Published on January 14, 2009
Youth Leadership Development : Master Slide 1.1 Youth Leadership Development What Adults Working with Youth Need to Know About Leadership : Master Slide 1.2 About Leadership There are a variety of definitions for “leadership”. There are different types and styles of leadership. Youth and adults may view leadership in different ways. About Leadership : Master Slide 1.3 About Leadership Leadership is a developmental process, and youth move through the process at different rates. Transactional Leadership : Master Slide 1.4 Transactional Leadership Values problem and solution identification Makes decisions in order to move forward Uses standards and principles to make decisions. Transactional Leadership : Master Slide 1.5 Transactional Leadership Develop themselves to be better decision-makers for the group Gets things done Recognizes the importance of the product. Takes charge Transformational Leadership : Master Slide 1.6 Transformational Leadership Values the participation and contribution of others Takes all viewpoints into consideration before making a decision Considers individuals within their situations Transformational Leadership : Master Slide 1.7 Transformational Leadership Uses individuals to test decisions Develops themselves to be better contributors to the group Learns from experiences and generalizes them to “real life” Transformational Leadership : Master Slide 1.8 Transformational Leadership Recognizes the importance of the process Shares leadership responsibilities Stages of Development : Master Slide 1.9 Stages of Development According to youth leadership experts Fertman and van Linden (1999), youth go through three basic stages of leadership development. . . Stages of Development : Master Slide 1.10 Stages of Development Awareness Initial awareness of leadership potential and abilities; adolescents usually do not perceive themselves as leaders and need assistance in beginning to identify and build upon their leadership potential Stages of Development : Master Slide 1.11 Stages of Development Interaction Adolescents start to recognize a more personal side to their leadership abilities; focus turns to qualities related to interacting with and respecting themselves and others Stages of Development : Master Slide 1.12 Stages of Development Mastery Adolescents work to influence others through application of skills and setting an example; focus is on mastering leadership skills in specific areas and activities of life Leadership in Groups : Master Slide 2.1 Leadership in Groups Groups experience developmental stages just like individuals do. Each stage has challenges that need to be addressed. There are advantages and disadvantages to working in groups. Leadership in Groups : Master Slide 2.2 Leadership in Groups Youth view leadership in a group context; therefore, group functioning and experiences are critical to their leadership development. Stages of Group Functioning : Master Slide 2.3 Stages of Group Functioning There are four basic stages of group functioning: Forming Storming Norming Performing (Levi, 2001) Forming : Master Slide 2.4 Forming This first stage is the point where the group initially comes together. Members spend time getting to know one another. Few measurable accomplishments occur. Forming : Master Slide 2.5 Forming Group members are uncertain of how to act. Time should be spent defining goals. Members need to know what their tasks are and how to do them. Storming : Master Slide 2.6 Storming Familiarity among group members has been achieved in this second stage. Conflict occurs. Confusion about roles and responsibilities exists among members. Storming : Master Slide 2.7 Storming Group members may become defensive and blaming. Sub-groups may begin to form. Ultimately, conflict should serve to help clarify group goals and promote cohesion. Norming : Master Slide 2.8 Norming Group becomes more organized. Roles and responsibilities are more clearly defined. Rules and relationships are established. Trust and support increase. Performing : Master Slide 2.9 Performing Group is more mature. Members are comfortable and know what is expected of them. Tasks are completed with focus and cooperation. Identifying Strengths & Weaknesses : Master Slide 2.10 Identifying Strengths & Weaknesses When helping youth identify strengths and weaknesses, ask questions such as. . . What are you good at? What do you like to do? What can you do that you are proud of? Identifying Strengths & Weaknesses : Master Slide 2.11 Identifying Strengths & Weaknesses What do you not like to do? What do you ask others to help you with? What can you not do that you would like to learn how to do? Effective Discussions : Master Slide 2.12 Effective Discussions For youth to have ownership in discussions and