Published on March 6, 2014
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT DEEPAK KUSHWAHA SHABID ASHRAF UPENDRA BHAGEL NISHANT KUMAR VIKRAM SHAWARIYA 1
Topics Why do we Need Training? What is Training & Training Principles? A Systematic Approach to Training A Training Lesson Plan 2
Do Organizations Need Training The answer is “YES” However, we must know the purpose and functions of training before we can use it. 3
The Gap Concept Expected Curve Gap 1,000 Cars Performanc e/Results 200 Cars Actual Curve 800 Cars Time In training terms this means we need to develop programs to fill the Gap 4
Training and Development (T&D) Human Resource Development – Major HRM function consisting not only of T&D, but also individual career planning and development activities and performance appraisal Training and Development – Heart of a continuous effort designed to improve employee competency and organizational performance 5
Training and Development (T&D) Training - Designed to provide learners with the knowledge and skills needed for their present jobs – formal and informal Development - Involves learning that goes beyond today's job – more long-term focus Learning Organization – firms that recognize critical importance of continuous performance-related training and development an take appropriate action 6
Factors Influencing T&D Top management support Commitment from specialists and generalists Technological advances Organizational complexity Learning style 7
The Training and Development (T&D) Process Determine T&D Needs Establish Specific Objectives Select T&D Method(s) Implement T&D Programs Evaluate T&D Programs 8
Determining Training and Development Needs In order to compete effectively, firms must keep employees well trained. 9
Establishing Training and Development Objectives Desired end results Clear and concise objectives must be formulated 10
T&D Methods Classroom Programs Mentoring Coaching Role Playing Simulations Distance Learning and Videoconferencing E-learning On-the-Job Training Job Rotation Internships 11
Classroom Programs Continue to be effective for many types of employee training May incorporate some of other methods 12
Mentoring Approach to advising, coaching, and nurturing, for creating practical relationship to enhance individual career, personal, and professional growth and development Mentor may be located elsewhere in organization or in another firm Relationship may be formal or informal 13
Coaching Often considered responsibility of immediate boss Provides assistance much as a mentor 14
Role Playing Respond to specific problems they may actually encounter in jobs Used to teach such skills as: interviewing grievance handling performance appraisal reviews conference leadership team problem solving communication 15
Simulations Training devices that model the real world or programs replicating tasks away from the job site 16
Distance Learning and Videoconferencing Interactive training Used to: increase access to training ensure consistency of instruction reduce cost of delivering T&D programs 17
E-Learning Umbrella term describing online instruction 18
On-the-Job Training Informal approach that permits employee to learn job tasks by actually performing them Most commonly used T&D method No problem transferring what has been learned to the task 19
Job Rotation Employees move from one job to another to broaden experience Helps new employees understand variety of jobs 20
Internships Training approach where university students divide their time between attending classes and working for an organization Excellent means of viewing potential permanent employee at work Students are enabled to integrate theory with practice 21
Management Development All learning experiences resulting in upgrading of skills and knowledge needed in current and future managerial positions Imperative managers keep up with latest developments in their fields while managing ever-changing workforce in a dynamic environment Requires personal commitment of individual manager 22
Reasons to Conduct Management Training Outside of the Company An outside perspective New viewpoints Possibility of taking executives out of work environment Exposure to faculty experts and research Broader vision 23
Reasons to Conduct Management Training Inside of the Company Training more specific to needs Lower costs Less time Consistent, relevant material More control of content and faculty 24
Orientation Initial T&D effort designed for employees Strives to inform them about company, job and workgroup On-boarding 25
Additional Benefits of Orientation Effective in retaining and motivating personnel 26
Special Training Areas Telecommuter – permit manager and employee to define job responsibilities and set goals and expectations Diversity – develop sensitivity to create more harmonious working environment Ethics – develop corporate culture that rewards ethical behavior Conflict Resolution – communication skills needed to resolve gridlock 27
Special Training Areas English as a Second Language – help employees in way that validates them and optimizes personal relationships Teamwork – how to work in groups Empowerment – how to make decisions and accept responsibility Remedial – basic literacy and mathematics skills 28
Implementing Human Resource Development Programs Implies change Feel they are too busy to engage in T&D efforts Qualified trainers must be available Trainers must understand company objectives 29
Evaluating Human Resource Development Ask participant’s opinions Determine extent of learning Will training change behavior? Have T&D objectives been accomplished? Evaluation difficult, but necessary 30
Organization Development Survey feedback process Quality circles Team building Sensitivity training 31
Survey Feedback Description Process of collecting data from organizational unit through use of questionnaires, interviews and other objective data Can create working environments that lead to better working relationships, greater productivity and increased profitability 32
Quality Circles Groups of employees who voluntarily meet regularly with their supervisors to discuss problems Investigate causes Recommend solutions 33
Team Building Conscious effort to develop effective workgroups Uses self-directed teams Small group of employees responsible for an entire work process Members work together to improve their operation 34
