Published on July 7, 2009
WHAT ARE FATS? Dietary fats are triacylglycerols One glycerol molecule bonded to three fatty acid chainsFormed by dehydration synthesisA + 3B -> AB + 3H2OFatty acids can be uniform or mixed of different typesSaturatedUnsaturatedMonounsaturatedPolyunsaturated Trans http://www.reducetriglycerides.com/triglyceride_molecule4.jpeg
One glycerol molecule bonded to three fatty acid chains
Formed by dehydration synthesis
A + 3B -> AB + 3H2O
Fatty acids can be uniform or mixed of different types
WHAT ARE FATS? Fatty Acids (14 – 20C) saturated: (solid at room temp.) monounsaturated: (liquid at room temp.) polyunsaturated: (liquid at room temp.)
TRANS FATS Small amounts found naturally in beef, lamb and dairy products as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) [factor dependant]Small amounts occur in refined vegetable oils [debatable]Large amounts result from “partial hydrogenation” of unsaturated fats that move the hydrogen atoms, creating a straight conformation as found in saturated fats (Ascherio, 2006)
Small amounts found naturally in beef, lamb and dairy products as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) [factor dependant]
Small amounts occur in refined vegetable oils [debatable]
TRANS FATS Trans Fatty Acid + + H
TRANS FAT HISTORY Paul Sabatier develops the hydrogenation process. He was a French chemist who became a Nobel laureate in 1912. Scientist Wilhelm Normann finds that liquid oils can be hydrogenated to form trans fatty acids. He patents the process. Trans fat is the first man-made fat to join our food supply. Procter & Gamble introduces Crisco vegetable shortening in grocery stores. Crisco becomes the first of many manufactured food products containing trans fat. World War II begins, and the United States becomes involved at the end of 1941. As the war progresses, the use of margarine rises sharply because butter is rationed.
TRANS FAT HISTORY The American Heart Association first proposes that reducing dietary fats, namely saturated fats found in foods like butter and beef, can reduce the chance of getting heart disease. In response to consumer advocacy groups, most fast-food companies begin using partially hydrogenated oils containing trans fat instead of beef tallow and tropical oils high in saturated fats. Following the release of several scientific studies, health advocacy groups call for fast-food restaurants to stop using partially hydrogenated oils in their deep fryers. Denmark is the first and only country to regulate trans fat on a national basis, putting a very small cap on the amount that food may contain. (American Heart Association, 2008)
WHY AND WHERE? Why trans fats? Products retain the flavour and smell of unsaturated fatsAdds desired texture to productsLengthens shelf life by raising the melting point, slowing oxidationReduces need for use of saturated fats
Products retain the flavour and smell of unsaturated fats
Adds desired texture to products
Lengthens shelf life by raising the melting point, slowing oxidation
Reduces need for use of saturated fats
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