Treatment Technologies

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Published on November 9, 2007

Author: Noemie

Source: authorstream.com

WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES MEDAWARE :  WASTEWATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES MEDAWARE Prof. George Ayoub Faculty of Engineering and Architecture American University of Beirut OUTLINE:  OUTLINE Overview of the Conventional Wastewater Treatment Process Discussion of Existing Biological Treatment Technologies Examples from the Mediterranean Region Examples from the Lebanese Context Conventional Wastewater Treatment Process:  Conventional Wastewater Treatment Process Pretreatment involves: Screening Grit Removal Oil separation Flow equalization Disinfection can use: Chlorine compounds Bromine Chloride Ozone UV Radiation Chemical Treatment is used in conjunction with the physical and chemical processes: Chemical precipitation Adsorption Sludge Treatment and Disposal involves: grinding, degritting, blending, thickening, stabilization, conditioning, disinfection, dewatering, heat drying, thermal reduction, ultimate disposal Biological Treatment:  Biological Treatment In the case of domestic wastewater treatment, the objective of biological treatment is: To stabilize the organic content To remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus Types: Aerobic Processes Anoxic Processes Anaerobic Processes Combined Aerobic-Anoxic-Anaerobic Processes Pond Processes Attached Growth Suspended Growth Combined Systems Aerobic Maturation Facultative Anaerobic Major Aerobic Biological Processes:  Major Aerobic Biological Processes Activated Sludge Process:  Activated Sludge Process The aeration tank contains a suspension of the wastewater and microorganisms, the mixed liquor. The liquor is mixed by aeration devices (supplying also oxygen) A portion of the biological sludge separated from the secondary effluent by sedimentation is recycled to the aeration tank Types of AS Systems: Conventional, Complete-Mix, Sequencing Batch Reactor, Extended Aeration, Deep Tank, Deep Shaft Advantages/Disadvantages:  Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages Flexible, can adapt to minor pH, organic and temperature changes Small area required Degree of nitrification is controllable Relatively minor odor problems Disadvantages High operating costs (skilled labor, electricity, etc.) Generates solids requiring sludge disposal Some process alternatives are sensitive to shock loads and metallic or other poisons Requires continuous air supply Trickling Filters:  Trickling Filters The trickling filter or biofilter consists of a bed of permeable medium of either rock or plastic Microorganisms become attached to the media and form a biological layer or fixed film. Organic matter in the wastewater diffuses into the film, where it is metabolized. Periodically, portions of the film slough off the media Advantages/Disadvantages :  Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages Good quality (80-90% BOD5 removal) for 2-stage efficiency could reach 95% Moderate operating costs (lower than activated sludge) Withstands shock loads better than other biological processes Disadvantages High capital costs Clogging of distributors or beds Snail, mosquito and insect problems Rotating Biological Contactors:  Rotating Biological Contactors It consists of a series of circular disks of polystyrene or polyvinyl chloride that are submerged in wastewater and rotated slowly through it The disk rotation alternately contacts the biomass with the organic material and then with atmosphere for adsorption of oxygen Excess solids are removed by shearing forces created by the rotation mechanism Advantages/Disdvantages:  Advantages/Disdvantages Advantages Short contact periods Handles a wide range of flows Easily separates biomass from waste stream Low operating costs Short retention time Low sludge production Excellent process control Disadvantages Need for covering units installed in cold climate to protect against freezing Shaft bearings and mechanical drive units require frequent maintenance Major Anaerobic Biological Processes:  Major Anaerobic Biological Processes Anaerobic Contact Process:  Anaerobic Contact Process Untreated wastewater is mixed with recycled sludge solids and then digested in a sealed reactor The mixture is separated in a clarifier The supernatant is discharged as effluent, and settled sludge is recycled Advantages/Disadvantages:  Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages Methane recovery Small area required Volatile solids destruction Disadvantages Heat required Effluent in reduced chemical form requires further treatment Requires skilled operation Sludge to be disposed off is minimal Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket:  Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Wastewater flows upward through a sludge blanket composed of biological granules that decompose organic matter Some of the generated gas attaches to granules that rise and strike degassing baffles releasing the gas Free gas is collected by special domes The effluent passes into a settling chamber Advantages/Disadvantages:  Advantages/Disadvantages Advantages Low energy demand Low land requirement Low sludge production Less expensive than other anaerobic processes High organic removal eficiency Disadvantages Long start-up period Requires sufficient amount of granular seed sludge for faster start-up Significant wash out of sludge during initial phase of process Lower gas yield than other anaerobic processes Major Anoxic and Combined Biological Processes:  Major Anoxic and Combined Biological Processes Pond Treatment Processes:  Pond Treatment Processes Examples from the Mediterranean Region (1):  Examples from the Mediterranean Region (1) Examples from the Mediterranean Region (2):  Examples from the Mediterranean Region (2) Examples from the Mediterranean Region (3):  Examples from the Mediterranean Region (3) Examples from Lebanon:  Examples from Lebanon Lebanon has been rebuilding its water and wastewater infrastructure since 1992; in this context, the Government initiated the construction of large-scale WWTPs employing AS and Biofilter treatment systems mainly Except for the Ghadir pre-treatment station, no single large-scale plant achieving secondary treatment has started to operate Some community-based plants funded by NGOs are achieving secondary treatment; however, these are small-scale plants and rarely function properly Slide23:  Coarse Screening Fine Screening Grit and Grease Removal Tank Pumping Primary Settling Tank Pumping Aeration Tank or Biofilter Degassing Tank Distribution Structure Secondary Settling Tank Venturi Flume Treated Water Pumping Station Technology to be used inside WWTPs proposed by the Government Ghadir Preliminary Treatment Station:  Ghadir Preliminary Treatment Station Serves the Greater Beirut Southern Wastewater Collection Basin (population of 977,000) Maximum instantaneous flow: 2.6 m3/s; average: 1.6 m3/s; expected minimum: 1.1 m3/s Accepts also septic tank septage and leachate from the Naameh landfill Effluent is discharged into the sea at a distance of 2.6 km away from the shore and at a depth of 60 m In periods of overflow, the plant partially or completely shuts down, and the effluent is discharged into the sea at a distance of 500 m from the shore GHADIR STATION Treatment Steps At Ghadir:  Treatment Steps At Ghadir SCREENING LIFTING DEGRITTING Baalbeck WWTP:  Baalbeck WWTP Completed in summer 2000 Not yet functional because the collection network is not yet finished Serves a population of 130,600, and has a daily capacity of 19,600 m3/day Will achieve secondary treatment Treatment Technologies in Community-based WWTPs:  Treatment Technologies in Community-based WWTPs There are 42 plants as shown by the table Slide28:  EXTENDED AERATION ACTIVATED SLUDGE Slide29:  ANAEROBIC DIGESTION AEROBIC DIGESTION MIXED TREATMENT Slide30:  EXTENDED AERATION KAWS AKKAR YMCA Slide31:  ACTIVATED SLUDGE KFEIR YMCA Slide32:  ANAEROBIC DIGESTION HASBAYA MCI Slide33:  AEROBIC DIGESTION MARJ EL ZOUHOUR YMCA Slide34:  MIXED TREATMENT ADVANCED INTEGRATED WASTEWATER PONDS SYSTEM AIN HARSHA YMCA THANK YOU:  THANK YOU

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