Train the Safety Trainer part 1

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Information about Train the Safety Trainer part 1

Published on November 13, 2008

Author: dahboogieman1


Slide 1: Welcome ! This workshop is the first of four courses in the Train-The-Trainer Series. The four workshops are: Course 109 - Train the Trainer I: Managing the Training Program Course 113 - Train the Trainer II: Conducting Classroom Safety Training Course 114 - Train the Trainer III: Developing Training Courses and Materials Course 115 - Train the Trainer IV: Conducting On-the-Job-Training (OJT) This presentation will introduce you to the basics of designing and implementing an effective safety training program. We will discuss the basic concepts of education and training, and focus on how to document and evaluate safety training. Workshop Goals At the end of the workshop, you should have a greater understanding of: 1. The basic concepts of education and safety 2. The two types of safety education 3. How to document safety training 3. How to evaluate training effectiveness. Please Note: This material or any other material used to inform employers of compliance requirements of Oregon OSHA standards through simplification of the regulations should not be considered a substitute for any provisions of the Oregon Safe Employment Act or for any standards issued by Oregon OSHA. The information in this workbook is intended for classroom use only. Getting Around Emergency Procedures Ground Rules Introductions Slide 2: What's Inside Form Teams 3 Identify Expectations 3 What is education 4 Overview of OR-OSHA Standards 9 The Training Program: A System's Approach 12 Elements of a Safety Training Plan 14 Exercise: Sample Safety Training Plan 16 Trainer Qualifications 22 Safety Training Program Documentation 25 Safety Training Program Evaluation 28 ANSI Guidelines for Evaluating Training 32 OSHA Guidelines for Evaluating Training 36 Attributes of Excellence of a Safety Training Program 40 Improving The Safety Training Program 42 Let's Review Quiz 44 Slide 3: Great Expectations! Discuss what you want to get out of training today. What's important for you to learn? What do you want to be able to do? Write your expectations on flipchart paper. The team’s spokesperson will briefly present the team's list to the class. Our team's great expectations! __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Great expectations of other teams! __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ "We are forced to rely on people, which is why we put so much emphasis on training them." Henry Block, H&R Block Form Teams Introductions. Say hi! Let everyone know who you are, where you work, and what your safety responsibilities are. Team Leader. Wait until directed to elect your team leader. Spokesperson. Although one person is appointed, everyone is welcome to contribute their ideas, feeling and opinions! Name your team! Quickly brainstorm a creative name for your team for the day. Team name ____________________________________ Slide 4: Education is… “Anything that affects our knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSA's) Ed-u-cer-e” (ey-doo-ker-ey) Latin…that which leads out of ignorance Two basic approaches: instruction and training List the different ways we receive formal and informal education. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Training is… One method of education The “how” in safety Primarily increases knowledge and skills A specialized form of education that focuses on developing or improving skills - the focus on performance.  List examples of previous training you have received: ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ WHAT IS "EDUCATION"? Skills Knowledge Attitude Instruction Training Slide 5: Two Types of Safety Education Type 1. Safety Instruction All employees receive general safety education through work experience, and when they attend orientations, safety meetings, etc. It's important to understand that although all safety training is education, not all safety education is considered training. General/Specific information and instruction is presented. Knowledge and skills are not measured at the end of training Write training and learning goals as appropriate. Sample training goal: "Present an overview of the importance of safety incentives and recognition." Sample learning goal: "Gain a greater awareness of the types of hazards in the workplace." Instructional objectives are not required because KSA's are not evaluated. All you have to do is attend to get a certificate Measurement focuses on student's reaction to the training session rather than learning Measurement tools include - "smile sheet" evaluation forms Brainstorm: List as many general safety topics as you can! ___________________ _____________________ ___________________ ___________________ _____________________ ___________________ ___________________ _____________________ ___________________ ___________________ _____________________ ___________________ ___________________ _____________________ ___________________ ___________________ _____________________ ___________________ ___________________ _____________________ ___________________ ___________________ _____________________ ___________________ Slide 6: Type 2: Technical Safety Training Most workplace accidents are the result of unsafe behaviors. To make sure employees behave, they not only need to know why using safe procedures and practices is important, they need know how to actually perform those procedures and practices. Describes general/specific policies, procedures, practices You may write training and learning goals Sample training goal: "Train learners how to correctly perform a lockout/tagout procedure." Sample learning goal: "Correctly perform all steps of a lockout/tagout procedure." You should write operational learning objectives Sample operational objective: "By the end of the training session, given the equipment and requirement to perform a simulated procedure, the learner will be able to describe and correctly perform all steps of the lockout/tagout procedure for the equipment." Learner knowledge and skills are measured immediately after training Learner is evaluated in the learning environment and before exposure to hazards The learner must "pass a test" in class to get a certificate Measurement tools include oral/written exams and skill demonstrations Technical training is far more common than instruction Remember, technical training should be a "hands-on-how-to" presentation List at least three specific procedures or practices for which you've received training. ________________________________ _____________________________________ ________________________________ _____________________________________ ________________________________ _____________________________________ Slide 7: Make sure training is efficient and effective Worker training is essential to every employer’s safety and health program. The time and money it takes to train workers is an investment that pays off in fewer workplace accidents and lower insurance premiums. Effective training also helps inexperienced workers who tend to have higher injury and illness rates than experienced workers. However, training isn’t likely to help if workers don’t understand it, are unmotivated, or have poor work attitudes. Finally, no amount of training is likely to reduce workplace risk unless you make it part of a sound safety and health program. Analyze this! What may be the possible root causes for an ineffective safety training program? