Traditional arid zone water management (Including flood management)

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Information about Traditional arid zone water management (Including flood management)

Published on January 4, 2017

Author: GeorgeRADJOU

Source: slideshare.net

1. Water cycle atmosphere Earth soil sun Water ascent Water descent Pollutions are freezing fresh drinking water People needsPeople needs + drinking + laundring + washing + gardening + food/agriculture + process/industry …... Pollutions: pysical, chemical bacteriological Recycled water Costs +++Costs +++ Clean water Dirty water treatment BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD) FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)

2. A n n u a l c a le n d a r D a y s o f e m p lo y e m e n t A p r il 0 I r r i g a t e d v i l l a g e U n ir r ig a t e d v illa g e2 0 O c t . 1 5 N u m b e r s o f d a y s w o r k e d e a c h m o n t h f o r c a s u a l la b o r s w o r k I n f l u e n c e o f i r r i g a t i o n o n e m p l o y m e n t I n r u r a l i t i e s ( A s i a ) FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

3. W a t e r p u r if ie r a c t iv e p r in c ip le T h e lif e s t r a w P o llu t e d w a t e r D r in k in g w a t e r M o u t h e n dW a t e r e n d W a t e r p u r if ie r b o d y c o n t a in e r A c t iv e a g e n t s G o o d g e r m s L e v e l 1 : F ir s t c la im : t h e g e r m c a n e a t t h e t o x ic T o x ic w a t e r L e v e l 1 C le a n in g p r in c ip e L e v e l 2 L e v e l 2 : C la im 2 : t h e t o x ic g e r m is e a t e n b y a g o o d g e r m L e v e l 3 L e v e l 3 : C la im 3 : a ll t o x ic g e r m s a r e e a t e n b y a la s t g e e n r a t io n o f g o o d g e r m s C le a n w a t e r 2 O c m 2 O z $ 1 0 FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD) Preventing water poisoning with a filter

4. FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) Dam Architecture Layout (Archetype of a Project Gross Phase) Reservoir / lake Wall Opening Inflows outflows slope River bed/canal (erosion, hard water) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD) Issue: Accumulated sediments Water (quality, volume) Rupture

5. Arid zone? (absolute & relative)● 1- Deserts?1- Deserts? ● Water shapes can make it more or less arid ● Cold deserts → Is it arid? (ice = solid water) ● Hot deserts → is it arid? (arid zone/no liquid water?) ● Arid deserts → water in the air (vapor water) ● Dirty water: cannot drink it- (arid???) ● Aquifers: underground waters (Africa- Sahara is full of water, but it is underground -in the soil....we do not see it at the surface -too hot- except if you are a touareg and you know where and how to collect it- deserts are harsher for tourists. ● 2-Technologies?2-Technologies? Can help to make it arid or not? ● 3- Also, how much water do we use for a process3- Also, how much water do we use for a process (is it water to drink of to make a trouser) 2 liters /day (drinking water) against 10 m3 (trouser) FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

6. Natural water cycle Infiltration surface Qr (rainfall) Surface run off Underground run-off Pervious surfaces 1 0 Perviosity coefficient (K: m/s)0.5 evaporation transpiration direct Water features Lakes Rivers Seas ... 1 Flood Arid pollution sensitive FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

7. Water cycle with uncertainties on aquifers and City intakes (ecosystem levels) Q (rainfalls) Q - In EvT Ev Q – in – (EvT+ Ev)In Ur River Ur + Q – in – (EvT + Ev) City intake (I) River Ur + Q – in – (EvT + Ev ) - I River Ur + Q – in – (EvT + Ev) Qo aquifer Qo + Ur Qo In= inflow Ur= outflow Qo= aquifer stock FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

