Published on March 25, 2014
1 Know how. Know now. Tree Fruits Vaughn Hammond Extension Educator—Specialty Crops University of Nebraska –Lincoln Extension Kimmel Education & Research Center email@example.com Know how. Know now. History of Fruit Production in Eastern Nebraska 1874—Nebraska Horticultural Society proceedings state: “Standing at the eastern end of the great Platte Valley, the time is near at hand when the vista if Nebraska’s horticulture would be like an avenue widening as it extends westward, lined with belts of forest, orchards and vineyards flanked by fields of grain and diversified products. The platforms of it’s railroads covered with thousands of baskets of peaches and small fruits and crowded with barrels of apples.” Know how. Know now. Brownville Fruit District Nationally recognized fruit production region Shipped throughout the United States Apples, apricot, cherries, grapes, peaches, plums, pear, raspberries, blackberries, currants and gooseberries Know how. Know now. 1930’s 1931 Nebraska Unicameral passed a law ordering the removal of cedar trees to slow the damaging affects of Cedar Apple Rust on area apple orchards Brownville Orchard Company announced their 100 acre peach orchard was bearing crop for the first time. Averaged 500 bushel in sales a day. Know how. Know now. What Happened? Prohibition– January 16, 1920 Depression– October 29, 1929 through 1939 Armistice Day Freeze—November 11th 1940 Know how. Know now. Fruit Tree Options Apple Peach Pear Plum Apricot Tart Cherry
2 Know how. Know now. Site Selection FULL Sun Slope is OK Well drained soil Deer ??? Stay away from low areas Size cosideration Know how. Know now. Site Preparation Soil test Amend as needed prior to planting Weed control Round-up if needed Hole prep Know how. Know now. Planting Know how. Know now. Apple Standard varieties Semi-dwarf or dwarf varieties M-9 (dwarf) around 5-6 foot needing support produces ½ to ¾ bushel M-27 (ultra dwarf) around 3 ft 12-18 apples M-26 (dwarf) around 6-8 ft will produce 60-100 apples when mature M-7, MM106, MM111 (semi-dwarf) around 8-12 ft and produce 4-5 bushels Varieties---Red Delicious, Gala, Fuji, Ozark Gold, etc. Disease and Insects Know how. Know now. Current Trend Dwarf trellised trees Know how. Know now. Why Plant Smaller Trees Easier to work with Prune from the ground Harvest from the ground Reduced spray inputs –both equipment and product Increased yields Quicker yields
3 Know how. Know now. Disadvantages Increased installation costs Number per acre Support Reduced lifespan Know how. Know now. Know how. Know now. Know how. Know now. Varieties Red Delicious Yellow Delicious Gala Fuji Know how. Know now. Varieties Rome Winesap Jonathan Know how. Know now. Pollination Pollinator An agent (bees, insects, people) of pollen transfer Pollinizer The plant species or variety that produces the pollen Cross-pollination The transfer of pollen between two different species or varieties Self-unfruitful or self-sterile Plants in which very little fruit will set Self-fruitful Varieties that set fruit with their own pollen
4 Know how. Know now. Bloom Chart Know how. Know now. Self-Fruitful Lodi Liberty Empire Jonathan Gala Golden Delicious Rome Granny Smith Know how. Know now. Sterile Pollen Winesap, Mutsu Jonagold Know how. Know now. Pollinizer Chart Know how. Know now. Know how. Know now. Pruning
5 Know how. Know now. Know how. Know now. A. Suckers or watersprouts are vigorous vegetative shoots which drain nutrients needed for fruit production. They often appear at the base of grafted trees, or in crotches and sites of previous pruning cuts. B. Stubs or broken branches result from storms, heavy fruit loads, or improper pruning. Diseases and insects may enter the tree at these sites, so they should be headed back to healthy side branches or removed. C. Downward-growing branches develop few fruit buds and eventually shade or rub more productive scaffold branches. D. Rubbing branches create bark injury which also invite insects or disease. Head back or remove the less productive of the two. E. Shaded interior branches develop less quality fruit and limit access for harvest. Know how. Know now. F. Competing leaders result when suckers or branches near the top of the tree are allowed to grow taller than the uppermost bud of the trunk or central leader. Head these back or an unbalanced, structurally unsound tree will develop. G. Narrow crotches occur when a branch develops more parallel than perpendicular to the trunk or limb from which it originates. As each grows, bark trapped between the two interferes with the growth of a strong joint. H. Whorls occurs when several branches originate at the same point on the trunk or limb. Joints are weaker there, so select the best- located and remove the others. I. Heading back or growth diversion cuts are used to limit or redirect the growth of the central leader or branches. For limiting, cut back to a weak bud or lateral twig; for diversion cut back to a bud, twig, or branch oriented in the preferred direction. Know how. Know now. Espalier Know how. Know now. Insects Codling moth Apple maggot Redbanded leafroller San Jose scale Spider mites Know how. Know now. Resistance Enterprise – early Oct Freedom – early Sept Liberty – early Sept All 3 varieties have good vigor and very good resistance to Apple scab, Cedar apple rust and Powdery mildew
