Trajectory Specification For High-Capacity Air Traffic Control

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Information about Trajectory Specification For High-Capacity Air Traffic Control

Published on January 18, 2009

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Trajectory Specification For High-Capacity Air Traffic Control Russ Paielli NASA Ames Research Center AIAA ATIO-06 Conference Wichita, KS, Sept 27, 2006 [paper available at http://RussP.us/publist.htm]

Outline Motivation Trajectory prediction Trajectory specification Error tolerances and bounding space Horizontal and vertical specifications Polynomial approximation XML Concluding remarks

Motivation

Trajectory prediction

Trajectory specification

Error tolerances and bounding space

Horizontal and vertical specifications

Polynomial approximation

XML

Concluding remarks

Motivation Demand for domestic air travel expected to double or triple within ~20 years Airspace capacity currently limited by controller workload (~15 aircraft/sector max) Automated separation assurance can increase airspace capacity 4D trajectories can facilitate automated separation assurance No standard currently exists for specifying and communicating continuous 4D trajectories with error tolerances

Demand for domestic air travel expected to double or triple within ~20 years

Airspace capacity currently limited by controller workload (~15 aircraft/sector max)

Automated separation assurance can increase airspace capacity

4D trajectories can facilitate automated separation assurance

No standard currently exists for specifying and communicating continuous 4D trajectories with error tolerances

Trajectory Prediction

Trajectory Specification

4D Trajectory Specification Not just a series of 4D points! 3D fixed tube with position along tube as fourth dimension Groundtrack composed of straight (great circle) segments and constant-radius turns (2D) Altitude as function of along-track distance (third dimension) Along-track position as function of time (fourth dimension) Error tolerances determine bounding space around reference trajectory

Not just a series of 4D points!

3D fixed tube with position along tube as fourth dimension

Groundtrack composed of straight (great circle) segments and constant-radius turns (2D)

Altitude as function of along-track distance (third dimension)

Along-track position as function of time (fourth dimension)

Error tolerances determine bounding space around reference trajectory

Trajectory Error Tolerances Explicit along-track/cross-track/vertical tolerances Conformance required with high reliability Can vary with traffic situation Limited by navigation capability of aircraft Looser tolerances in light traffic Determine a precisely specified bounding space for each aircraft at each point in time Useful for automated separation assurance Disabled vertical and/or along-track bounds reduce dimension of specified trajectory could be useful for early implementation

Explicit along-track/cross-track/vertical tolerances

Conformance required with high reliability

Can vary with traffic situation

Limited by navigation capability of aircraft

Looser tolerances in light traffic

Determine a precisely specified bounding space for each aircraft at each point in time

Useful for automated separation assurance

Disabled vertical and/or along-track bounds reduce dimension of specified trajectory

could be useful for early implementation

Advantages of Explicit Bounding Space Enhanced fault tolerance Conflict-free trajectories can be guaranteed for given time horizon even if ground systems and/or datalink fail Maximize airspace capacity Particularly useful in weather-constrained areas Comparable to painting lane lines on roads

Enhanced fault tolerance

Conflict-free trajectories can be guaranteed for given time horizon even if ground systems and/or datalink fail

Maximize airspace capacity

Particularly useful in weather-constrained areas

Comparable to painting lane lines on roads

Capacity Enhancement In Weather-constrained Areas

Misunderstandings to Avoid About Trajectory Specification Does not imply centralized “control” But facilitates centralized coordination Can be used to downlink trajectory requests or uplink trajectory assignments Does not mandate “precise” tracking of 4D reference trajectory Precisely specifies bounds on aircraft position at any point in time Bounds can be large when appropriate

Does not imply centralized “control”

But facilitates centralized coordination

Can be used to downlink trajectory requests or uplink trajectory assignments

Does not mandate “precise” tracking of 4D reference trajectory

Precisely specifies bounds on aircraft position at any point in time

Bounds can be large when appropriate

Horizontal Trajectory Specification Two segment types straight (greatcircle) turn (circular arc) Each segment defines own coordinate system Along-track/cross-track tolerances define bounding space Along-track updates compensate for wind modeling errors

Two segment types

straight (greatcircle)

turn (circular arc)

Each segment defines own coordinate system

Along-track/cross-track tolerances define bounding space

Along-track updates compensate for wind modeling errors

Vertical Trajectory Specification

Problem With Altitude As Function Of Time

Leveloff Transition Tolerance

 

 

Why XML? Text format less error-prone and more flexible than binary format Directly readable by engineers/developers Flexible selection and ordering of data fields Replacing binary formats in many domains e.g., B2B, SVG, OpenDocument, MS Office Independent of computer platform and programming language Versatile, popular, standardized

Text format less error-prone and more flexible than binary format

Directly readable by engineers/developers

Flexible selection and ordering of data fields

Replacing binary formats in many domains

e.g., B2B, SVG, OpenDocument, MS Office

Independent of computer platform and programming language

Versatile, popular, standardized

XML Sample <segment number=&quot;1&quot; vtype=&quot;climb&quot; htype=&quot;straight&quot; stype=&quot;constCAS&quot;> <time start=&quot;0:08:42&quot; duration=&quot;7:42&quot;/> <begin lat=&quot;xxx.xxxx“ lon=&quot;xxx.xxxx&quot;/> <end lat=&quot;xxx.xxxx“ lon=&quot;xxx.xxxx&quot;/> <along coeffs=&quot;xxx.xxx xxx.xxx&quot; CAS=&quot;280&quot; length=&quot;27.815&quot;/> <alt coeffs=&quot;126.8 21.609 4.1417e-3&quot; thrust=&quot;90&quot; end=&quot;270&quot; /> </segment>

Concluding Remarks 4D trajectory specification 3D tube with position along tube as fourth dimension Error tolerances define bounding space at each point in time Facilitates automated separation assurance and resulting increased airspace capacity XML is a strong candidate for the job Versatile, popular, standardized Lead time for establishing and implementing standards is very long -- no time to waste!

4D trajectory specification

3D tube with position along tube as fourth dimension

Error tolerances define bounding space at each point in time

Facilitates automated separation assurance and resulting increased airspace capacity

XML is a strong candidate for the job

Versatile, popular, standardized

Lead time for establishing and implementing standards is very long -- no time to waste!

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