8. Characterics of the aquifer ● Data: (assumed the water is flowingin one plan surface and the water transfer is in a continum) ● Qo: aquifer upper limit -before a release/ aquifer is full- ● qo: aquifer lower limit -in average (water security)- if qo = 0, the aquifer is empty – In: infiltration into the soil / influenced by the soil surface and impervious surfaces)- 3 scenarii: K= 0 no infiltration, there ni infiltration- but only surface run-offs ● (example, clay, stone, houseroof, tarmac roads) K = 0.5 – 50% of the rainfall is infiltrated and other 50% is surface run off or Evapotranspiration – or direct evaporation- natural soil, forest, Golf ● K= 1, no surface run off- the soil drain is perfect – sand,... artificial soil drainage....no surface run-offs, but probably underground run-offs ● q: part of the infiltration (In), which help to fill the aquifer (others is diverted to run-offs FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

9. Aquifer response q Infiltration q < Qo Ur =O q > Qo Ur > 0 Ur Qo Qo + I In – Ur I qo + in' In > in' In > Qo 0 < qo + in'< Qo Aquifer stock Outflow (Out) Inflow In Qo qo In' qo + in' > Qo q > Qo q = qo + in' q Ur (underground run off) qo = permanent stock= minimalist level f water in the aquifer In' = water variation to fill the aquifer Ur= (qo + in') – Qo Ur FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD) q = ʃ dq(t)

10. A case with numerical data● Data: ● Qo = 1 000 m³ (aquifer maximun) ● qo = 100 m³ (water security- lower limit) ● Qo – qo = 900 m³ ● Condition for underground run-offs (Ur) ● In > in' = 900 m³ In = 900 + X ● In' = In (minimalism) to fill the aquifer ● When it is raining, clouds should have a volume V, such V = Vin (Vin > Vin') ● X = Q (Rainfall)- Surface Run-offs – (transpiration + evaporation) FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

11. Transfer equation ● Data: ● V: cloud volume ● In': water filling (to create an outflow to the river) ● Known variables - Qo, qo- aquifer characteristics ● In: function of K soil ● V(cloud) = V(infiltration) + V (surface) ● V (cloud) = (Vin' + q) + V (surface) ● V cloud = 900 m3 + q + V (surface) case 1: (900 m3 + q) / V (surface) = 1 → K = 0.5 ● Case 2: (900 m3 + q)/ V (surface) = 0 → K = 0 ● FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

12. Water cycle (city levels) river rainfalls infiltration surface run-off Evaporations (direct, transpiration) households industries Water treatment Waste water treatment Soil permeability Aquifer stock Underground run-offs (inflow) outflow FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) Black box process for cities sun sea BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

13. Wet zone Infiltrations Surface run-offs Underground run -offs Evapo transpiration Rain falls Direct evaporation wind Water table aquifer Impervious Soil surface Soil underground Stone = impervious surface water retention is very small Water flow rainfall = evaporation (direct + transpiration) + run-offs (surface + underground)+ aquifer stock Soil structure influences run-offs and aquifer stock FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) sun tree BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

14. Wet zone ---> arid zone (less rainfalls, hydraulic stress) Infiltrations Surface run-offs Underground run -offs Evapo transpiration Rain falls evaporation wind stone River bed river inflow Water loss FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

15. ARID ZONE 1- SLOPES 2- PERVIOUS SURFACES 3- RAINFALLS/RAIN PATTERNS 4- AQUIFERS 5- (SUN) Water features (rivers, lakes....) Elements A Elements B A B3 x FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

16. Several sources for one impact 1 5 4 3 2 BA Stockholm Water International Institute (Siwi) '' the rain is the source of all waters'' BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD) FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)

17. SIWA 300 KM FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) EgyptMediter ranean sea Siwa Oasis sand Water infiltrations Palm tree BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

18. SIWA 300 KM FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) EgyptMediter ranean sea Siwa Oasis sand Water infiltrations Palm tree BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

19. SIWA 300 KM FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) EgyptMediter ranean sea Siwa Oasis sand Water infiltrations Palm tree BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

20. River bank percolation FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) Infiltrations Underground run-offs River BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD) Issues with percolation: Plenty water in the sky, but none in the river bed due to percolation or when you fill a dam, it is never filled - dam is empty. All is about how sealed is the river bed with its the river embankment, in such a way water does not stay underground, but there is real surface waters (in the river).( Also, case of Sahara the air is staturated with water, and there is full of underground water, but no water at the surface) combine with the evaporation)