6 Know how. Know now. Disease Apple scab Powdery mildew Sooty blotch Fire blight Know how. Know now. Peach Very susceptible to spring frost Choose later blooming varieties Choose resistant varieties Susceptible to borer damage Know how. Know now. Pollination Generally self-fruitful with a few exceptions Know how. Know now. Peaches Dwarf rootstocks have not been adequately developed for peaches Standard variety for Midwest is Red Haven—Mid July Bear on 1 year old wood Disease Bacterial leaf and fruit spot, Brown rot, Leaf curl Cankers—Insect and sun scald Insects—Borers, Oriental fruit moth, Plum cucurlio, Know how. Know now. Pruning Know how. Know now. Pruning After one year In early spring (before growth begins), cut back the scaffold limbs to an outward-growing bud or branch, removing about one-third to one- half of the previous year's growth. Also shorten lateral branches arising from the scaffolds. Remove any shoots that formed on the trunk below the main scaffold branches. Eliminate shoots that grew toward the center of the tree. Pruning next five years The framework (trunk and main scaffolds) is now established. Each spring, shorten branches arising from the scaffolds. Shorten branches that tend to grow more rapidly than others. Keep the center of the tree open and remove any dead or diseased wood. Unlike apple trees, peach trees bear fruit on one-year-old wood, so new growth must be encouraged each year. Mature trees Cut back all branches that exceed 7 to 8 feet in height. This keeps the tree low and manageable. Cut to an outward-growing branch. Remove all vigorous, upright branches arising on the trunk and main scaffolds. Thin out 10 to 20 percent of the one-year-old fruiting wood each year.
7 Know how. Know now. Other Practices Fertilization At planting—1/2 cup around trunk 10-10-10 Each year after 1-2 # per year of age up to 5 # If new growth reaches 18 inches reduce use Thinning 10% of blooms setting fruit constitutes a full crop load Additional thinning to 8 inches apart in May Know how. Know now. Cherries Tart vs. Sweet Tart Cherry varieties Montmorency—The standard of Midwest cherry production Balaton—Slightly sweeter but reputed to be more tender North Star—Naturally small tree with small fruit. Very hardy Know how. Know now. Cultural Practices Plant as early in the spring as possible One cup of 10-10-10 broadcast around trunk After year 1 fertilize with Nitrogen only—about 1 pound per tree broad cast liberally away from base Important to keep bare ground around base of the tree Know how. Know now. Pruning Prune to promote good scaffold branches Limited pruning to keep balanced tree Know how. Know now. Disease Yellow leaf spot Brown rot Insects Plum curculio Aphids Cherry maggots Know how. Know now. Plum Fertile, well drained soil Purple, red, yellow, green and prune types Susceptible to borers Heavy yields European and Japanese types Stanley, Damson ---self fruitful –the exception Benefit from a pollinator--both
8 Know how. Know now. Know how. Know now. European Castleton - August 10 Bluebyrd - August 27 Stanley - August 28 Long John - September 1 President - September 20 Damson Japanese Early Golden - July 10 Methley - July 15 Shiro - July 20 Au Rosa - July 23 Black Amber - August 13 Satsuma - August 17 Black Ruby - August 25 Fortune - September 1 Ruby Queen - September 5 Friar - September 10 Know how. Know now. Pears Grows well under a wide range of conditions Generally very disease and insect resistant except for fire blight Very important to plant resistant plant material Self-unfruitful---require a pollinator Low nectar levels so higher pollinator population required Know how. Know now. Pruning Multi-leader system Advantages Shorter, more numerous side branches eliminating the need for spreading Multiple leaders for fireblight recovery if needed Know how. Know now. Pear Know how. Know now. Fire Blight Resistance
9 Know how. Know now. American Persimmon Can be found growing in SE Nebraska Makes excellent preserves Attracts wildlife Must eat when overly ripe Know how. Know now. Height 35-60 ft Diameter 25-35 ft Know how. Know now. Paw Paw Largest native American fruit 12-20 ft Found in diffuse light Native to SE Nebraska Sucker readily Know how. Know now. How The Drought Affects Fruit Trees Reduced branch, trunk and root growth Reduced flower bud initiation Leaf wilt Premature leaf drop Smaller fruit size Coloring Premature fruit drop Tree loss Know how. Know now. Early Season First 50 days of the growing season Majority of growth takes place Next years initiation of next years flower buds Younger trees have a 100 day period in which the majority of growth takes place Root development Anchorage Water and nutrient uptake Know how. Know now.
