Published on February 18, 2007
The Transformation of Language, Media and Consumer in the Digital Era Derrick de Kerckhove Facoltà di Sociologia Università Federico II, Napoli McLuhan Program, University of Toronto Papamarkou Chair in Technology and Education Library of Congress, Washington
Culture and technology
Transformations Language Media Consumers Hypertinence Advertising
Language From text to hypertext From sensory deprivation to hypermedia From the thinking mind to the screen Through the screen to other people
Hypertext The next medium, whatever it is- it may be the extension of conciousness- will include television as it's content, not as it's environment, and will transform television into an art form. A computer as a research and communication instrument could enhance retrieval, obsolesce mass library organization, retrieve the individuals encyclopedic function and flip into a private line to speedily tailored data of a saleable kind (Marshall Tim-Berners Lee’s first McLuhan). elaboration for the WWW
Media Reality one is that we’re surrounded by media and communications tools and the bit-flow around us is as available as the air we breathe. Reality two is that these tools are no longer place- bound. Americans can carry in their pockets the computing power that puts a PC in their hands and bears the tools through which they share pictures, sounds, and text. (Lee Rainie, 2006, SOPAC Conference)
Driving trends of digital media From passive to interactive From fixed to mobile Ubiquitous (NFC) Tagged (RFID) Interconnected (Internet Zero)
The drive to mobility
Comparative profile of the three screens (Distribution) Share of Number in Home Screens Mobile Phones 2.0 30% Televisions 2.5 38% Desktop 1.5 Computers 23% Laptop 0.6 Computers 9% Q.1
Comparative profile of the three screens (Medium Use Time) Net Change: +33% -22% +47% 11% 23% 12% 31% 27% 32% 32% 33% 26% 21% 10% 11% 19% 7% 5% Mobile Phone Television Home Computer Much Less Now Little Less Now No Change Little More Now Much More Now Q.3
Wi-Fi and the mobility drive Not the e-book, but your laptop Not only your laptop, but the Blackberry and beyond “The ”always on” generation
RFID From location-based to location-independent to location interactive NFC
RFID (Radio-Frequency- Identifying Device) All labels on Internet Zero
Loss of boundaries: Usman Haque’s Cloak of data invisibility
InternetZero (I0) Internet Zero (I0)
The Era of the Tag nuvole cielo temporale lago acqua campi (arati) alberi + località, sensazioni, tipo di fotografia…
From the hierarchy of categories Clay Shirky
To Links Clay Shirky
To Interlinks Clay Shirky
To the disappearing of categories Clay Shirky
The great “folksypedia”
Consumers Technology generations The rise of the Wreader Self-Selection “The User is the content” Reputation Capital (trust and judgment are rising values on the Internet)
From One-Way to My-Way “A certain degree of the control of mass communication systems moves from the message producer to the media consumer” (Williams, Ronald and Rogers, 1998). 1 way-2way-all-way Sharing the responsibility and control of meaning with the screen Everybody a broadcaster (U-Tube)
Digital Natives > 10 000 hrs of video games > 250 000 emails and text messages > 10 000 hrs of cellular phone > 20 000 hrs of television > 500 000 commercials < 5 000 hrs reading books Source : Mark Prensky / www.marcprensky.com
Typical wreaders: the “Google Generation” Used to multimedia and interactivity “Screenagers” who play their screen, not just watch them RTFM NOT Clicks, drags, cuts, pastes Multitasks Samples
With the Google Generation: The User is the Content QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Young global citizens Creative consumers All play and all work Meaning is more important than money or time (‘in desperate need of filters” David Rokeby) Strongest demand is to be part of something (LinkedIn, MySpace)
Self-Selection Interactivity suggests that the reasons consumers seek, self select, process, use, and respond to information are critical for understanding responses to communications. Search and self- selection of the sources from which information may be obtained, as well as the way this information is processed, has long been recognized as an important determinant of consumer behavior (MacInnis and Jaworski, 1989)
The Aesthetics and Practice of Designing Interactive Computer Events (S. Wilson)
U-Tube By taking fuller advantage of the unique features of the Internet, filmmakers will be able to reach equally large but more specialized audiences scattered around the world. They will be able to appeal to the special interests and curiosities of individuals anywhere, anytime, through the Internet, rather than making lowest-common-denominator appeals to the masses (Gilder, 1994).
Hypertinence The “long tail” theory Push versus pull Wikimedia Tagging Social Bookmarking
The Long Tail theory (Chris Anderson)
ABOUT ADVERTISING Media becomes reliable vehicles for new patterns of advertising a soon as their penetration reaches 70% of the population This threshold was reached in North America in March 2006 It is now estimated at 73% And at 87% for all teens
Mary Meeker’s 7stages of new media development process (1997) 1) New technologies create new opportunities, e.g., the printing press; 2) Young people drive new media, e.g., David Sarnoff in radio; 3) Content tends over time to focus on some theme; 4) As new media develop, major brands are created, e.g., NBC; 5) Advertising pays the bill--low consumer costs are key to consumer acceptance of new media; 6) New talents and celebrities underlie the success of the new media, e.g., Edgar Allen Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne in magazines; 7) New media properties consolidate over time.
IAM - Interactive Advertising Model
Linking mass and interpersonal media Banners (down) Sponsored sites (down) Pop-ups (down) Rich Media (up) Keyword search (tops) eWOM electronic Word-Of-Mouth (up) Viral advertising (up) Advergames (up)
“Interactive advertising places the consumer at the center of the study of marketing communication because its effectiveness hinges not only on how the marketer’s message influences the consumer, but also on how the consumer shapes the interaction” (Stewart and Pavlou, 2002)
Fashion blogs are changing the trends MySpace as easy targets for communities of clients (Dove Story) But packaging culture is difficult and brands don’t always cut it (check out “stakeholder map” at www.govcom.org by RV Rogers) Advertisers need to hook up emotionally with people Use creative consumers as a positive force
Reputation Capital affects business and is more volatile than ever Creativity %Creative Creative High-Tech Innovation Diversity City Index Workers Rank Rank Rank Rank 1. San Francisco 1057 34.8 5 1 2 1 2. Austin 1028 36.4 4 11 3 16 3. San Diego 1015 32.1 15 12 7 3 3. Boston 1015 38.0 3 2 6 22 5. Seattle 1008 32.7 9 3 12 8 6. Chapel Hill 996 38.2 2 14 4 28 7. Houston 980 32.5 10 16 16 10 8. Washington 964 38.4 1 5 30 12 9. New York 962 32.3 12 13 24 14 10. Dallas 960 30.2 23 6 17 9 Top Ten Cities Creativity (Richard Florida) (Rankings of 49 metro areas reporting populations over 1 million in the 2000 Census)
The Transformation of Language, Media and Consumer in the Digital Era Derrick de Kerckhove
3-D, virtual reality, without goggles “when a medium is in an early stage of development, it is still depending on formats derived from earlier technologies instead of exploiting its own extensive power. Thus, the Internet is still in its early stages” (Murray 1997).
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