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ What does "efficient" and "effective" mean? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ What are the benefits of effective safety training… To the employee? __________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ To the employer? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Slide 8: Be sure the training plan effectively links training to consequences Training without _____________ __________________ is a waste of time and money! Natural consequences occur automatically in response to our behaviors/actions. We are punished or rewarded by something for what we do. If we fall down, two consequences naturally occur; we either get hurt or we don't. In the context of workplace safety, natural consequences refer to employee and employer "hurt or health" as outcomes. System consequences are organizational responses to our behavior/actions. We are punished or rewarded by another person or organization for what we do. Various consequences may occur, for example, someone else may administer discipline, apologize, recognize or ignore our performance. What are the natural and system consequences when an employee is seriously injured on the job? To the Employee Natural Consequences System Consequences ______________________________ _____________________________ ______________________________ _____________________________ ______________________________ _____________________________ To the Employer Natural Consequences System Consequences ______________________________ _____________________________ ______________________________ _____________________________ ______________________________ _____________________________ What is the outcome when safety training is not supported by effective system consequences? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ Slide 9: OVERVIEW OF OR-OSHA STANDARDS The Oregon Safe Employee Act of 1973 does not address specifically the responsibility of employers to provide health and safety information and instruction to employees, although Section 5(a)(2) does require that each employer: ". . . shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this Act." However, more than 100 of the Act's current standards do contain training requirements. Standards and Guidelines to Help Develop Effective Training Effective training requires planning, dedicated instructors, and motivated students. It doesn’t matter whether the topic is athletics, academics, or workplace safety; the steps for successful training are similar: Design the training program Conduct the training Evaluate the training’s effectiveness Some standards and guidelines that will help you design, conduct, and evaluate your safety training program include: OR-OSHA guidelines (See the "Be Trained" Booklet OSHA standards and guidelines ANSI/ASSE Z490.1-2001, Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health, and Environmental Training. ANSI/AIHA Z10-2005, Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems Slide 10: OAR 437-001-0765 Rules for Workplace Safety Committees. (7) Safety and Health Training and Instruction. (a) The following items shall be discussed with all safety committee members: (A) Safety committee purpose and operation; (B) OAR 437-001-0760 through 437-001-0765 and their application; and (C) Methods of conducting safety committee meetings. (b) Committee members shall have ready access to applicable Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Codes which apply to the particular establishment and verbal instructions regarding their use. (c) All safety committee members shall receive training based upon the type of business activity. At a minimum, members shall receive training regarding: (A) Hazard identification in the workplace; and (B) Principles regarding effective accident and incident investigations. What do Oregon OSHA rules say about safety committee training? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ What do Oregon Administrative Rules say about training? OAR 437-001-0760 Rules for all Workplaces. (1) Employers' Responsibilities. (a) The employer shall see that workers are properly instructed and supervised in the safe operation of any machinery, tools, equipment, process, or practice which they are authorized to use or apply. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Slide 11: CHAPTER 437 DIV. 3, CONSTRUCTION (1926) 1926.21 SAFETY TRAINING AND EDUCATION. (a) General requirements. The Secretary shall, pursuant to section 107(f) of the Act, establish and supervise programs for the education and training of employers and employees in the recognition, avoidance and prevention of unsafe conditions in employments covered by the act. (b) Employer responsibility. (1) The employer should avail himself of the safety and health training programs the Secretary provides. (2) The employer shall instruct each employee in the recognition and avoidance of unsafe conditions and the regulations applicable to his work environment to control or eliminate any hazards or other exposure to illness or injury. (3) Employees required to handle or use poisons, caustics, and other harmful substances shall be instructed regarding the safe handling and use, and be made aware of the potential hazards, personal hygiene, and personal protective measures required. (4) In job site areas where harmful plants or animals are present, employees who may be exposed shall be instructed regarding the potential hazards, and how to avoid injury, and the first aid procedures to be used in the event of injury. (5) Employees required to handle or use flammable liquids, gases, or toxic materials shall be instructed in the safe handling and use of these materials and made aware of the specific requirements contained in Subparts D, F, and other applicable subparts of this part. (6) (i) All employees required to enter into confined or enclosed spaces shall be instructed as to the nature of the hazards involved, the necessary precautions to be taken, and in the use of protective and emergency equipment required. The employer shall comply with any specific regulations that apply to work in dangerous or potentially dangerous areas. (ii) For purposes of paragraph (b)(6)(i) of this section, “confined or enclosed space” means any space having a limited means of egress, which is subject to the accumulation of toxic or flammable contaminants or has an oxygen deficient atmosphere. Confined or enclosed spaces include, but are not limited to, storage tanks, process vessels, bins, boilers, ventilation or exhaust ducts, sewers, underground utility vaults, tunnels, pipelines, and open top spaces more than 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubs, vaults, and vessels. What do Oregon OSHA rules say about safety training in construction? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Slide 12: THE TRAINING PROGRAM: A SYSTEM'S APPROACH What's a training program? An effective safety training program is only one part of a larger safety management system. Actually a program is, itself, a "sub-system" with its own structure, inputs, processes and outputs. If the program is designed well, and the safety culture supports it, program performance will be effective. Processes 1. Commitment - leading, managing, planning, funding 2. Accountability - responsibility, discipline 3. Involvement - safety committees, suggestions, incentives, recognition 4. Hazard Identification & Control - inspection, observation, analysis 5. Education and Training – instruction and technical 6. Incident/Accident Analysis - surface and root cause analysis 7. Plan Evaluation - system design and performance Outcomes Safe/Unsafe conditions, behaviors Many/Few incidents, accidents High/Low accident costs High/Low productivity, quality Inputs Tools Equipment Machinery Materials Facilities People Time Money Regulations The inputs to any system must adequately support the processes within the system or the outputs will not be what's desired and expected. Effective training program outcomes require quality program design, inputs and processes Analyzing behaviors is the key to understanding the quality of education and training. Feedback Slide 13: What are the minimum expectations for an effective training program? OAR 437, Division 007, Forest Activities Section B, Rule 0140 Training. The employer or their authorized representative must: (1) Provide job safety and health instruction and training to current and new employees, including supervisors, that is adequate for the work task. They must receive training before: (a) Starting their initial work assignment, or (b) Being assigned new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or vehicles. (2) Evaluate each employee who has previously received job safety and health instruction and training. NOTE: An employee does not need to be retrained if their prior instruction and training are adequate. (3) Provide job safety and health instruction and training that includes the: (a) Safe performance of assigned work tasks. (b) Procedures, practices and requirements of the employer's work site. (c) Recognition of safety and health hazards associated with each employee's specific work tasks, including measures and work practices to prevent or control those hazards. (d) Safe use, operation and maintenance of tools, equipment, machines and vehicles each employee uses or operates, including following the manufacturer's operating and maintenance instructions, warnings and precautions. (e) Requirements of this standard and hazards of the industry. (4) Require each employee receiving job safety and health instruction and training to: (a) Work under the close supervision of a qualified person. (b) Demonstrate to the employer or his authorized representative the ability to safely perform the work assignment before they are permitted to work independently. (5) Assure that a qualified person(s) presents the job safety and health instruction and training. (6) Assure that job safety and health instruction and training is: (a) Presented in a language and manner that the employee(s) is able to understand. (b) Appropriate in content for the skill level of the employee(s) being trained. How do you know previous training has been adequate? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Slide 14: ELEMENTS OF A TRAINING PLAN Have you ever heard, "Plan the work , work the plan"? That principle pretty much tells it all. A plan is a written document that describes the (1) design of the program and (2) actions to be completed to achieve program objectives. It informs everyone about the training program and delegates responsibilities. It should clearly and concisely tell everyone how to fulfill their responsibilities so that the program is effective. The plan should contain elements that are informative and directive. Informs. It should inform everyone about the program's mission, policies, procedures, etc. Directs. It should also clearly state who is responsible for carrying out the mission, policies and procedures. What's in a plan? The components of an effective safety training plan include: Role and purpose. Describes why the program exists and what it intends to do. Goals and Objectives. Training goals and objectives describe outcomes after training. Strategies. Training strategies describe how the training program will achieve the objectives stated in the mission statement; how we will do it. Policies. Mandatory directives that allow managers, supervisors, and employees the ability to take action without receiving prior permission. Guidelines. General guidance that is usually voluntary in nature. (may, should, encourage) Processes. A number of procedures that together result in a meaningful outcome. Procedures. A number of steps that result in a meaningful outcome. (lesson plans) Rules. Rules are specific mandatory directives. (shall, must, will) Forms and reports. Used to complete processes, procedures, gather data, and report results. Inspections. Evaluate the workplace to see if conditions indicate the need for training. Observation. Observe behaviors in the workplace that might indicate the need for training. Surveys. Ask employees questions to determine their thoughts, feelings, opinions, beliefs. Interviews. One-on-one in-depth questioning to uncover thoughts, ideas, etc. Audits. Evaluate the design and performance of the program elements to see if they need improvement. Slide 15: American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z490.1-2001, Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health, and Environmental Training What is ANSI Z490.1-2001? ANSI Z490.1-2001,Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health, and Environmental Training, is actually a broad-based voluntary consensus standard covering all aspects of safety training, including training development, delivery, evaluation, and management of the training function. The criteria within the standard has been established using accepted best practices in the training industry and the safety, health and environmental industries. What does the standard say about training program elements? ANSI 490.1-2001, Section 3.2, states that a safety training program should include written plans that tell how training development, delivery, documentation, recordkeeping, and evaluation will be accomplished. To do that, make sure your program contains the following elements: Training Development. Procedures for developing a needs assessment, learning objectives, course content and format, resource materials, and criteria for course completion. Training Delivery. Ways to ensure the quality of training delivery by competent trainers in a suitable training environment. Training Documentation and Recordkeeping. Procedures, forms and reports that make sure the quality and maintenance of: training delivery and program evaluations, and trainer and trainee certifications. Training Evaluation Plan. Procedures describing how evaluation of training program design and performance will be accomplished with a continuous improvement approach. Slide 16: Exercise: Sample training plan Instructions. Read each section the plan and circle key words and ideas you would like to discuss further. Think about the ideas and actions that work vs. what may not work for you. Is a key idea or action missing? 