10 Know how. Know now. Sugar (glucose) a carbohydrate Carbohydrates are the plants primary food source Stored in the branches, trunk and roots of the tree Used as a food source to get the tree through the winter Initial energy source for spring growth and flower initiation Fruit development Know how. Know now. How Do We Combat Drought Watering Early spring to insure adequate moisture for growth and flower initiation Mulch Water throughout the season Maintain growth, fruit development Fall watering Insure adequate stores for spring Know how. Know now. Fall Watering Important for root health Roots continue to grow Dry soil conducive to root death Know how. Know now. Small Fruit Production In Eastern Nebraska Raspberries, Blackberries, Currants, Gooseberries, Elderberries, and Strawberries Know how. Know now. Raspberries-Red, Purple, Gold and Black Know how. Know now. Raspberries Historically Red Raspberry—Rubus idaeus Indigenous to North America and Asia Minor Domesticated in the 4th century Legend has it that when the Greek gods went to Mt. Ida in Turkey they returned with raspberries Romans spread it’s cultivation throughout Europe Currently the US is the 3rd largest commercial producer
11 Know how. Know now. Raspberries Historically Black Raspberry Indigenous to North America only Domesticated in the 1880’s Very little commercial production Know how. Know now. The Raspberry Red Raspberry—Rhubus idaeus Purple Raspberry—Rhubus spp. Gold Raspberry—Rhubus spp. Black Raspberry—Rhubus occidentalis Know how. Know now. Raspberry Culture Characteristics Site Selection and Preparation Planting and Care Fruiting Pruning Know how. Know now. Characteristics Perennial Summer Bearing and Everbearing or Fall Bearing Primocane / vegetative and Floricane / fruiting Both thorn and thornless Know how. Know now. Growth Habit Trailing Erect Know how. Know now. Site Selection Full sun Wide range of soil types ---sandy loam with high organic matter content is optimal Good water and air drainage Area should be as free of wild raspberries as possible Do not plant in areas where tomatoes, potatoes or eggplant have been in the past 5 years.
