Published on March 6, 2014
TOURISM LESSON PRESENTATION BY TE. ZITHA 201225966
OBJECTIVES After reading and studying this you should be able to: Describe the evolution of tourism Define the scope and importance of tourism, both for the U.S. economy and internationally Explain why tourism is described by Gunn and Leiper as a system
Introduction • We can approach tourism from multiple viewpoints • • Areas are interrelated Industry experts recommend a systems approach • If something happens in one area, it will likely cause an effect in another
DEFINITION OF TOURISM United Nations W orld Tourism Organization (UNW TO) definition: Activities of persons traveling to, and staying in places outside their usual environment. Not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes
DEFINITION OF TOURISM (CONT’D.) Important terms: Demand side Tourists’ motivations Supply side Sectors that satisfy tourist needs Infrastructure Components that an area’s residents rely on Superstructure Facilities built to accommodate tourist needs
PERSPECTIVES OF TOURISM We can study tourism from several perspectives Holistic interdisciplinary approach oIncludes all elements of Figure 1–2 o Also includes several other elements (e.g., geography, motivation, marketing, economics, policy, agriculture, etc.)
THE TOURISM PRODUCT • Narrow sense • Consists of what the tourist buys • Wider sense • Combination of what the tourist does at the destination and services used
THE TOURISM PRODUCT (CONT’D.) Characteristics of a tourism product: Service, which is intangible (e.g., cannot be inspected physically) Psychological in attraction Varies in quality and standards Supply side is fixed (e.g., more hotel rooms cannot be instantly created to meet demand).
CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM Major types: Internal tourism Residents of a country visiting other parts of their own country Domestic tourism Inbound tourism plus internal tourism
CHARACTERISTICS (CONT’D.) • International tourism • Inbound tourism, which are visits to a country or region by nonresident • Outbound tourism • Visits by residents of a country or region to another country or region
CHARACTERISTICS (CONT’D.) Characteristics: Combination of phenomena and relationships Dynamic elements (the journey) and static elements (the stay) Movement to destinations is temporary Not connected with paid work Tourist goes to the product
CHARACTERISTICS (CONT’D.) oTourism products are not used up oLabor-intensive oPeople-oriented oMultidimensional oSeasonal oDynamic
TOURISM INDUSTRY SECTORS Several interacting industries make up the tourism system, including: I. Transportation II. Lodging III. Attractions IV. Foodservice
TOURISM PAST • Preindustrial age Cruises on the Nile Wealthy Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans Olympics The wheel and roads Trade The Grand Tour
TOURISM PAST (CONT’D.) • Trains Steam power gave birth to rail travel Causes of increased growth: Need to move goods Politics, immigrants, and labor Travel and tourism Causes of decline: New modes of transportation (e.g., bus, car, and airplanes) Great Depression
TOURISM PAST (CONT’D.) • CRUISINg • UNTIl 1830, TRAvEl bY ShIP wAS PRIMITIvE • • MOSTlY USED fOR DISCOvERY, TRADINg, OR MIgRATION ThE PENINSUlA AND ORIENT (P&O) COMPANY • fIRST TO OffER CRUISES bETwEEN bRITAIN, SPAIN, AND PORTUgAl
TOURISM PAST (CONT’D.) Automobile travel Internal combustion engine automobile Emerged from steam engines Henry Ford Automobile assembly line Model-T Ford Increased leisure travel
TOURISM PAST (CONT’D.) • Air travel • • • Wright brothers 1935 commercial flights became feasible World War II • • Pressed planes into military service 1950 commercial jet airplanes • Boeing 700 series
TOURISM PRESENT M elem ain ents: • • • • • • Vital force for peace Social importance Economic importance Cultural enrichment Employment opportunities Educational significance
TOURISM PRESENT (CONT’D.) Jafar Jafari’s platforms: Advocacy platform • Many were advocating for tourism development Cautionary platform • Studies that argued tourism is not all benefits Adaptancy platform • Favoring one alternative over another Knowledge based platform • Combined the platforms
