advertisement

transgene animals

50 %
50 %
advertisement
Information about transgene animals
Education

Published on January 15, 2008

Author: Sigismondo

Source: authorstream.com

advertisement

Knock-out animals and Transgenic animals:  Knock-out animals and Transgenic animals ES cells Embryonic stem (ES) cells:  Embryonic stem (ES) cells Pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst Can be cultured, manipulated and then reinjected into blastocysts, where they can go on to contribute to all parts of embryo. In principle, ES cells also might be able to generate large quantities of any desired cell for transplantation into patients. Slide3:  www.laskerfoundation.org/ news/weis/estemcell.html Totipotent and pluripotent cells Totipotent = meaning that its potential is total. pluripotent = they can give rise to many types of cells but not all types of cells (no fetus developed). isolated directly from the inner cell mass of embryos at the blastocyst stage. (IVF-IT surplus embryos in case of humans) Slide4:  Adult stem cells multipotent but not totipotent Stem cell cultures:  Stem cell cultures LIF (leukaemia inhibitory factor) maintains stem cells in an undifferentiated state - LIF ES cells spontaneously differentiate when allowed to aggregate in the absence of LIF Human stem cell lines available :  Human stem cell lines available http://www.the-funneled-web.com/images/Embryonic%20stem%20cells.gif (August 28, 2001) KNOCKOUT MICE:  KNOCKOUT MICE Isolate gene X and insert it into vector. Inactivate the gene by inserting a marker gene that make cell resistont to antibiotic (e.g. puromycin) Transfer vector with (-) gene X into ES cells (embryonic stem) MARKER GENE VECTOR Genome Normal (+) gene X Defective (-) Gene X e.g.(NeoR) Vector and genome will recombine via homologous sequences:  Vector and genome will recombine via homologous sequences Grow ES cells in antibiotic containing media; Only cell with marker gene ( without target gene) will survive Genomic gene Exon 1 Exon 2 Exon 3 Exon 4 Homologous recombination and gene disrution From Yankulov lectures Problems with homologous recombination:  Problems with homologous recombination Unwanted random non-homologous recombination is very frequent. This method provides no selection against it Slide10:  NeoR HSVtk Gene segment 1 Gene segment 2 Linearized replacement plasmid From Yankulov’s lectures Replacement vectors Inject ES cells with (-) gene X into early mouse embryo:  Inject ES cells with (-) gene X into early mouse embryo Resulting chimaras have some cells with (+) gene X and (-) gene X. Transfer embryos to surrogate mothers Mate them with normal mice Screen pups to find -/+ and mate them Lucky you, if germline contain (-) gene X Next generation will split as 3:1 (Mendelian) Problems with interpretation of knock-out experimets:  Problems with interpretation of knock-out experimets 1 ) Knockout kills early embryo. How to estimate effect of adult? 2) No phenotype. Redundancy or just subtle change? 3) Variable phenotype 4) Combinatorial action of genes – the pinball model. . Knock-outs by themselves are not enough to tell you what your gene does to every orgen Some answers::  Some answers: Many knock-out embryos die because of placental insufficiency (failure of vascular interface) Grow them on transplanted normal placentas !!! Study ENU-mutated animals as additional approach Create conditional knock-outs !!! Will be discussed after Knock-ins (as you have to produce knock-in first in order to make conditional knock-out) Random mutagenesis to study animal genes and functions:  Random mutagenesis to study animal genes and functions From Dr. J. Martin Collinson Dominant mutations will show up in 1st generation of progeny. Recessive mutations need to breed F1 progeny with wildtype mice, then intercross the F2s or backcross F2s with their father. GOOD and BAD sides of in vivo mutagenesis:  GOOD and BAD sides of in vivo mutagenesis Mutagenesis screens are ‘phenotype-driven’. 2. No a priori assumptions about what genes are involved in the organ system you want to study. . 3. Lots of mice. 4. May miss mutations. Can reveal interesting mutations in known genes that would not have been tried otherwise !!! To produce transgenic animal we have to introduce full-size gene construct:  To produce transgenic animal we have to introduce full-size gene construct promoter elements ORF (incl. transcription start) SV40 polyA signal ATG Intron could be removed Various factors involved with the design of the transgene or what happened when it integrated mean that different mice containing the same transgene may show different expression levels or patterns. Knock-in animals:  Knock-in animals Microinjection in fertilized eggs Transformation of ES cells ES cells are selected by Neomycin (Neo accompany Your Gene) Transformed ES cells are injected into 3 day embryo (blastula) Chimerae etc as for knocks The transgene is injected into the male pronucleus of a fertilized egg The DNA is inserted in the genome RANDOMLY by non-homologous recombination G0 offsprings from surrogate mothers contain transgene in ALL cells G0 crossed with non-transgenics. Offsprings called FOUNDERS DNA transfer into the egg vs. ES cell transformation :  DNA transfer into the egg vs. ES cell transformation ES cell technology works well in mice only. Other transgenic animals are produced by egg injection 