1.0  Role and Purpose ZZZ Inc. is dedicated to safety as a value. We understand that safety is non-negotiable and is an inseparable part of our production process. Therefore safety is not "sacrificed" in the name of production. Safe-production or no production is our standard. We understand that training without effective consequences will likely fail. Our safety culture must support the training. To this end, ZZZ Inc. managers will assume a tough-caring leadership approach to safety. The safety training program will give employees an opportunity to learn their jobs properly, bring new ideas into the workplace, reinforce existing ideas and practices, and it helps to put our Safety and Health Program into action. Everyone in our company will benefit from safety and health training through fewer workplace injuries and illnesses, reduced stress, and higher morale. Productivity, profits, and competitiveness will increase as production costs per unit, turnover, and workers compensation rates lower. Discuss the key ideas, concepts, actions you identified ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Slide 17: 2.0 Goals and Objectives As a commitment to our vision, our mission will be to provide the necessary funds, workload, and scheduling time to ensure effective safety and health training is effectively provided to all employees. We will include paid work time for training activities and training will be conducted in the primary language of the employee. We will also encourage, and in some cases require, both management and employee involvement in developing the safety training program.  To most effectively carry out their safety responsibilities, all employees will understand: Their personal role and responsibilities within our safety management system, The actual and potential hazards that need to be prevented or controlled, and The means and methods to protect themselves and others. To achieve these goals we will: Educate all employees, supervisors and managers on their personal safety responsibilities, and the natural and system consequences of their actions Educate all employees on the specific hazards and control measures in their workplace Educate and train safety committee members on their responsibilities, and how to effectively identify, analyze and evaluate safety programs. Train all employees, supervisors and managers how to identify and mitigate hazards, and how to analyze report hazards and incidents/accidents Train all employees how to perform safe work procedures and practices Ensure our safety committee receives quality education and training What is commitment? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Slide 18: 3.0 Training and Consequences  Discipline All employees, supervisors, and managers are expected to demonstrate personal leadership by insisting on high standards of personal performance to prevent injuries and accidents. Everyone must insist on, not merely encourage safe performance. Supervisors and managers will first evaluate their own performance prior to administering discipline. If supervisors and managers determine safety training has been less than adequate, the supervisor will ensure adequate training is provided. Retraining will not be considered as a method to administer discipline. Safety orientation will emphasize that compliance with safety policies, procedures, and rules as outlined in the safety plan is mandatory and a condition of employment. Discipline will be administered to help the employee increase desired behaviors, not to punish. An explanation of natural and system consequences of employee personal behavior/performance will be included as part of every safety training session. Positive recognition We will offer incentives to motivate employee involvement in safety training. When employees make suggestions that improve our safety training, we will formally recognize their contributions. When employees make a significant contribution that meets established criteria, we will recognize and award tangible rewards. Supervisors are authorized to recognize and reward employees on-the-spot when the suggestion substantially improves the training process or content.   Is retraining a successful discipline strategy? Why or Why not? Yes ______ No _______ Why? _________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Slide 19: 4.0  Education and Training Strategies Required rules-related training will be conducted according to guidelines detailed in Oregon OSHA Publication, Be Trained. We will also make sure additional training is conducted as deemed appropriate. __________________ (Responsible individual) will ensure Safety and Health Program training is in full compliance with OR-OSHA standards. Two types of safety education and training will be conducted : General Instruction: General safety information is communicated to employees. No measurement of skills, knowledge, attitudes (SKA's) are required. Examples include: Safety Committee training Introduction to safety programs Overview of lockout/tagout Technical Safety Training: Specific hands-on safety "how-to" training on performing safe procedures and practices. SKA's are measured/tested. Employees must meet established criteria for SKA's to successfully complete the course. The usual method of testing will be through the use of written tests and skill demonstrations. Conducting incident/accident analysis Confined space entry procedures Chemical spill and emergency procedures Who might be responsible for the safety training program? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Slide 20: 5.0 Monitoring and Documenting Training Monitoring the employee's progress through the developmental period is critical to ensure success of the training program. Monitoring provides information to the supervisor regarding the benefits and effectiveness of the training received. In addition, it provides information on the ability of the employee to achieve training goals and objectives. Both the supervisor and training staff play major roles in the monitoring process. To ensure adequate monitoring of training: The supervisor will review the employee's task assignments. The supervisor will ensure that each employee has completed the necessary training before the start of their assigned task. The supervisor will conduct a review with the new-hire employee following each required training activity. This review provides the supervisor with information on the progress of the employee and can assist in identifying areas requiring further training. When the supervisor determines that the new-hire employee has sufficient knowledge, skills and proper attitude to successfully complete a task. The supervisor will certify the employee as initially and fully qualified. The safety manager will ensure documentation and recordkeeping meet regulatory requirements. Why is strong training documentation so important? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Slide 21: 6.0 Program Evaluation A program audit of the effectiveness of the training program will be conducted periodically. Safety staff will interview employees, supervisors, and managers who have participated in the program to help determine the quality and effectiveness of the program, and to obtain suggestions for program improvement  We will evaluate the following elements of the training program: Training Development Training Delivery Training Documentation and Recordkeeping Training Evaluation Plan The program audit will evaluate training using the following methods: Observation of employee skills. Surveys and interviews to determine employee knowledge and attitudes about training. Review of the training plan and lesson plans. Comparing training conducted with hazards in the workplace.   