reciprocity usually occurs among distant kin

Balanced reciprocity: Direct exchange

Value of gift is calculated

Time of repayment is specified

Selling surplus food (upper left)

Kula ring, Trobriand Islands

One trader gives partner a white armband (see map, lower left)

He thereby expects a red necklace of equal value in return

Promissory gifts are made until the return gift is made

Balanced reciprocity usually occurs among distant kin

Types of Reciprocity: Negative Negative reciprocity: An exchange where One party tries to get the better of the exchange from the other party. Example: hard bargaining or deception Example: horse raids (upper left) Example: selling prepared food to a captive market (lower left) Usually occurs among unrelated persons Variation: silent trade

Negative reciprocity: An exchange where

One party tries to get the better of the exchange

from the other party.

Example: hard bargaining or deception

Example: horse raids (upper left)

Example: selling prepared food to a captive market (lower left)

Usually occurs among unrelated persons

Variation: silent trade

Concepts of the Supernatural: Forces Versus Beings Supernatural Forces: mana No personality or other such attributes Forces somewhat akin to electricity Tabus: caution against touching object too dangerous for commoners Supernatural Beings Supernatural persons or forces with attributes of personality or personage Human image of gods or spirits apply here

Supernatural Forces: mana

No personality or other such attributes

Forces somewhat akin to electricity

Tabus: caution against touching object too dangerous for commoners

Supernatural Beings

Supernatural persons or forces with attributes of personality or personage

Human image of gods or spirits apply here

Supernatural Beings: A Typology Gods: generically of nonhuman origin Monotheism: single, often all-powerful god Polytheism: numerous, specialized gods Demons: negative beings Spirits or Ghosts: of human origin Ancestral spirits: departed souls of the dead to whom living pay homage Ghosts: Spirits who often bring harm to living, often as revenge for some neglect

Gods: generically of nonhuman origin

Monotheism: single, often all-powerful god

Polytheism: numerous, specialized gods

Demons: negative beings

Spirits or Ghosts: of human origin

Ancestral spirits: departed souls of the dead to whom living pay homage

Ghosts: Spirits who often bring harm to living, often as revenge for some neglect

Practitioners: Shamans, Witches Shamans: persons with supernatural power acquired by individual initiative Many are diagnosticians or healers Quasalid: Kwakiutl shaman Diviners : those who forecast the future Sorcerers: Practitioners who bring ham Through supernatural power/often with ritual Witchcraft : Innate psychic power capable of harm Case study: Azande poison oracle

Shamans: persons with supernatural power acquired by individual initiative

Many are diagnosticians or healers

Quasalid: Kwakiutl shaman

Diviners : those who forecast the future

Sorcerers: Practitioners who bring ham

Through supernatural power/often with ritual

Witchcraft : Innate psychic power capable of harm

Case study: Azande poison oracle

Conclusion: Tribal Societies Defining features: absence of institutional chief or monarch Two or more segments, such as lineages Cross-cutting institutions, such as age grades, cross-cousin marriage Or even larger lineages or clans Some are horticulturalists, such as Yanomamo, Kayapo, and Kawelka Others are pastoralists, such as the Masai

Defining features: absence of institutional chief or monarch

Two or more segments, such as lineages

Cross-cutting institutions, such as age grades, cross-cousin marriage

Or even larger lineages or clans

Some are horticulturalists, such as Yanomamo, Kayapo, and Kawelka

Others are pastoralists, such as the Masai

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