2. Injection of eggs is less reliable (viability of eggs, frequency of integration), but it helps to avoids chimeric animals 3. ES approach provides more control of the integration step (selection of stably transfected ES cells) Transgenic mice:  Transgenic mice The growth hormone gene has been engineered to be expressed at high levels in animals. The result: BIG ANIMALS metallothionein promoter regulated as heavy metals Mice fed heavy metals are 2-3 times larger antifreeze gene promoter with GH transgene in atlantic salmon:  antifreeze gene promoter with GH transgene in atlantic salmon GH gene comes from larger chinook salmon Slide21:  Wild and domestic trout respond differently to overproduction of growth hormone. So in some cases, GH not effective. From Yankulov Problem with GH fish:  Problem with GH fish Transgenic salmon will escape from fisheries and breed with strains in the wild ??? If the transgenic fish have a mating advantage (not clear) and are less fit (which they are), their offsprings will produce negative effect on the normal population. Solutions: 1) To grow sterile fish 2) To grow fish inland without chances to escape in the wild Conditional knock-outs:  Conditional knock-outs inactivate a gene only in specific tissues and at certain times during development and life. From Dr. J. Martin Collinson Your gene of interest is flanked by 34 bp loxP sites (floxed). If CRE recombinase expressed Gene between loxP sites is removed How to FLOX a gene:  How to FLOX a gene loxP loxP loxP NeoR TK 1.Electroporate targeting vector into ES cells, followed by +/- selection NeoR+/ HSVtk- cells selected 2. transiently express Cre and select for ES cells that lose neomycin resistance. NeoR- cells selected After step 2 cells could be either knock-out floxed Make mice and breed floxed allele to homozygousity. 3. Mate FLOXed mice with mice carrying a Cre transgene :  3. Mate FLOXed mice with mice carrying a Cre transgene Promoter elements Cre IRES GFP SV40 p(A) intron From Dr. J. Martin Collinson Marker gene Crucial element. Your recombinase would be expressed in accordance with specificity of your promoter. Promoter could be regulated !!! artificailly or naturally Tet-on and Tet-off systems:  Tet-on and Tet-off systems Reminder!!! Now we have 3 transgenes in the same mouse 1. Tetracycline Transactivator (tTA) with constitutive promoter 2. CRE recombinase with Tet-regulated promoter 3. Your gene with loxP sites for CRE Slide27:  http://gweb1.ucsf.edu/labs/conklin/Images/fig2tTA.gif Tet-on and Tet-off systems Reminder!!! The Tet regulatory system :  The Tet regulatory system TET does not need an uptake system TET is an established and safe drug TET regulation is tight and sensitive There is an extensive knowledge-basis for improvements Regulation works in most organisms when properly constructed Extensive experience in bacteria & lower/higher eukaryotes Tamoxifen inducible system :  Tamoxifen inducible system 4-OH-tamoxifen – a fake estrogen – used as an anti-estrogen to treat breast cancer Special CRE used (Called Cre-ER) a fusion of Cre with a mutated form of the estrogen receptor that no longer binds estrogen but DOES bind tamoxifen. Cre-ER is activated after addition of tamoxifen:  Cre-ER is activated after addition of tamoxifen Cre-ER goes to nucleus And removes Floxed gene Cre-ER-TX Dissociates from Hsp90 GENE IS INACTIVATED NO TAMOXIFEN TAMOXIFEN added Get control of Cre both from the promoter and from topical addition of tamoxifen or by injection of TXF into pregnant mothers Cre-mediated transgene activation:  Cre-mediated transgene activation Introduction of a small piece of interrupting nonsense into a transgene that can be removed by Cre to allow production of transgene product Nonsence with stops (Floxed) Cross this transgenic mouse with one expressing Cre in tissue of interest. In cells where Cre is expressed and located in nucleus, get…. More about stem cells:  More about stem cells Embryonic stem cells Adult stem cells Truly pluripotential More restricted pattern of differentiation medical gain without ethical pain several countries have sanctioned deriving human ES-cell lines from ‘surplus’ embryos created through in vitro fertilization although several human ES-cell lines have been made, they will not be immunologically compatible with most patients who require cell transplants. More problems with ES cells (not only ethics):  More problems with ES cells (not only ethics) 1) although several human ES-cell lines have been made, they will not be immunologically compatible with most patients who require cell transplants. 