21. Leak impact/well/pollution transfer P2 P1 Po = p + hg p 40 m mg/l.day Fuites sur réseaux en 2009 • Fuites sur conduites principales : 147 unités. • Fuites sur branchements : 525 unités. (SOURCE: VEOLIA REPORT) FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

22. Pollution Rhone river (Simulation) Source: Barret Jimmy, Master thesis, Avignon 2009-2010 FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

23. Customer Wishes ● There is a worldwide community need for basic infrastructures, playing a key role in the elimination of disease -paid service- ● Sources of water include rivers, lakes, reservoirs, groundwater, estuaries and coastal waters. By far the most common freshwater sources are surface waters (rives and lakes)- 50%- ● For sources of drinking water and needs in the world see the next slide with the graphs with the outcomes in percentage FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

24. Relation of freshwater and number of deads ? CA SEA SA AP NEA X X X A B FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD) S- South, E- East, A-Asia, P- Pacific, C- Central Fresh Deads Deads F D

25. Hazards found causing deaths during safe water production (Central Asia, North East Asia) Physical Biological Chemical hazards Pumps Pipes Latrines Soil sediment Unwanted materials Weather hydrology Diseases Water borne diseases Healthcare system Hygiene and sanitation Water poisoning Industries pollutions Arsenic Cultural values Wars Population size Water resource Fresh water intake FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

26. Comparing statistics between A and B for water resource availability and numbers of deads atributed to water sanitation and hygiene People, System, Organization Affected- causes of death Unknown factors (new research on death sources) Factors linked to deaths (Factors are known) Kown factors Death cause known Uncertainty on deaths A B High % of fresh water wtidrawal and lesser deads in Central Asia And North East Asia Low % of fresh water withdrawal and lesser deads in South east Asia, South Asia and Asia Pacific FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

27. Long-term Goal ● Water supply and waste water collection and treatment systems FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

28. Fulfilling Customer Needs ● A typical water engineered water cycle includes:A typical water engineered water cycle includes: ● 1° Intake ● 2° Water treatment works ● 3° Water distribution system ● 4° Water collection system ● 5° Waste water treament works ● 6° Outfalls ● Stages in design of the water resources project:Stages in design of the water resources project: ● 1° Statement and objectives ● 2° Compilation of relevant data ● 3° Formulation of alternative designs FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

29. Fulfilling Customer Needs ● A typical water engineered water cycle includes:A typical water engineered water cycle includes: ● 1° Intake ● 2° Water treatment works ● 3° Water distribution system ● 4° Water collection system ● 5° Waste water treatment works ● 6° Outfalls ● Stages in design of the water resources project:Stages in design of the water resources project: ● 1° Statement and objectives ● 2° Compilation of relevant data ● 3° Formulation of alternative designs FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

30. Cost Analysis ● Indicate the financial advantages for the customer ● Compare quality and price with those of the competition FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

31. Strengths and Advantages ● Summary of the special features and advantages of the product being introduce. Water quality management has become an increasingly important aspect of water resource engineering. There are many pressure on the quality of water resources due to human activities that result in the generation of waste-waters. These waste- waters, if not effectively treated, can destroyed the ecological balance in the water courses to which they are discharged. This may mean, for example that rivers and lakes become unsuitable for the purpose such as water abstraction, fishing and recreation. Surface water may also become contaminated by the over-use of fertilizers or the spreading. FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

32. Next Steps of Action ● Element of a sewer and the conceptualElement of a sewer and the conceptual modelmodel ● Manhole (A) ----- Pipe ------Manhole (B) A B P FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

33. ● ARID ZONEARID ZONE ● Long-term Goal ● Customer Wishes ● Fulfilling Customer Needs ● Cost Analysis ● Strengths and Advantages ● Next Steps of Action FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD)FLOOD MANAGEMENT (ARID ZONE VERSUS FLOOD) BUSINESS INNOVATION RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT (BIRD)

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