decisions, THEY need to be the ones doing most of the talking. To get discussion started or keep it going, use open-ended questions such as. . . Effective Discussions : Master Slide 2.13 Effective Discussions What do you think about that idea? What do you like about that idea? Is this something we need to do? Effective Discussions : Master Slide 2.14 Effective Discussions What will be some of the challenges of trying to do this? How can we overcome those challenges? Effective Discussions : Master Slide 2.15 Effective Discussions Who needs to be involved in that project? How much time will it take to do that? How will this help us? How will this help other people? Effective Discussions : Master Slide 2.16 Effective Discussions And the list goes on! The important thing is allowing youth the opportunity to explore things for themselves, express their ideas, and feel committed to what they are doing. Meaningful Leadership : Master Slide 3.1 Meaningful Leadership Youth want to be able to apply the skills they are learning. Youth want to feel that their work has an impact. Meaningful Leadership : Master Slide 3.2 Meaningful Leadership Community involvement and service are effective ways to learn, apply, and have an impact. The youth perspective is valid and helpful to the creation of meaningful leadership experiences. Meaningful Leadership : Master Slide 3.3 Meaningful Leadership To determine whether an experience is meaningful for youth, ask some of the following questions (of yourself and of them): Meaningful Leadership : Master Slide 3.4 Meaningful Leadership Do youth have a great deal of responsibility for this experience? Were youth actively involved in the planning of this experience? Does this experience meet the needs and goals identified by the youth involved? Meaningful Leadership : Master Slide 3.5 Meaningful Leadership Does this experience give youth the opportunity to DO something? Does this experience give youth the opportunity to use their skills? Does this experience influence others in the community in a positive way? Meaningful Leadership : Master Slide 3.6 Meaningful Leadership Will youth learn something from this experience? Will youth be able to teach others through this experience? Goals & Expectations : Master Slide 3.7 Goals & Expectations The important thing about goals and expectations is that everyone in the group should have a part in helping to create them. That way, everyone has ownership, finds a way to compromise, and can better agree on what is best for the whole. Goals & Expectations : Master Slide 3.8 Goals & Expectations Ground Rules for Goals & Expectations: Every idea is valid Every person contributes Every person is responsible Goals & Expectations : Master Slide 3.9 Goals & Expectations Use many of the same types of open-ended questions you would use to engage in an effective discussion. Provide adequate opportunities for participation. Ask for everyone’s opinions and ideas. Goals & Expectations : Master Slide 3.10 Goals & Expectations Make sure that goals and expectations are communicated clearly. Make sure everyone is comfortable with the goals and expectations. Review them periodically and adjust as needed. The Adult Role : Master Slide 4.1 The Adult Role Youth need and appreciate an adult perspective. Youth want to be trusted. The Adult Role : Master Slide 4.2 The Adult Role Youth want a chance to act on their ideas. There are situations were adults need to intervene. The Adult Role : Master Slide 4.3 The Adult Role Youth Expect: Coaching Dialoging Connections to Resources Connections to Community Leaders (Camino and Zeldin, 2002; Roach, Wyman, Brookes, Chavez, Heath, and Valdes, 1999) The Adult Role : Master Slide 4.4 The Adult Role “When adults serve as allies or partners to the youth, young people gain the support and institutional power which helps them achieve individual and collective goals.” (Camino and Zeldin, in press) Common Mistakes : Master Slide 4.5 Common Mistakes Stereotypes and other preconceived ideas often serve to keep adults from working effectively with youth. Common Mistakes : Master Slide 4.6 Common Mistakes Common mistakes made by adults working with youth include. . . Lacking confidence in the abilities of youth. Trusting them too much and not helping them enough. Common Mistakes : Master Slide 4.7 Common Mistakes Helping them too much and not trusting them enough. Providing information but no opportunity to use it. Common Mistakes : Master Slide 4.8 Common Mistakes Treating the leadership process as something that they teach youth, without realizing that youth can teach them and each other. Assuming youth possess knowledge that they may not. Common Mistakes : Master Slide 4.9 Common Mistakes Assuming youth do not possess knowledge that they may. Regarding themselves (the adults) as the sole leaders in the group. Common Mistakes : Master Slide 4.10 Common Mistakes How do we combat these mistakes? Don’t assume Listen Common Mistakes : Master Slide 4.11 Common Mistakes Take time to get to know youth Trust Allow for independence, but be willing to provide a safety net when needed. Common Mistakes : Master Slide 4.12 Common Mistakes Allow youth to experience the consequences of their actions. Help youth to learn from consequences. Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.13 Step In or Step Back? Your youth group has decided that they want to organize a bungee jumping outing. They have no information about the risks associated with the activity. Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.14 Step In or Step Back? 2. Your youth group has decided to host a picnic at the local park next Saturday. You have heard that the forecast calls for rain. Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.15 Step In or Step Back? 3. Your youth group decided to conduct a community car wash. They have all the plans in place, but you are worried. The last time you did this with a group, it was a disaster. Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.16 Step In or Step Back? 4. Your youth group wants to take a camping trip, and they plan on having other youth in the group drive. Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.17 Step In or Step Back? 5. Your youth group is approached by someone in the community who wants to have them participate in a fundraiser. Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.18 Step In or Step Back? 6. Your youth group decides to organize a food drive. You know that another local youth group is doing the same thing? Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.19 Step In or Step Back? 7. Your youth group wants to participate in the Adopt-A-Highway program. You have your doubts about whether everyone will contribute equally. Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.20 Step In or Step Back? 8. Your youth group members seem to be frustrated with one another, and they are not addressing their concerns. Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.21 Step In or Step Back? 9. One member of your youth group comes to you to complain about another member. Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.22 Step In or Step Back? 10. Your youth group did not complete a project that they committed to. Consequently, others in the community were let down. Step In or Step Back? Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.23 Step In or Step Back? Even though the answers to some of these questions may seem obvious, they aren’t. Whether you choose to step in or step back depends on the context of the situation, your own comfort level, and whether others ask you to intervene. Step In or Step Back? : Master Slide 4.24 Step In or Step Back? Just make sure that you are trusting the youth in your group, helping them to consider a variety of options and perspectives, and allowing them to try things before assuming that they will or will not work out. Youth / Adult Partnerships : Master Slide 4.25 Youth / Adult Partnerships “Relationships between young people and adults are usually cast in terms of a (mentoring relationship). Mentoring implies a leader and a follower.” (Des Marais, Yang, and Farzanehkia, 2000) Youth / Adult Partnerships : Master Slide 4.26 Youth / Adult Partnerships “Partnerships evolve from mentoring but offer a mutually beneficial relationship for young people and adults. . . Partnerships in which young people and adults share learning and leadership allows them to become co-creators of community.” (Des Marais, Yang, and Farzanehkia, 2000) Youth / Adult Partnerships : Master Slide 4.27 Youth / Adult Partnerships Zeldin and his colleagues (2000) provide several advantages to forming and utilizing youth / adult partnerships. . . Youth / Adult Partnerships : Master Slide 4.28 Youth / Adult Partnerships Youth achieve mastery, compassion, and health when they are provided with experiences that support their development. Adults gain an improved perception of youth through first-hand interaction. Youth / Adult Partnerships : Master Slide 4.29 Youth / Adult Partnerships Youth and adults gain increased confidence, energy, understanding, connectedness, and organizational commitment. Organizations experience increased clarity and focus on their mission and place greater value on inclusiveness and representation. Youth / Adult Partnerships : Master Slide 4.30 Youth / Adult Partnerships Ultimately, youth / adult partnerships are learning experiences for all involved. Openness, trust, flexibility, and a willingness to try new things are key in achieving success and satisfaction.
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