2) undifferentiated ES cells form teratomas after implantation in the body (should be completely differentiated in vitro) Compare ES cells and MAPC (multipotent adult progenitor cells):  Compare ES cells and MAPC (multipotent adult progenitor cells) The expression of Oct-4 in ES cells correlates with their versatility (should be high in MAPC, if they are true versatile) Stuart H. Orkin and Sean J. Morrison Jiang et al. Human in vitro fertilization:  Human in vitro fertilization http://www.stanford.edu/dept/ GYNOB/rei/pics/scan9.tif Slide36:  Polar Body Sampling primary oocyte secondary oocyte Meiosis I Meiosis II Requires fertilization Polar body Polar bodies zygote To test for disease gene carried by mother, DNA from first polar body (or both the first and second polar bodies) can be tested. If the first polar body contains only the disease allele, the oocyte would contain only the normal allele, and the oocyte would be used for IVF. Conversely, if the polar body contains the normal allele, the oocyte would contain the disease allele and would be discarded. Removal of polar body From Yankulov Slide37:  Blastomere Isolation After IVF, 1-2 blastomeres can be removed from the 8-cell embryo without doing any harm. These cells can be tested by PCR, and only “clean” embryos lacking disease alleles will be transferred into the uterus. Slide38:  http://www.faseb.org/opar/cloning/cloning.htm From: student presentation Aman Arya, Nancy Chen, Dan Perz, Dave Reichert, Ronnie Wong Nuclear Transplantation:  Nuclear Transplantation 1. Enucleation of the cell removal of the nucleus From the a mature unfertilized oocyte (egg) Or from the cell in quiescent state (inactive G0 phase of cell cycle) OR metaphase II chromosomes are gently sucked out with a sharp micropipette 2. Nuclear transfer A. electrofusion Nucleus comes from someone to be cloned whole donor cell injected beneath the zona pellucida (the outer membrane of the oocyte) and fusion of cells induced by electrical impulses B. nuclear injection naked nucleus microinjected into cytoplast Electrofusion:  Electrofusion http://www.brinkmann.com/pdf/cell_fusion.pdf Fusion induced by electric pulse Cells brought close together fusion pulse Heterokaryon phase: nuclei distinct fusion product From: student presentation Aman Arya, Nancy Chen, Dan Perz, Dave Reichert, Ronnie Wong Genetic Reprogramming:  Genetic Reprogramming “de-differentiation” – rearranging the genome of the nucleus to restore its totipotency so it can differentiate into different types of cells and develop into a whole organism must occur after nuclear transfer to successfully produce the clone – required for the nuclei from adult cells to develop normally best completed in unfertilized oocytes (as plasma donors) If cell for cloning taken from adult organism Re-programming never achieved with same success as fertilization:  Re-programming never achieved with same success as fertilization Fig. 5 from Nature Reviews Genetics 3: 671 Development of the embryos from cell with “alien” nucleus:  Development of the embryos from cell with “alien” nucleus may be induced by chemical treatments developing embryos are grown in a culture to assess their viability Implantation of Embryo embryos are surgically transferred into the uteri of suitable surrogate mothers many embryos are transferred to each surrogate mothers to ensure implantation Slide44:  Mammal Cloning Timeline http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/europe/08/06/clone.critics/index.html Megan and Morag Dolly From: student presentation Aman Arya, Nancy Chen, Dan Perz, Dave Reichert, Ronnie Wong Slide45:  Tetra http://hs.houstonisd.org/hspva/academic/Science/Thinkquest/gail/text/benefits.html From: student presentation Aman Arya, Nancy Chen, Dan Perz, Dave Reichert, Ronnie Wong Slide46:  Dolly Dolly with her first newborn, Bonnie Born in July 1996 at the Roslin Institute in Scotland First mammal to be cloned from an adult mammal using the nuclear transfer technique 277 attempts were made before the experiment was successful Dolly died in February 14, 2003 of progressive lung disease at the age of 6; whereas normal sheep can live up to 12 years of age. Dolly with her surrogate mother Slide47:  Mammal Cloning allows propagation of endangered species http://www.howstuffworks.com/cloning.htm/printable January 8, 2001 Noah, a baby bull gaur, became the first clone of an endangered animal. Slide48:  Comparison of Cloning Success Rates in Various Animals The table shows success rates of cloning when mature mammal cells were used. Yanagimachi, R.  2002.  "Cloning: experience from the mouse and other animals." Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology.  21 March, 187. Slide49:  Development and survival of cloned mouse embryos Majority of the embryos die before and after implantation. This figure shows that the present cloning technique is highly inefficient. Yanagimachi, R.  2002.  "Cloning: experience from the mouse and other animals." Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology.  21 March, 187. Slide50:  Clone Birth Defects Cloned offspring often suffer from large offspring syndrome, where the clone and the placenta that nourished it are unusually large. Cloned offspring often have serious inexplicable respiratory or circulatory problems, which causes them to die soon after birth. Clones tend to have weakened immune systems and sometimes suffer from total immune system failure. Very few clones actually survive to adulthood. Clones appear to age faster than normal. Clones experience problems associated with old age, such as arthritis, while they are still young. This may be due to the fact that clones have shorter telomeres The whole story about cloning is not a reproductive story:  The whole story about cloning is not a reproductive story The possibility of using cloning technology to grow organs genetically identical to our own for transplantation – thereby avoiding rejection of foreign issues http://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/CVHTML/CV001.html Greatest danger: Clones being harvested for their body parts Slide52:  http://easyweb.easynet.co.uk/~sfl/rlb3a.jpg