Review of training documents. Compare pre- and post-training injury and accident rates.   If evaluation determines program improvement is necessary, the safety committee/coordinator will develop recommendations. How can the evaluation process be designed so that it supports continuous improvement? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Slide 22: What are some strategies to maintain trainer competency? ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z490.1-2001 Instructor Qualifications ANSI Z490.1-2001, Criteria for Accepted Practices in Safety, Health, and Environmental Training, covers all elements of training, including training development, delivery, evaluation, and management of the training function. Section 5.1 of the standard details trainer criteria. Trainer criteria shall include subject matter expertise and training delivery skills: Trainers should be able to demonstrate an appropriate level of technical knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes (SKA's) in the subjects they teach. Trainers should demonstrate competent delivery techniques and methods appropriate to adult learning. To maintain expertise in training skills, trainers should participate in continuing education, development programs, and/or experience related to training they conduct. Trainers should be familiar with and able to demonstrate ability to apply adult learning principles appropriate to the target audience and the learning objectives. TRAINER QUALIFICATIONS Slide 23: OSHA Guidelines for Instructor Competency CFR 29 - 1910.120, Hazardous Materials, App E. Training Curriculum Guidelines - (Non-mandatory) Trainers should be deemed competent on the basis of previous documented experience in their area of instruction. Trainers should be required to maintain professional competency by: participating in continuing education or professional development programs or by completing successfully an annual refresher course. The annual review by a training director should include: observation of an trainer's delivery, a review of those observations with the trainer, and an analysis of any trainer or class evaluations completed by the students during the previous year. What can we do to make sure all of the above is adequately documented? __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ Slide 24: Competency and qualifications OR-OSHA’s safety and health requirements frequently use specific terms to identify the different categories of workers who must meet specific training requirements. A certified person has successfully completed specialized training and that the training has been certified in writing by a professional organization. For example, OR-OSHA’s safety and health rules allow only trained audiologists, otolaryngologists, or technicians who have been certified by the Council of Accreditation in Occupational Hearing Conservation to perform audiometric tests. A Designated person has received extensive training in a particular task and is assigned by the employer to perform that task in specific operations. An Authorized person is permitted by an employer to be in a regulated area or assigned by an employer to perform a specific task or to be in a specific location at a jobsite. A Competent person is someone who has broad knowledge of worksite safety and health issues, is capable of identifying existing and predictable worksite hazards, and has management approval to control the hazards. For instance: Only a competent person can supervise erecting, moving, or dismantling scaffolds at a worksite, for example. A qualified person is someone who, through training and professional experience, has demonstrated the ability to resolve problems relating to a specific task or process For example, an individual may be qualified to perform electrical circuit tests but not qualified to perform hydraulic pressure tests. Who certifies trainers are competent and qualified? ________________________________________________________________ When asked by OR-OSHA (or worse yet, lawyers), how does the employer demonstrate (prove) trainers are competent and qualified? ________________________________________________________________ Slide 25: TRAINING PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION We can't emphasize too much how important it is to adequately document safety training. Whenever you train hazardous procedures and safety practices that could prevent injury, be sure to "certify" adequate knowledge and skills. Remember these two important points: For general safety instruction an attendance sheet will usually serve as adequate documentation. For technical how-to safety training, an attendance sheet will not be adequate. You should "certify" the student has demonstrated adequate SKA's. Be sure to include the following information when certifying employees as qualified to perform hazardous procedures and safe work practices. At a minimum, adequate documentation includes: Trainee’s and trainer’s name Date of training Subject(s) being trained - procedures, practices, related policies, rules, etc. Certification - trainee and trainer signatures Trainee statement of understanding and intent to comply Trainee statement that he/she was provided opportunity to perform Trainer statement that evaluation of performance was conducted. Why is it so important to thoroughly document safety training? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ See the sample training certification on the next page. It represents one possible way to document training. Slide 26: If it isn't in writing…it didn't get done! Make sure documentation is sufficient. Most safety training teaches employees how to perform a procedure or practice. As a result, employees must demonstrate adequate knowledge and skills in the learning environment before exposure to hazards. The “test” should be a written exam and skills demonstration. It’s also a good idea to evaluate performance in the actual work environment some time after training has been completed. Training Subject ______________________ Date _________ Location _______________ Trainee certification. I have received on-the-job training on those subjects listed (see other side of this sheet):   This training has provided me adequate opportunity to ask questions and practice procedures to determine and correct skill deficiencies. I understand that performing these procedures/practices safely is a condition of employment. I fully intend to comply with all safety and operational requirements discussed. I understand that failure to comply with these requirements may result in progressive discipline (or corrective actions) up to and including termination. Employee Name Signature Date ________________________ ____________________________ _________ ________________________ ____________________________ _________ ________________________ ____________________________ _________ Trainer certification. I have conducted orientation/on-the-job training to the employees(s) listed above. I have explained related procedures, practices and policies. Employees were each given opportunity to ask questions and practice procedures taught under my supervision. Based on each student's performance, I have determined that each employee trained has adequate knowledge and skills to safely perform these procedures/practices.   ________________________ ____________________________ _________ Trainer Name Signature Date  Training Validation. On ___________________ (date) I have observed the above employee(s) successfully applying the knowledge and skills learned during the training. ________________________ ____________________________ _________ Supervisor Name Signature Date Slide 27: The following information was discussed with students:   __ Overview of the hazard communication program - purpose of the program  __  Primary, secondary, portable, and stationary process container labeling requirements __  Discussion of the various sections of the MSDS and their location __  Emergency and Spill procedures __  Discussion of the hazards of the following chemicals to which students will be exposed __  Symptoms of overexposure __  Use/care of required personal protective equipment used with the above chemicals __  Employee accountability __ ____________________________________________ The following procedures were practiced:  __  Chemical application procedure __  Chemical spill procedures __  Personal protective equipment use __  Emergency first aid procedure The following (oral/written) test was administered. (You may want to keep these tests as attachments to the safety training plan and merely reference it here to keep this document on one sheet of paper. OSHA recommends at least 25 questions for technically complex training.)   1. What are the labeling requirements of a secondary container? (name of chem. and hazard warning) 2. When does a container change from a portable to secondary container? (when employee loses control) 3. What are the symptoms of over-exposure to ___________________? (stinging eyes) 4. Where is the "Right to Know" station (or MSDS station) located? (in the production plant) 5. What PPE is required when exposed to________________? (short answer) (Page 2 of certification) Sample Hazard Communication Training Outline Slide 28: Level 1 Evaluation: Measures learner reaction ANSI Z490.1-2001, Section 6.2, Evaluation Approaches, details strategies for evaluating training and training programs. The standard refers to four levels of evaluation that were developed by Donald Kirkpatrick, author of The Four Levels for Evaluation. This first level of evaluation gets feedback from participants about what they thought and felt about various aspects of the program. Were the participants pleased and satisfied. Process Evaluation - students describe their reaction to the presentation of the instructor, the quality of the materials, the understandability of the exercises, and so on. Content Evaluation - students describe their reactions to and satisfaction with the specific content of the training. Students judge instructor knowledge and how much they believe they learned about each specific topic. Methods: Evaluations, questionnaire immediately after the program. Post-program conversations. Guidelines for evaluating reaction: Determine what you want to find out Design a form that will quantify reactions Encourage written comments and suggestions Get 100 percent immediate response Get honest responses Develop acceptable standards Measure reactions against standards, take appropriate action Communicate reactions as appropriate SAFETY TRAINING PROGRAM EVALUATION Slide 29: Level 2 Evaluation: Measures SKA's in the Learning Environment Level two evaluation involves measuring the learning that took place during the training session. Evaluation occurs immediately after the training is presented. Quantifying the learning that took place by measuring increased knowledge and improved skills. Did the participants learn anything as a result of the training? This level of evaluation is necessary for most safety training that requires the ability to correctly perform a procedure or practice. OSHA believes proficiency should be evaluated and documented by the use of: a written assessment, and a skill demonstration. Use these guidelines when developing testing methods for your safety training: The evaluation should evaluate individual knowledge and skills The level of minimum achievement should be specified in writing. If a written test is used, a minimum of 25 questions should be used for more complex subjects (such as those involving complex chemical processes). If a skills demonstration is used, the tasks chosen and the means to rate successful completion should be fully documented. The content of the written test or of the skill demonstration should be relevant to the objectives of the course. The written test and skill demonstration should be updated as necessary to reflect changes in the curriculum. The proficiency assessment methods, regardless of the approach or combination of approaches used, should be justified, documented and approved by the employer. _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Slide 30: Level 3 Evaluation: Evaluates the application of SKA's in the Work Environment This level of evaluation measures both the learner and the safety culture. It gauges how well the learner applied the training in the actual work environment. Evaluation at this level may also indicate the degree to which the safety culture supports the training. This level of evaluation may not be required by OR-OSHA standards, but it is required by ANSI Z490.1-2001 and it's smart business policy to help make sure training is effective. Safety culture must support safety training For training to be truly effective, the safety culture must support the training. A supportive safety culture is most immediately demonstrated by the learner's immediate supervisor. According to Donald Kirkpatrick, there are five supervisor behaviors that affect learner attitudes about safety training: Preventing. The supervisor does not allow the worker to use the procedures or practices that have been taught. Discouraging. The supervisor does not encourage behavioral change. They send implicit messages that they want behavior to remain the same. Neutral. The supervisor does not acknowledge the training received. There is no objection to behavioral change as long as the job gets done on time. Encouraging. The supervisor acknowledges the training and encourages the worker to use what they learned. Requiring. The supervisor knows what training was received and insists that the learning is transferred to the job. Which of the five supervisor responses is the most supportive of level-two technical safety training? ______________________________________________________________ Slide 31: Level 4 Evaluation: Evaluates how training has impacted productivity Determining how the organization has improved: the final results which have come about because of the training program. Safety improves process quality. Evaluate how the training has impacted the quality (efficiency, effectiveness) of a job. In Total Quality Management (TQM) circles, "safety" is considered the absence of variation in a process. When safety is effective, a procedure is accomplished the same way every time. Consequently, fewer accidents should result. Has this form of variation decreased? This level of evaluation is necessary to more thoroughly demonstrate the effectiveness of training. Level 5 Evaluation: Evaluates how training has impacted profits Training affects the bottom-line results. Determine how training has improved the bottom line profitability: the return on the investment (ROI) of the company. ROI is calculated by converting productivity and quality improvements to monetary values. This is the most difficult level of evaluation. Have accident rates decreased? How as that improved direct and indirect costs? This level of evaluation may best help training staff justify their on-going training efforts. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Slide 32: ANSI Guidelines for Evaluating Training Programs ANSI Z490.1-2001, Section 3.4, Program Evaluation, recommends evaluating three important elements of a safety training program. 1. Evaluate training program management Training works best when it's designed and implemented as an integrated system, rather than a series of unrelated training sessions. Elements to evaluate include: Responsibility and accountability Staffing and budgets Facilities and equipment Development and delivery Documentation and records Evaluation processes 2. Evaluate the training process Training should be conducted using a systematic process that includes a needs assessment, objectives, course materials, lesson plans, evaluation strategies, and criteria for successful completion. Areas of emphasis include: Quality (clarity, appropriateness, relevance) of training goals Adequacy of the learning environment Quality (operational, clarity, relevance) of learning objectives Effectiveness of the training process 3. Evaluate the training results By evaluating the results of training, it's possible to make improvements to existing plans and gain awareness of the need for new training. Items to evaluate include: Quality of the strategic training plan of action Support for long-term (life-long learning) Quality of program management and manager competency Application of a systems approach that links training program elements Identification of completing demand and setting priorities Adequate support and funding Slide 33: Sample Safety Training Program Audit 1. Introduction This audit evaluates criteria for safety, health, and environmental training programs, including development, delivery, evaluation, and pro­gram management detailed in ANSI/ASSE Z490.1-2001. 2. Purpose The purpose of this audit is to measure the degree to which the employer is utilizing accepted practices for safety, health, and environmental training. 3. Instructions Completing this audit is primarily a two-step process. First read each question below and the five categories below to conduct an analysis. Next, evaluate each questions using the 0-5 point rating system described below to justify your ratings. Analysis. Analyze each of the following five categories to develop a justification for the rating. more accurately determine the rating. Standards. Analyze policies, plans, programs, budgets, processes, procedures, appraisals, job descriptions, rules. Are they informative and directive? Are they clearly and concisely communicated? Conditions. Inspect the workplace for hazards that might indicate the effectiveness of training. The absence of hazards indicates effectiveness. Behaviors, actions. Observe both employee and manager behaviors and activities. Are they consistent and appropriate. Do they reflect effective safety education and training. Knowledge, attitudes. Analyze what employees are thinking by conducting surveys and interviews. Do employees have full knowledge, positive attitudes? High trust and low fear indicate effectiveness. Results. Analyze training records that validate knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) are effectively applied in the workplace. Continually improving results indicate effectiveness Slide 34: Evaluate. Enter your rating to the left of each statement. Use the following guidelines for your rating. 5-Fully Met: Analysis indicates the condition, behavior, or action described is fully met and effectively applied. There is room for continuous improvement, but workplace conditions and behaviors, indicate effective application. (Employees have full knowledge and express positive attitudes. Employees and managers not only comply, but exceed expectations. Effective leadership is emphasized and exercised. Safety policies and standards are clear, concise, fair, informative and directive, communicate commitment to everyone.. Results in this area reflect continual improvement is occurring. •This area is fully integrated into line management. First line management reflect safe attitude and behavior. Safety is first priority. 3-Mostly Met: Analysis indicates the condition, behavior, or action described is adequate, but there is still room for improvement. Workplace conditions, if applicable, indicate compliance in this area. Employees have adequate knowledge, express generally positive attitudes. Some degree of trust between management and labor exists. Employees and managers comply with standards. Leadership is adequate in this area. Safety policies and standards are in place and are generally clear, concise, fair, informative and directive. Results in this area is consistently positive, but may not reflect continual improvement. 1-Partially Met: Analysis indicates the condition, behavior, or action is partially met. Application is most likely too inadequate to be effective. Workplace conditions, if applicable, indicate improvement is needed in this area. Employees lack adequate knowledge, express generally negative attitudes. Mistrust may exist between management and labor. Employees and managers fail to adequately comply or fulfill their accountabilities. Lack of adequate management and leadership in this area. Safety policies and standards are in place and are generally clear, concise, fair, informative and directive. Results in this area are inconsistent, negative, and does not reflect continual improvement. 0-Not Present: Analysis indicates the condition, behavior, or action described in this statement does not exist or occur. Slide 35: Section 3.0 Training Program Administration and Management Rating Criteria (circle one) 0 1 3 5 1. Safety training is integrated into an overall safety, health and environmental management system. Comments: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 0 1 3 5 2. The training program addresses responsibility and accountability for the training program. Comments: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 0 1 3 5 3. The training program identifies and allocates resources available to the trainer and trainee. Comments: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 0 1 3 5 4. The training program includes an effective course design process. Comments: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 0 1 3 5 5. The training program includes an effective course development process. Comments: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 0 1 3 5 6. The training program describes effective course presentation using appropriate techniques. Comments: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ 0 1 3 5 7. The training program describes appropriate and effective delivery strategies? Comments: ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Slide 36: OSHA