12 Know how. Know now. Plant Selection Investigate varieties Choose a reputable nursery or garden center Live potted – plant after danger of frost Dormant bare root – plant as soon as ground permits in the early spring Know how. Know now. Varieties Summer Bearing -fruit 1 time per year Red – Killarney, Latham Black – Cumberland, Jewel Purple – Brandywine, Royalty Know how. Know now. Varieties Fall or Ever Bearing--2 crops per year Red – Heritage, Autumn Bliss Yellow – Anne, Fallgold Know how. Know now. Site Preparation 1Year Prior to Planting Start with a soil test -- pH 5-7 Amend for pH if needed Amend soil with organic matter (compost) -- especially if no cover crop is to be grown Ideally grow a cover crop such as annual rye Know how. Know now. Site Preparation Planting Year Spread 25 pounds of 10-10-10 fertilizer per 1000 sq. ft Add compost if none was previously added Turn in any cover crop that may have been planted as well as any compost and applied fertilizer Know how. Know now. Site Layout Red Raspberries • Generally planted in a hedge row. Space plants 2- 3 ft. apart with a minimum of 6 - 8 ft. between rows. Let the plants fill in 24” wide. Black and Purple Raspberries • Plant 3-4 ft. apart with rows 8-10 ft. apart • Do not produce root suckers as reds do • Should be trellised
13 Know how. Know now. Planting and Care Know how. Know now. Planting The planting hole should be large enough that the roots of a bare root plant can be spread out. For a container plant the planting hole should be 1.5 times as big as the container Know how. Know now. Planting Depth Potted plants plant no deeper that original planting depth Dormant plants plant to original collar on the plant. Know how. Know now. Planting --- continued Firm soil around each plant making sure to hold the plant in an upright position Apply fertilizer if not previously done Thoroughly water in forcing any air from areas around the roots and settling in the soil Know how. Know now. Irrigation 1-1.5 inches per week throughout the year Prior to freeze irrigate to the point that the soil is moist to a depth of 10-12 inches Overhead watering should be done early in the day to reduce disease potential Know how. Know now. Pruning Summer Fruiting Varieties Red and Yellow Raspberries Remove floricanes after fruiting Late June through early July depending on variety or winter Remove any weak or damaged canes If growing w/o a trellis cut back to 36” Thin to 4-6 inches between canes
14 Know how. Know now. Pruning Fall-bearing or Everbearing Red Raspberries Treat everbearing the same as summer bearing Remove all growth to 1-2 inches from the soil surface Early to mid-March Remove all debris from area Know how. Know now. Pruning Black and Purple Raspberries Dormant Season Prune lateral branches back to 12 inches for black and 18 inches for purple Remove any canes that are less than ½ inch diameter at the base of the plant Growing Season At 30-36 inches of new grow remove 4 inches to promote lateral growth Know how. Know now. Harvest Color is not the only indicator of ripeness Fully ripened berries separate from the plant readily Harvest when dry Refrigerate immediately Pick into a shallow container Know how. Know now. Insect Pests Raspberry Cane Borer Spring – Double row of puncture marks 6-8 inches from the tip Know how. Know now. Raspberry Crown Borer or root borer Leaves turn prematurely red If only tips wilt it’s OK but if canes die then the problem needs to be addressed Know how. Know now. Red necked Cane Borer Cane swells ½ inch or more for several inches along the cane. Cane may die or break at swelling point
15 Know how. Know now. Weed Control Hand weeding Mulching Chemical Controls Pre-emergent Post-emergent Know how. Know now. Blackberries Know how. Know now. Blackberries Blackberry – Rubus spp. Considered by many to be one of the most taxonomically complex fruit crops Native to the Pacific Northwest as well as Asia, Europe and S. America Used in Europe for over 2000 as a food source, for medicinal purposes as well as for defense First domesticated in Europe and exported to the Pacific Northwest in 1860 Know how. Know now. Blackberry vs. Raspberry Very similar yet very different Both have similar growth habits, pests, development and growing requirements The difference is in the fruit Know how. Know now. The Fruit----The Difference Aggregate fruit develop from a single flower with multiple pistils. Each pistil develops into an individual fruit called a druplet. Individual fruit fuse together as they grow and develop producing a single structure.from a Know how. Know now. The Fruit – The Difference With blackberries the receptacle leaves with the fruit when harvested. The receptacle and druplets separate during picking Blackberry druplets are smooth while raspberries are hairy
