Transformers 1

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Information about Transformers 1

Published on March 27, 2014

Author: SnairANIRUDH1



A transformer is a static machine used for transforming power from one circuit to another without changing frequency. This is very basic definition of transformer.Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is very much cost effective. Hence electrical power are generated in low voltage level. Theoretically, this low voltage level power can be transmitted to the receiving end. But if the voltage level of a power is increased, the electric current of the power is reduced which causes reduction in ohmic or I2R losses in the system, reduction in cross sectional area of the conductor i.e. reduction in capital cost of the system and it also improves the voltage regulation of the system. Because of these, low level power must be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This is done by step up transformer at the sending side of the power system network. As this high voltage power may not be distributed to the consumers directly, this must be stepped down to the desired level at the receiving end with help of step down transformer. These are the use of electrical power transformer in the electrical power system.

TRANSFORMERS A transformer is a static ac machine that changes ac electric power at one voltage level to ac electric power at another voltage level through the action of a magnetic field, without changing its frequency. There are two or more stationary electric circuits that are coupled magnetically. It involves interchange of electric energy between two or more electric systems. Transformers provide much needed capability of changing the voltage and current levels easily. They are used to step- up generator voltage to an appropriate voltage level for power transfer and Stepping down the transmission voltage at various levels for distribution and power utilization. It consist of two separate windings called primary winding and secondary winding which are insulated from each other. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION Purpose: To change alternating (AC) voltage to a bigger (or smaller) value Principle of Transformer Action: Principle of electromagnetic induction. The two windings are wound on the same core. The source is applied on the primary whereas the load is connected at the secondary winding. A mutually induced emf is produced on the secondary due to the alternating flux produced on the primary. Step up transformer: when n.o of windings of secondary is more than primary. Step down: when n.o of windings of secondary is less than that of primary. CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS 1. Laminated core (0.35mm to 0.5mm): High grade silicon is usually used in the form of several laminations that are insulated from each other. The core is laminated to reduce power loss due to eddy current which appear in the form of heat. 2. Windings: copper wires that are insulated from each other are used for primary and secondary. 3. Transformer tank: The assembled core and windings are immersed I oil in a metal tank. The oil provides insulation to the windings and core and dissipates the heat to the surroundings. 4. Conservator tank: small tank mounted on the main tank which controls the rise and fall of oil in the main tank. It is partially filled with oil. 5. Breather: it absorb moisture from the air which is taken in by the transformer. Silica gel is used mainly as breathers.

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