CASE STUDY? ON 35
Introduction Aldi is a leading retailer with over 8,000 stores worldwide. It continues to expand in Europe, North America and Australia. Aldi brand is associated with value for money. Aldi’s slogan is ‘spend a little, live a lot’. The company buys large quantities of products from carefully selected suppliers. Aldi keeps costs down in different ways. It ensures its operations are as efficient as possible, for example, store layouts are kept simple and opening hours focus on the busiest times of the day. Aldi places great importance on how it trains and developed its employees. 36
Identifying training needs Aldi identifies future training needs through an ongoing analysis of company performance in key areas at all levels. For example, the company monitors the availability of its products to the customer within its stores. If the level of availability drops below the targeted level then a programme of training on order accuracy would be undertaken. It also considers future developments within the business and within the grocery retail sector in order to predict both the total numbers of staff it will need and, more crucially, the skills and competencies that will be required. 37
On the job training On-the-job training is training that takes place while employees are actually working. It means that skills can be gained while trainees are carrying out their jobs. Employees learn in the real work environment and gain experience dealing with the tasks and challenges that they will meet during a normal working day. 38
Methods: There are several methods of providing on-the-job training. Four frequently used methods are briefly described here: 1: Coaching – an experienced member of staff will help trainees learn skills and processes through providing instructions or demonstrations (or both). 2: Mentoring – each trainee is allocated to an established member of staff who acts as a guide and helper. A mentor usually offers more personal support than a coach. 3:Job rotation – this is where members of staff rotate roles or tasks so that they gain experience of a full range of jobs. 39
4: ‘Sitting next to Nellie’ – this describes the process of working alongside a colleague to observe and learn the skills needed for a particular process. This can be a faster and more useful way of learning a job role than studying a written manual. The colleague is always on hand to answer any questions or deal with any unexpected problems. For most on-the-job training at Aldi stores, the store manager acts as the trainer. A typical format is for the manager to explain process to the trainee, then to demonstrate it. The trainee then carries out the process, while the manager observes. All positions from apprentices through to trainee area managers follow this type of structured ‘tell, show, do’ training. Trainee area managers also undergo job rotation. They have the opportunity to experience all aspects of the business to give them a complete overview of how Aldi operates. 40
Off the job training As the name suggests, off-the-job training is provided away from the immediate workplace. This might be at a specialist training centre or at a college or at a company’s own premises. Typical off-the-job training courses offered to employees by Aldi include: recruitment, interviewing and selection employment law influencing skills performance reviews (appraisals) Aldi Management System (how to develop and performance manage people). 41
Off-the-job training may involve extra costs, such as payments to training organizations. It also means that staff taking training courses are not at work, so their jobs have to be covered by others. This can lead to an increase in payroll costs. However, balanced against these costs are the gains that Aldi makes from offthe-job training. These include the benefits of having more motivated staff, greater staff productivity and employees with better skills and the ability to provide improved customer service. Aldi provides training opportunities for young people. The Aldi apprentice scheme combines on-the-job and off-the-job training. Apprenticeships are open to 16-18 year olds. Apprentices training as store assistants also study for an NVQ in Retail Apprenticeship. They complete store assistant training and gain an NVQ Level 2 in their first year. They then take a store management training programme over two years and work for a Level 3 advanced qualification 42
Development Development focuses as much on personal growth as skills that are directly related to the job. A development programme is designed to make individuals more skilled, more flexible in their approach and better qualified for their chosen careers. Through a development programme, employees can obtain transferable qualifications that benefit the individuals concerned as well as the business. This can have disadvantages for the business, as it gives workers greater value in the job market. However, Aldi is willing to take this risk as it believes in providing what is best for its staff. 43
The Aldi retail placement scheme takes university students on a one-year placement. This allows the chosen individuals to show what they can offer the business and to find out what the business can offer them. Aldi offers an excellent reward package for students on a placement, but in return expects trainees to have enthusiasm, drive and ambition. Successful students get the opportunity to apply for a place on Aldi’s Area Management training programme. 44
CONCLUSION Aldii wants efficient operations, with its stores staffed by people who are keen and competent. Aldi’s success is shown by the fact that it is expanding rapidly. It is opening new stores and experiencing sales growth that requires it to take on more staff. This means that it needs to combine good recruitment policies with robust selection processes. Aldi puts great emphasis on developing its people. Over 85% of Aldi directors have been recruited from within the company.This commitment to training and development makes Aldi a business of choice for both ambitious teenagers and top graduates. This is shown by its placing in the Top 5 in The TimesTop 100 Graduate Employers and the Graduate Employer of Choice for 2012 45 for General Management
THANK YOU 46
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