TOURISM PRESENT (CONT’D.) Scope of travel and tourism Mass travel and tourism After World War II superhighways, commercial jets, and disposable income made it possible Travel flows change continuously Depend on economic conditions Includes exchange rates, political factors, and business conditions Business power of Japan, China, and India
TOURISM PRESENT (CONT’D.) • Business travel • Meetings, conferences, seminars, workshops, and training sessions • Incentive travel • Normal business travel • • May be a combination of first two Research and teaching travel
DOMESTIC TRAvEl AND TOURISM • Domestic leisure travel • Large and growing sector • Includes travel for recreation, visiting friends and relatives, history and culture, attractions, entertainment, cruising, and sightseeing • Domestic business travel • Includes all forms that are work related • MICE (meetings, incentives, conferences, exhibitions)
DIFFERENT TYPE OF TOURISM Adventure Cultural tourism tourism Conference Wild tourism life tourism
IMPACT OF TOURISM Living standard Employment Transportation Health facility
Pollution Crime Population Like in Prices
DIFFERENT TYPE OF ROOM Studio room Lanai room Pent house Duplex
The Different Types of Tourism
A Choice Between Two Categories of Tourism: MASS TOURISM V.S. ALTERNATIVE Mass Tourism: The organized movement of large groups of people to specialized tourist locations. A consequence of the increase of people traveling for pleasure; developed to cater to huge numbers of tourists. Examples: whole resort towns, theme parks, tourism business districts, cruises, packaged vacations, all-inclusive resorts, etc.
A Choice Between Two Categories of Tourism: MASS TOURISM V.S. ALTERNATIVE Alternative Tourism: Individually planned activities to gain and experience first-hand knowledge about local cultures and environments. Focus on secluded areas, occur during non-peak travelling times, can include arranging own flights and accommodations. Example: a self-planned biking trip through Vermont, while camping or arranging accommodations “as you go.”
A Quick Comparison between Mass and Alternative Tourism Mass Tourism Alternative Tourism large groups traditional fixed program focus on “sights” little or no background research desire for souvenirs purchase items while there may involve loud social activities snapshots and postcards no language preparation singles, families, friends recent trend spontaneous decisions focus on “experiences” careful preparation and research desire for memories / knowledge bring items to give away quiet, low impact photography and painting learn local language
Pleasure Tourism To improve the physical or spiritual condition of an individual . Examples: yoga workshops, detoxification clinics, spas, etc.
Business Tourism To complete a business transaction or attend a business meeting / conference.
Nature Tourism • To enjoy a natural setting or wildlife, including ecotourism.
Cultural Tourism • To experience the history, folklore, and culture of a people.
Recreation Tourism • To escape the routine of daily life, such as camping or going to a beach.
Active Tourism • Has a set objective, such as climbing a mountain or learning a new language.
Sports Tourism • To experience a sport or sporting event, such as ski holidays or the Olympics.
Religious Tourism • Involves visiting a place of spiritual significance.
Health / Medical Tourism • To improve one’s health, such as a visit to a health resort or weight-loss camp.
*Adventure Tourism • Involves challenges and adventure, such as trekking through a tropical rainforest or rock climbing. * Types of Sustainable Tourism, a movement, which started around 2000.
*Wilderness Tourism • To experience something very different from everyday life in remote wilderness areas. * Types of Sustainable Tourism, a movement, which started around 2000.
*Ecotourism • Stresses low-impact adventure in a natural setting; sometimes called “green tourism.” * Types of Sustainable Tourism, a movement, which started around 2000.
REFERENCE http:// www.slideshare.net/ALTINBAKU/the-different-types-of-tourism?qid=028d6a4c-c3ee-4d http://www.youmustbetrippin.com/road_warriors/high_prices_with_no_end_i n_sig.html http://www.mothersadvice.info/tag/health-examinations/ http://www.slideshare.net/sunnytandan/arjun-verma?qid=6e5b09ad-4f3742f9-9863-0711ff651849&v=default&b=&from_search=7
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