16 Know how. Know now. Blackberry-Raspberry Crosses Boysenberry Loganberry Know how. Know now. Varieties Navaho – Thornless Apache – Thornless Kiowa – Thorned Know how. Know now. Strawberries Know how. Know now. Fun Facts The strawberry, a member of the rose family, is unique in that it is the only fruit with seeds on the outside rather than the inside. Many medicinal uses were claimed for the wild strawberry, its leaves and. root Queen Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII had a strawberry shaped birthmark on her neck, which some claimed proved she was a witch. In 1780, the first strawberry hybrid "Hudson" was developed in the United States. To symbolize perfection and righteousness, medieval stone masons carved strawberry designs on altars and around the tops of pillars in churches and cathedrals. Know how. Know now. Over 53 percent of seven to nine year olds picked strawberries as their favorite fruit. Seventy per cent of a strawberry's roots are located in the top three inches of soil. Strawberries are the first fruit to ripen in the spring. On average, there are 200 seeds in a strawberry Ninety-four per cent of United States households consume strawberries. If all the strawberries produced in California in one year were laid berry to berry, they would go around the world 15 times. Know how. Know now. 3 Types June bearing Bears for a 2-3 week period in the spring Long days promote stolons, short days flower bud formation Everbearing Produces 3 periods of flowers and fruit—spring, summer and fall but overall less than a single crop of June bearers Initiate flower bud formation with long days (12 hrs) Produce few runners Day neutral Produce flowers and fruit throughout the growing season Temp above 70 stifle flower bud formation Fruit size decreases with warm soil temps More sensitive to herbicides than June bearers Produce few runners
17 Know how. Know now. Generally Speaking Full sun for highest yields-minimum of 6 hours Well drained soil High organic matter Don’t plant where peppers, tomatoes, eggplant or potatoes have been planted due to verticillium wilt 1” of H2O per week Know how. Know now. Soil Sandy loam High organic matter pH 5.8 to 6.5 Good drainage Ideally site selection and prep occurs the year prior to planting Know how. Know now. Planting Set out as soon as the ground can be worked Plant on a cloudy day or toward the end of the day Set in the ground to where the roots are just covered Know how. Know now. Irrigation Minimum of 1” of supplemental water per week Critical when temps range from 60-80 degrees With higher temps and wind increase water application Drip irrigation places water right where the plant need it Overhead Can be used for frost protection May promote foliar disease Know how. Know now. Blossom Removal June bearing Remove blossoms as soon as they appear Everbearing & Day neutral Remove flowers through June then leave flowers on the plant for a summer and fall harvest. Know how. Know now. Pollination Generally considered self-pollinating Pollination of all pistils is required for proper berry development 53%, 67%, 91%
18 Know how. Know now. Fertilization Prior to planting apply 1# 10-10-10 for every 100 sqft. Work in 6 to 8 inches deep Know how. Know now. Renovation 3 years production maximum Begin immediately after harvest Goals Replace diseased leaves with new leaves Improve sunlight exposure Enhance fertilizer application Place soil over the crown to increase rooting Control weeds Know how. Know now. Mulching Strawberries are susceptible 2 two types of damage resulting from freezing temps Spring freezes and plant damage Frost heaving resulting in plants being at wrong depth November – December cover with 3-4 inches of straw Pull off in spring and leaving some to form a barrier between the fruit and soil and act to retain moisture Leave the rest between the rows to help control mud Know how. Know now. Insect Pests Root Feeding Foliage feeding Flower and fruit feeding Know how. Know now. Root Feeding Strawberry Root Weevil Strawberry Crown Borer White Grubs Know how. Know now. Fruit or Flower Feeders Tarnished Plant Bug Flower Thrips Strawberry Bud Weevil Strawberry Sap Beetle Slugs
19 Know how. Know now. Foliage Feeding Spittle Bug Leaf Hopper Strawberry Rootworm Spider Mites Aphids Whitefly Strawberry Leafroller Know how. Know now. Cultural controls when establishing a new planting. Site selection: 1. Do not plant after sod or grasses to avoid problems with white grubs. 2. Avoid planting near woods or fence rows to avoid problems with clipper weevils. 