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Toxicology Lecture 1

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Information about Toxicology Lecture 1
Education

Published on January 8, 2008

Author: Reaa

Source: authorstream.com

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Industrial Hygiene:  Industrial Hygiene An Introduction What is Industrial Hygiene?:  What is Industrial Hygiene? Anticipation Recognition Evaluation Control Of environmental factors that may cause sickness, danger, impairment, etc. of workers. Major Disciplines :  Major Disciplines Engineering Physics Environmental Science Chemistry Biology Professional Ethics Page 5:  Professional Ethics Page 5 Developed by: American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) American Academy of Industrial Hygiene (AAIH) American Board of Industrial Hygiene (ABIH) American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Occupational Health and Safety Team:  Occupational Health and Safety Team Industrial Hygienist Safety Professionals Occupational Health Nurse Physician Employees Management Federal Regulations:  Federal Regulations December 9, 1970 OSHA Each employer shall furnish to each employee a place of employment which is free of recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious harm to their employees Each employer shall comply with the occupational safety and heath standards under the Act. What Employees Must Do:  What Employees Must Do Comply with OH&S standards and rules which are applicable OSHA is under the Department of Labor Also established NIOSH which is under the CDC (a part of the US health service) Page 6 for details Environmental Factors:  Environmental Factors Chemical Hazards Physical Hazards radiation, pressure noise, vibration, temperature Ergonomic Hazards Biological Hazards Chemical Hazards:  Chemical Hazards The majority of OHS are chemical MSDS (required by OSHA) The right to know act Proper labeling Hazards when machining / melting etc. How exposure effects the body Solvents:  Solvents Very commonly used How do solvents enter the body? Effect from physical contact Acute effects versus chronic effects Air displacement issues Flammability and flash point Toxicity:  Toxicity Toxicity is not synonymous with hazard. Toxicity is the ability of a material to do harm when it reaches a certain concentration. Hazard is the probability that this contamination will occur assessing hazard is covered in chapter 6 Physical Hazards:  Physical Hazards Noise Psychological Effects Interference with communication Physiological effects Risk Criteria Permissible levels (85 dBA requires a hearing protection plan) Temperature:  Temperature Heat (core temp range is +3 / -2 degrees F) Heat stress (heat stroke / exhaustion) measurement and heat index Radiant heat (IR radiation) Heat that is absorbed on impact Heat loss through contact and convection Heat stress indicies Cold Stress Ionizing Radiation:  Ionizing Radiation What is ionizing radiation? How does it effect the body What are the sources of ionizing radiation? Internal versus external hazards Measuring radiation Non-Ionizing Radiation:  Non-Ionizing Radiation Definition Low frequency (microwaves, radio waves) Infrared (thermal radiation / blackbody) Visible light Well lit but not over lit 60 cycle flicker Effects on the eyes and lasers energy output Extremes of pressure :  Extremes of pressure Effects on gas absorption in the blood Effects on thermal coefficient of the atmosphere Effects on partial pressure of atmosphere components Teeth / ears / eyes / bowels etc. Effects of low pressure Ergonomic Hazards:  Ergonomic Hazards Repetitive motion disorders Injury rate (guards and shields) Body stress back neck eyes Workplace design Biological Hazards:  Biological Hazards Bacterial Viral Engineered Bugs and snakes etc. Allergens The water fountain Routs of Entry:  Routs of Entry Inhalation (area of lungs) Absorption Ingestion Airborne Contaminates:  Airborne Contaminates Dusts (0.1 - 25 um) smaller than 5um tend to be the problem Fumes (less than 1um) made from condensed volatilized solids Smoke (<0.1 um) Aerosols Airborne Contaminates:  Airborne Contaminates Mists Suspended liquid droplets Gases Vapors volatile forms of substances which are normally in a solid or liquid form at this temperature Respiratory Hazards:  Respiratory Hazards Oxygen deficient atmospheres 160mmHg O2 normal Where can oxygen deficient atmospheres occur? Confined entry NASA shuttle Hazards of Airborne Contaminates:  Hazards of Airborne Contaminates Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) Reviewed and updated annually TLV-TWA (Time Weighted Average) TLV-STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit) TLV-C (Ceiling)

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