Guidelines for Training Program Evaluation These guidelines were adapted from: CFR 29, 1910.120 Appendix E. Training Curriculum Guidelines. The employer should conduct or direct an annual written audit of the safety training program. The audit and the program improvement documents should be maintained at the training facility. Suggested Program Quality Control Criteria Factors listed here are suggested criteria for determining the quality and appropriateness of employee health and safety training. A. Training Plan. Adequacy and appropriateness of the training program's curriculum development, instructor training, distribution of course materials, and direct student training should be considered, including: The duration of training, course content, and course schedules/agendas The different training requirements of the various target populations, as specified in the appropriate generic training curriculum The process for the development of curriculum, which includes appropriate technical input, outside review, evaluation, program pretesting The appropriate inclusion of hands-on, demonstration, and instruction methods Adequate monitoring of student safety, progress, and performance during training B. Program management, Training Director, staff, and consultants. Adequacy and appropriateness of staff performance and delivering an effective training program should be considered, including: 1. Demonstration of the training director's leadership in assuring quality of health and safety training 2. Demonstration of the competency of the staff to meet the demands of delivering high quality employee health and safety training 3. Clearly defined staff duties including the relationship of the training staff to the overall program 4. Evidence that the training organizational structure suits the needs of the training program Slide 37: 5. Appropriateness and adequacy of the training methods used by the instructors. 6. Sufficiency of the time committed by the training director and staff to the training program. 7. Availability and commitment of the training program of adequate human and equipment resources in the areas of: Health effects Safety Personal protective equipment (PPE) Operational procedures Employee protection practices/procedures 8. Appropriateness of management controls 9. Adequacy of the organization and appropriate resources assigned to assure appropriate training 10. In the case of multiple-site training programs, adequacy of satellite centers management C. Training facilities and resources. Adequacy and appropriateness of the facilities and resources for supporting the training program should be considered, including: Space and equipment to conduct the training Facilities for representative hands-on training What in-house problem-solving advisory team is well suited to conduct the safety training program evaluation? ______________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Well of course! Slide 38: D. Quality control and evaluation. Adequacy and appropriateness of quality control and evaluation plans for training programs should be considered, including: A balanced advisory committee and/or competent outside reviewers to give overall policy guidance Clear and adequate definition of the composition and active programmatic role of the advisory committee or outside reviewers Adequacy of the minutes or reports of the advisory committee or outside reviewers' meetings or written communication Adequacy and appropriateness of the quality control and evaluations program to account for instructor performance Adequacy and appropriateness of the quality control and evaluation program to ensure appropriate course evaluation, feedback, updating, and corrective action Adequacy and appropriateness of disciplines and expertise being used within the quality control and evaluation program Adequacy and appropriateness of the role of student evaluations to provide feedback for training program improvement E. Students Adequacy and appropriateness of the program for accepting students should be considered, including: 1. Assurance that the student already possess the necessary skills for their job, including necessary documentation 2. Appropriateness of methods the program uses to ensure that recruits are capable of satisfactorily completing training 3. Review and compliance with any medical clearance policy Slide 39: F. Institutional Environment and Administrative Support The adequacy and appropriateness of the institutional environment and administrative support system for the training program should be considered, including: 1. Adequacy of the institutional commitment to the employee training program 2. Adequacy and appropriateness of the administrative structure and administrative support G. Summary of Evaluation Questions Key questions for evaluating the quality and appropriateness of an overall training program should include the following: 1. Are the program objectives clearly stated? 2. Is the program accomplishing its objectives? 3. Are appropriate facilities and staff available? 4. Is there an appropriate mix of classroom, demonstration, and hands-on training? 5. Is the program providing quality employee health and safety training that fully meets the intent of regulatory requirements? 6. What are the program's main strengths? 7. If a job analysis was conducted, was it accurate? 8. Was any critical feature of the job overlooked? 9. Were the important gaps in knowledge and skill included? 10. Was material already known by the employees intentionally omitted? 11. Did the objectives state the level of acceptable performance that was expected of employees? 12. Did the learning activity simulate the actual job? 13. Was the learning activity appropriate for the kinds of knowledge and skills required on the job? 14. When the training was presented, was the organization of the material and its meaning made clear? 15. Were the employees motivated to learn? 16. Were the employees allowed to participate actively in the training process? Slide 40: Attributes of Excellence of a Safety Training Program Excerpt: Oregon OSHA Safety and Health Achievement Recognition Program (SHARP) V. Safety and Health Training 34. Employees receive appropriate S&H training. An employee safety and health training program exists at the facility. The training covers all legally-required subjects. The training covers hazards (awareness, location, identification, and protection or elimination). The training system ensures that the knowledge and skills taught are consistently and correctly applied by the employees. Employees are fully trained in the use of controls and methods to protect themselves in their work area. All members of the work force have been trained on the use of appropriate hazard analysis systems. All personnel involved in inspections have been trained in the inspection process and in hazard identification. Personnel can explain and demonstrate their role under the emergency medical plan. Personnel are trained in the use of emergency equipment available to them and can demonstrate the proper use of the equipment. Post-training knowledge and skills are tested or evaluated to ensure employee proficiency in the subject matter. 35. New employee orientation includes applicable safety and health information. Orientatio

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