3. Do not plant near old plantings if root weevils or crown borers were present. Cultivar selection: Avoid cultivars highly susceptible to tarnished plant bug injury. Source of nursery stock: Get plants that are free of cyclamen mite. Plant density and row spacing: Wide plant spacing will contribute to slug management. Know how. Know now. Cultural controls while maintaining a planting. Weed control: Contributes to tarnished plant bug and spittlebug management. Harvest: Prompt removal of all ripe and cull berries helps sap beetle management. Mulch: Remove mulch after harvest and delay mulching in fall to discourage slugs. Renovation: Helps with slug and mite management. Sanitation: Remove debris that may shelter pests, in and around fields. Know how. Know now. Diseaes Strawberry Root Diseases Red Steele Verticillium Wilt Black Root Rot Strawberry Fruit Rots Botrytis Fruit Rot (Gray Mold) Foliar Diseases Leaf Spot Leaf Scorch Leaf Blight (Phomopsis Leaf Blight) Powdery Mildew Angular Leaf Spot (Bacterial Blight) Leather Rot Strawberry Anthracnose Know how. Know now. Cultural Practices for Disease Control Use disease free planting stock Site Selection Soil drainage Site exposure Rotation Fertility Weed control Mulch Sanitation Irrigation Timely harvest Know how. Know now. Weed Control Critical
20 Know how. Know now. Weeds Moderate weed population can reduce yields by as much as 40% Weed management will reduce insect and disease issues Pre-planting control Rotation Plant density Mulching Know how. Know now. Currants Know how. Know now. Currants Red, Pink and White varieties-Ribis sativum Black—Ribis nigrum Red and Black most common Known as “Ribes” until the 1550’s then became currants Not the same as the dried currants found in store which is a small grape Know how. Know now. Commercial production banned in 1911 2003 ban lifted Alternate host to White Pine Blister Rust. Greg Quinn—New York farmer. Know how. Know now. Growing Requirements USDA Hardiness Zones 3 to 5—very cold tolerant Partial shade as the leaves scald readily Like conditions on the cooler side Does well in heavier soil Responds well to organic mulch Know how. Know now. Fairly high water requirements due to having a very shallow fibrous root system Water requirements reduce after harvest 8-10 pounds of 10-10-10 per 100 sq ft of fertilizer pH --- 5.5-7
21 Know how. Know now. Planting Plants are generally bareroot Root system is very fragile so keep moist Soak roots in water prior to planting for 3-4 hours Plant as early as soil can be dug Plant slightly deeper than grown in the nursery Know how. Know now. Red currants—as close as 3 ft apart and a minimum of 6ft between rows Black currants—4-5 feet apart in with 8 feet between rows After planting cut all canes back to 4-6 buds Know how. Know now. Pruning Late winter or very early spring End of 1st season remove to 6-8 strong canes 2nd season leave 4-5 current year canes and 3-4 2year canes 3rd season leave 3-4 canes of each year for a total of 9-12 canes per plant Know how. Know now. Fruiting Fruit is bore at the base of 1 year canes and on spurs located on older canes Flowers bore on a appendage called a strig Up to 20 flowers per strig Lack of winter chilling reduces yields Know how. Know now. Varieties Red—Red Lake, Viking , Minnesota No. 71 Black—Consort, Baldwin,Topsy Pink—Pink Champagne White—White Imperial, White Versailles Know how. Know now. Insects Currant Aphid Currant Borer Currant stem Girdler Gooseberry Fruitworm Imported Currant Worm San Jose Scale
22 Know how. Know now. Gooseberry Ribes hirtellum European types---larger berries, more flavorful berries. More disease prone. American types---smaller berries, less flavorful berry. More disease reistance. More productive. Know how. Know now. Culture Similar to currants in all ways including pruning. Powdery mildew major disease. Harvest when almost fully ripe. Mostly purple with some green berries present for jams and jellies and pies. Know how. Know now. Varieties American Pixwell, Downing, Poorman, Oregon Champion European Careless, Clark, Fredonia Know how. Know now. Jostaberry Hybrid resulting from Black Currant and Gooseberry parents Development began in the 1920’s with an end product becoming available in the 1970’s Bred with powdery mildew resistance Know how. Know now. Elderberries Sambucus nigra ssp.canadensis Know how. Know now. Culture Sandy to heavy loam pH 5.5-6.5 Spacing 3 foot then to 6 foot for faster economic return or just 6 foot in home garden 5-7 canes per year and removed after fruiting
23 Know how. Know now. Pest and Disease Aphids Mites Cane borer Birds Powdery Mildew Botrytis flower rot Know how. Know now. Harvest August through September 4 to 12 tons per acre Fruit borne on cymes Mid June harvested flowers for fresh Know how. Know now. Current Research University of Missouri 2 of 10 selections collected in Nebraska Know how. Know now. Birds Know how. Know now. Other Potential Fruit Crops Saskatoon or Serviceberry Highbush Cranberry Quince Know how. Know now. Extension is a Division of the Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of Nebraska– Lincoln cooperating with the Counties and the United States Department of Agriculture. University of Nebraska–Lincoln Extension educational programs abide with the nondiscrimination policies of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln and the United States Department of Agriculture.
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