Published on February 12, 2014
Session 5.3 Biodiversity and agroforested habitats
Ecosystem Functions, Goods and Services de Groot et al 2002
Habitat provision by trees • Microclimate buffering
Habitat provision by trees • • • • • • Microclimate buffering Nutrient availability Water availability Provision of C substrates Host for pollinators Host biological control agents
Habitat provision by trees Pres. #4,#5,#6 Pres. #1,#2,#3 TREE-BGBD WaNuLCAS TREE-AGBD
Tree-soil interactions and the provision of soil-mediated ecosystem services Edmundo Barrios, Fred Ayuke, Diana H. Wall, Scott Bates, Noah Fierer, Keith Shepherd University of Nairobi GSBI Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative
OUTLINE 1. Biodiversity management in agricultural landscapes 2. Land health surveillance framework 3. Challenges and opportunities
BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES Planned and managed AGBD aboveground biodiversity Above-ground: planned, managed biodiversity ? BGBD Unplanned, unmanaged Below-ground: unplanned, unmanaged biodiversity belowground biodiversity ? ? Diversitas 2005
Why bother about Soil Biota when considering Ecosystem Services? Primary driving agents of nutrient cycling (C, N, P, S) Regulators of dynamics of: soil organic matter carbon sequestration greenhouse gas emissions Modify soil physical structure and water regimes Enhance amount & efficiency of nutrient acquisition of plants (Symbiosis) Influencing plant health (pathogens & pests vs. natural predators & parasites) (Barrios 2007)
SOIL BIOLOGICAL FUNCTION AND THE PROVISION OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Barrios et al, 2012
What about trees and soil-based ecosystem services? Strong linkage between aboveground biodiversity (vegetation/crops) and belowground biodiversity (soil organisms) Great potential to strategically utilize land use and management systems to influence the provision of ecosystem goods and services
AGROFORESTRY Close to half of agricultural land has > 10% Tree cover (Zomer et al 2009)
Some effects of trees are mediated through impact on soil biota – trees increase abundance Mean density of different soil biota and calculated response ratios Agroforestry Soil macrofauna Earthworms Beetles Centipedes Termites Ants Soil mesofauna Collembola Mites Soil microfauna Non-parasitic nematodes Parasitic nematodes Agriculture RR References (indiv m-2) 54.4 20.9 2.7 90.7 23.2 (indiv m-2) 17.6 9.6 0.5 81.0 8.6 3.1 2.2 5.6 1.1 2.7 1,2,3,4,5,6 1,2,5 1,2,5 1,2,5 1,2,5 (indiv m-2) 3890.1 5100.7 (indiv m-2) 2000.7 1860.1 1.9 2.7 7 7 (indiv liter-1) 2922 203.7 (indiv liter-1) 1288 211.5 2.3 1 8 8 Barrios et al. 2012
Some effects of trees are mediated through impact on soil biota – trees increase activity Greater soil biological activity (earthworms) near trees but effect greater for some tree species than others Pruned trees Free growing trees Earthworm cast weight Sample with no earthworm casts Pauli et al 2010
TREES AS HOTSPOTS OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES Barrios et al. 2012
Land Health Surveillance AfSIS - A Globally Integrated African Soil Information Service (www.africasoils.net) International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute (TSBF), Earth Institute at Columbia University, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), International Soil Reference Information Centre (ISRIC) With support from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)
AfSIS Sentinel Sites 10 km Cluster#4 Cluster#8 Cluster#12 Cluster#16 Cluster#3 Cluster#7 Cluster#11 Cluster#15 10 km Cluster#2 Cluster#6 Cluster#10 Cluster#14 Cluster#1 Cluster#5 Cluster#9 Cluster#13 SENTINEL SITE (100 km2)
2.5 Km CLUSTER (1 km2) 2.5 Km Plot 1000 m2 Subplot #2 Subplot #1 Subplot #3 Sub-plots 100 m2 Subplot #4
Sampling plot (1000 m2) sub-plots (100 m2) SOIL BIOTA
D ocumentation of AfSI S methods and guidelines for implementation
LDSF characterization of Woody Cover PLANTS T-square method Tree density, basal area, biovolume and biomass
Tree Density Mapping at Fine Resolution Map of tree density in an areas with steep climatic gradients in northern Kenya, derived from modeling ground data collected from sentinel sites to Landsat imagery (28.5 m resolution).
AfSIS Soil Characterization • • • High throughput system Infrared spectroscopy on all samples Reference samples on subsets
Measuring Soil Carbon in Landscapes 1988 2006
Soil Biological Properties Soil samples 0-20 cm, 20-50 cm Composited per plot (1000 m2) Soil monoliths One per subplot (100 m2) Soil analysis Soil DNA analysis (dry soil) Soil macrofauna 25 cm Soil DNA analysis (DESS soil) 20 cm Soil analysis Systematic assessment of Local Ecological Knowledge on tree-soil biota interactions Barrios et al., 2013
Soil macrofauna distribution Spatial distribution of earthworms across a Sentinel Site Dark circles = presence, light circles = absence
Pyrosequencing DNA extracted from soil samples -High throughput system -PCR amplification with group specific primers for SSU rRNA gene -Pyrosequencing gives ~1500 sequence per sample across many samples (>450,000 seq per run) - Illumina (MySeq 5 million seqs per run) -Taxonomic Information per sample AGCCTTAA… AGCCTTAA… AGCCTTAA… GCTACCAT… GCTACCAT… GCTACCAT… CGGATCAC… CGGATCAC… CGGATCAC… CTCGATTC… CTCGATTC… CTCGATTC…
Soil total N Bradyrhizobium DNA sequences Heat map showing the levels of total % N in soil (left) as well as abundance of DNA sequence types representing Bradyrhizobium (right) at Sentinel Site
CHALLENGES & OPPORTUNITIES Developing better understanding of AGBD/BGBD interactions Recommendations of what types of tree densities, arrangements and species maintain essential ecosystem functions provided by soil biota in agricultural landscapes.
Identifying, Quantifying and Mapping Host Spots of Biological Activity and Ecosystem Services Temporal and spatial dynamics as a result of environmental factors in situ Predictive knowledge of Ecosystem Service Provision
Developing Local Soil Health Monitoring Systems to evaluate Ecosystem Service provision performance Allow rural communities, environmental/agricultural institutions and local government Prepare for negotiations related to Payment for Ecosystem Services
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