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

Transgene - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A transgene is a gene or genetic material that has been transferred naturally, ... selective breeding of animals and plants started before recorded history.
Read more

Actionbioscience | Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To ...

Animals that have their DNA manipulated in this way are knows as transgenic animals. 20. ... (transgene) into an animal is successful only if the gene is ...
Read more

Transgenic Animals - RCN DC Metro | High Speed Internet ...

Transgenic Animals A transgenic animal is one that carries a foreign gene that has been deliberately inserted into its genome. The foreign gene is ...
Read more

Transgenic Animals in Agriculture | Learn Science at Scitable

The production of transgenic livestock has the opportunity to significantly improve human health, enhance nutrition, protect the environment, increase ...
Read more

Transgenic Animals - Home | University of Calgary

Marie Buy, Editorial Assistant, Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) (From CCAC Resource Supplement, Spring/Summer 1997. Used with permission of CCAC)
Read more

Gentechnisch veränderter Organismus – Wikipedia

Transgene Hydren erlauben daher Funktionsuntersuchungen, die in komplizierten Organismen und auch beim Menschen so leicht nicht möglich sind.
Read more

Pharming for Farmaceuticals - Learn Genetics

Like other forms of animal research, pharming has the potential to cause suffering ... and not all of those animals will express the transgene in an ...
Read more

transgenic (Cytokines & Cells Encyclopedia - COPE)

Strategies to generate transgenic animals. In principle two strategies are available. The classical technique involves microinjection of gene constructs ...
Read more